Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin"

Transcription

1 Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin

2 What does our solar system look like?

3 The planets are tiny compared to the distances between them (a million times smaller than shown here), but they exhibit clear patterns of composition and motion. The patterns are far more important and interesting than numbers, names, and other trivia!!

4 The scale of the solar system On a 1-to-10 billion scale: Sun is the size of a large grapefruit (14 cm). Earth is the size of a ball point, 15 meters away. The average distance from the Earth to the Sun defined to be one Astronomical Unit (about 150 million kilometers). Pluto (the most distant planet in our solar system) is about 600 meters away (1/3 of a mile).

5 The Sun The Sun is the closest star. Accounts for over 99.9% of mass in the solar system. Composition: 70% H, 28% He, 2% heavier elements. Radius ~ 7 x 10 5 km (110x Earth s radius) Mass ~ 2 x kg (300,000x Earth s mass) Surface temp ~ 5800 K Luminosity ~ 4 x10 26 Watts

6 Mercury (0.4 AU from the Sun) made of metal and rock; large iron core no atmosphere very hot and very cold: 425 C (day), 170 C (night)

7 Venus (0.7 AU) nearly identical in size to Earth extreme greenhouse effect even hotter than Mercury: 470 C, both day and night atmospheric pressure equiv. to 1 km deep in oceans no oxygen, no water, how did it end up so different from Earth?

8 Earth and Moon to scale Earth (1 AU) An oasis of life The only surface liquid water in the solar system about 3/4 of surface covered by water A surprisingly large moon

9 Mars (1.5 AU) Looks Earth-like, but Cold rocky planet with little atmosphere Water flowed in the distant past: could there have been life?

10 Jupiter (5.2 AU) Distant: >2x as far from the Sun as Mars. Big ball of gas, mostly H/He (like sun!): no solid surface 300 Earth mass! >1000 Earth volume (i.e. not very dense)! Many moons, rings

11 The moons are miniature planets and as interesting as Jupiter itself The four Galilean moons Io has active volcanos Europa icy surface + subsurface ocean? Ganymede largest moon in the S.S. Callisto large ice ball w/craters

12

13 Moons can be as interesting as the planets themselves, especially Jupiter s 4 large Galilean moons (first seen by Galileo) Io (shown here): active volcanoes all over Europa: icy surface, possible sub-surface ocean Ganymede: largest moon in solar system, larger than Mercury Callisto: large, cratered ice ball with strange surface features

14 Saturn (9.5 AU) Giant and gaseous like Jupiter Most spectacular rings of the 4 Jovian planets Many moons, including cloud-covered Titan

15 Saturn s rings Rings are NOT solid; they are made of enormous numbers of small chunks of ice and rock, each orbiting like a tiny moon. Artist s conception

16 Saturn Cassini probe arrived in July Dropped Huygens probe onto the surface of Titan.

17 Uranus (19.2 AU) much smaller than Jupiter/Saturn, but still much larger than Earth made of H/He gas and hydrogen compounds (H 2 O, NH 3, CH 4 ) extreme axis tilt: nearly tipped on its side

18 Neptune (30.1 AU) Very similar to Uranus (but much smaller axis tilt) Many moons, including unusual Triton: orbits backward

19 Pluto (39.5 AU) A misfit among the planets: far from Sun like large jovian planets, but much smaller than any inner, terrestrial planet. Comet-like composition (ices, rock) and orbit (eccentric, inclined, 248 years period). Large Moon (Charon)

20 Planetary data table

21 Planetary data table

22 Planetary data table

23 Planetary data table

24 Planetary data table

25 Planetary data table

26 What are the clues to our solar system s formation? Patterns of motion (organized) Composition (differentiated between terrestrial and Jovian) Asteroids and comets (remnants of the formation process) Anomalies (massive, random impacts in early solar system)

27 1. The Sun, all planets, and all large moons orbit and rotate in an organized way. Counterclockwise, as seen from above the north pole (right hand rule)

28 2. Terrestrial planets are small, rocky, and close to the Sun. Jovian planets are large, gas-rich, and far from the Sun. (What about Pluto?)

29

30

31 3. Asteroids & Comets: Leftovers from planet formation Asteroids: big rocks between Mars & Jupiter, in the Asteroid Belt Comets: dirty snowballs past Neptune (mostly ice, some rock). Come from the Kuiper Belt & beyond. These objects far outnumber the planets and their moons.

32

33

34

35 Next time: Large KBOs (and their moons)

36 Moons of large KBOs Satellites of the largest KBOs (Bouchez, Brown et al + Team Keck) 2003 UB313 Pluto P1, P EL61 satellite orbits P1 Charon 2003 EL61 P FY9 2.0 P2 (no satellites detected)

37 4. A successful theory of solar system formation must explain the major trends, but also allow for exceptions to rules.

38 Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System

39 How did the solar system form?

40 According to the nebular theory, our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant cloud of interstellar gas. (nebula = cloud in Latin)

41 The cloud of gas that gave birth to our solar system resulted from the recycling of gas through many generations of stars within our galaxy.

42 Stars are born in molecular clouds Clouds are very cold: ~10-30 K. (273 K = water freezes) Stars form when gravity overcomes thermal pressure. Then gas clumps begin to collapse.

43 Earliest stages of star birth Dense cores of gas in the larger molecular cloud collapse due to self-gravity. Cloud heats up as it contracts due to conservation of energy: gravitational potential energy is converted to thermal energy (heat).

44 Rotation is an important factor during the star birth process (part 1) As gravity forces a dense core to become smaller, it spins faster and faster. This is due to conservation of angular momentum. Dense cores have a small amount of initial rotation. As the cores get smaller, they must spin up to conserve angular momentum.

45 Rotation is an important factor during the star birth process (part 2) Collisions between gas particles in cloud gradually reduce random motions and up+down motions. Collisions flatten the cloud into a disk. The result is a rotating protostar with a rotating disk of gas & dust. The orderly motions of our solar system today are a direct result of the solar system s birth in a spinning, flattened cloud of gas.

46 As gravity causes cloud to shrink, its spin increases (conservation of angular momentum). Spinning cloud also flattens as it shrinks.

47 Collisions between gas particles in cloud gradually reduce random motions. Initial gas cloud has motions of all different ellipticities. But at the end, only circular orbits remain.

48 Spinning cloud flattens as it shrinks.

49 Orderly motions of our solar system today are a direct result of the solar system s birth in a spinning, flattened cloud of gas.

50 Disks around other stars: Solar systems in the making Nearby star-forming regions have 1000 s of young (few Myr) stars. Most of them (~2/3) have disks of gas & dust around them, which are the birthplaces for other solar systems.

51 Disks around other stars: Solar systems in the making Plenty of evidence for spinning disks of gas and dust around other stars, especially around newly formed (few Myr) stars.

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems: Our Solar System and Beyond. What does the solar system look like? What does the solar system look like?

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems: Our Solar System and Beyond. What does the solar system look like? What does the solar system look like? Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems: Our Solar System and Beyond What does the solar system look like? The solar system exhibits clear patterns of composition and motion. These patterns are far more

More information

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System How did the solar system form? According to the nebular theory, our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant cloud of interstellar

More information

Chapter 7 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Planetary System Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 7 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Planetary System Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 7 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Our Planetary System Our Planetary System Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft 7.1 Studying the Solar System Our goals for learning: What

More information

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. What does the solar system look like? Thought Question How does the Earth-Sun distance compare with the Sun s radius

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. What does the solar system look like? Thought Question How does the Earth-Sun distance compare with the Sun s radius Chapter 7 Our Planetary System 7.1 Studying the Solar System Our goals for learning:! What does the solar system look like?! What can we learn by comparing the planets to one another?! What are the major

More information

Our Planetary System. Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Our Planetary System. Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Our Planetary System Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft 7.1 Studying the Solar System Our goals for learning: What does the solar system look like? What can we learn by comparing the planets to

More information

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. Agenda. Intro Astronomy. Intro Astronomy. What does the solar system look like? A. General Basics

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. Agenda. Intro Astronomy. Intro Astronomy. What does the solar system look like? A. General Basics Chapter 7 Our Planetary System Agenda Pass back & discuss Test 2 Where we are (at) Ch. 7 Our Planetary System Finish Einstein s Big Idea Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft A. General Basics Intro

More information

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond The solar system exhibits clear patterns of composition and motion. Sun Over 99.9% of solar system s mass Made mostly of H/He gas (plasma)

More information

Patterns in the Solar System. Patterns in the Solar System. ASTR 105 The Solar System

Patterns in the Solar System. Patterns in the Solar System. ASTR 105 The Solar System ASTR 105 The Solar System 1. Orderly motions 2.Two kinds of planets 3.Two kinds of small bodies 4.Exceptions to the rules Today: Group Lab at the end of class Next THURSDAY 03/10: First Group Project Orderly

More information

4. Formation of Solar Systems

4. Formation of Solar Systems Astronomy 110: SURVEY OF ASTRONOMY 4. Formation of Solar Systems 1. A Survey of the Solar System 2. The Solar System s Early History 3. Other Planetary Systems The solar system s rich and varied structure

More information

Exploring Our Solar System and Its Origin

Exploring Our Solar System and Its Origin Exploring Our Solar System and Its Origin Sun Over 99.9% of solar system s mass Made mostly of H/He gas (plasma) Converts 4 million tons of mass into energy each second Earth and Moon to scale Mercury

More information

The Solar System. The Outer Planets

The Solar System. The Outer Planets chapter 12 3 The Solar System section 3 The Outer Planets Before You Read What do you know about the outer planets Jupiter, Uranus, Saturn, Neptune, or Pluto? What would you like to learn? What You ll

More information

Notes Our Planetary System

Notes Our Planetary System Notes Our Planetary System 7.1 Studying the Solar System - Galileo s telescopic observations sparked a new era in which the Sun, Moon and planets could be studied as worlds rather than just mere lights

More information

The Origin of the Solar System. Formation and basic characteristics of the Solar System

The Origin of the Solar System. Formation and basic characteristics of the Solar System The Origin of the Solar System Formation and basic characteristics of the Solar System The origin of matter All the building material necessary to make our Solar System was assembled in the process of

More information

Name Class Date. How did Earth s moon probably form? How does the moon s appearance change with time? What moons revolve around other planets?

Name Class Date. How did Earth s moon probably form? How does the moon s appearance change with time? What moons revolve around other planets? CHAPTER 4 A Family of Planets SECTION 4 Moons BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How did Earth s moon probably form? How does the moon s appearance

More information

The Formation of Planetary Systems. Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1

The Formation of Planetary Systems. Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1 The Formation of Planetary Systems Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1 Modeling Planet Formation Any model for solar system and planet formation must explain 1. Planets are relatively isolated in space 2. Planetary

More information

2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. The Jovian Planets

2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. The Jovian Planets The Jovian Planets The Jovian planets are gas giants - much larger than Earth Sizes of Jovian Planets Planets get larger as they get more massive up to a point... Planets more massive than Jupiter are

More information

Formation and content of the solar system.

Formation and content of the solar system. Formation and content of the solar system. The Solar Nebula Hypothesis Basis of modern theory of planet formation: Planets form at the same time from the same cloud as the star. Planet formation sites

More information

PART 1 OBJECTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 PLANET TYPES

PART 1 OBJECTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 PLANET TYPES PART 1 OBJECTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM 4.1 INTRODUCTION Besides the Sun, the central object of our solar system, which is a star and will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 11, there are basically three

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan. 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan. 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 15 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 15 The Formation of Planetary Systems Units of Chapter 15 15.1 Modeling Planet Formation 15.2 Terrestrial and Jovian Planets

More information

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems Modeling Planet Formation Boundary Conditions Nebular Hypothesis Fixing Problems Role of Catastrophes Planets of Other Stars Modeling Planet Formation

More information

Formation of the Solar System

Formation of the Solar System Formation of the Solar System Any theory of formation of the Solar System must explain all of the basic facts that we have learned so far. 1 The Solar System The Sun contains 99.9% of the mass. The Solar

More information

The Jovian Planets Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

The Jovian Planets Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The Jovian Planets 1 Great Exam Performance! Class average was 79.5% This is the highest average I ve ever had on any ASTR 100 exam Wonderful job! Exams will be handed back in your sections Don t let up;

More information

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 12

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 12 ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Class 12 Solar System Survey Monday, February 5 Key Concepts (1) The terrestrial planets are made primarily of rock and metal. (2) The Jovian planets

More information

ASTR 380 Possibilities for Life on the Moons of Giant Planets

ASTR 380 Possibilities for Life on the Moons of Giant Planets Let s first consider the large gas planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune Planets to scale with Sun in background 67 62 14 The many moons of the outer planets.. Most of the moons are very small 1

More information

8.3: The Solar System: The Sun and the Planets pg. 313

8.3: The Solar System: The Sun and the Planets pg. 313 8.3: The Solar System: The Sun and the Planets pg. 313 Key Concepts: 1. Careful observation of the night sky can offer clues about the motion of celestial objects. 2. Celestial objects in the Solar System

More information

The Layout of the Solar System

The Layout of the Solar System The Layout of the Solar System Planets fall into two main categories Terrestrial (i.e. Earth-like) Jovian (i.e. Jupiter-like or gaseous) [~5000 kg/m 3 ] [~1300 kg/m 3 ] What is density? Average density

More information

Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System. Nebular Theory. Origin of the Solar System. Origin of the Solar System. The Solar Nebula

Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System. Nebular Theory. Origin of the Solar System. Origin of the Solar System. The Solar Nebula Origin of the Solar System Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System Reading: Chapter 9 Quiz#2 Today: Lecture 60 minutes, then quiz 20 minutes. Homework#1 will be returned on Thursday. Our theory must explain

More information

Chapter 8 Welcome to the Solar System

Chapter 8 Welcome to the Solar System Chapter 8 Welcome to the Solar System 8.1 The Search for Origins What properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain? What theory best explains the features of our solar system? What properties

More information

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System UNIT V Earth and Space Chapter 9 Earth and the Solar System EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS A solar system contains planets, moons, and other objects that orbit around a star or the star system. The solar system

More information

Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Planetary System Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Planetary System Pearson Education, Inc. Reading Quiz Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Our Planetary System 7.1 Studying the Solar System What does the solar system look like? What can we learn by comparing the planets to one another?

More information

NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM

NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM 1.What is a Solar system? A solar system consists of: * one central star, the Sun and * nine planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,

More information

Planetary Trading Cards

Planetary Trading Cards Planetary Order: 1 st planet from the sun Planet Size: 4,880 Kilometers Rotation Time (Earth Days): 59 Orbit Time (Earth Years):.241 Orbit Time (Earth Days): 88 MERCURY 38 lbs AU s:.4 Kilometers: 60 million

More information

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System. What theory best explains the features of our solar system? Close Encounter Hypothesis

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System. What theory best explains the features of our solar system? Close Encounter Hypothesis Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System What properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain? 1. Patterns of motion of the large bodies Orbit in same direction and plane 2. Existence of

More information

Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18)

Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18) GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric ruler, and meter stick.

More information

1 The Nine Planets. What are the parts of our solar system? When were the planets discovered? How do astronomers measure large distances?

1 The Nine Planets. What are the parts of our solar system? When were the planets discovered? How do astronomers measure large distances? CHAPTER 4 1 The Nine Planets SECTION A Family of Planets BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the parts of our solar system? When were the

More information

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System Agenda

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System Agenda Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System Agenda Announce: Mercury Transit Part 2 of Projects due next Thursday Ch. 8 Formation of the Solar System Philip on The Physics of Star Trek Radiometric Dating Lab

More information

AST 105 HW #4 Solution

AST 105 HW #4 Solution AST 105 HW # Solution Week of September 1 th, 2015 Note: All Problems are from The Cosmic Perspective (6ed) Chapter 6 Review Problems 2. For purposes of astronomy, what advantages does a camera have over

More information

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

More information

Class 14 Patterns & diversity in our Solar System. I : The kinematics of the Solar System

Class 14 Patterns & diversity in our Solar System. I : The kinematics of the Solar System Class 14 Patterns & diversity in our Solar System Kinematics of the solar system Comparative planetology I : The kinematics of the Solar System We have learned about the laws of physics (motion and gravity)

More information

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 1 Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 2 Orbits of the Planets 3 Clues for the Formation of the SS All planets orbit in roughly the same plane about the Sun. All planets orbit in the

More information

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM Chapter 8, Astronomy OBJECTIVES Identify planets by observing their movement against background stars. Explain that the solar system consists of many bodies held together by gravity.

More information

Table of Contents. Our Solar System 3 The Planets in the Solar System 4

Table of Contents. Our Solar System 3 The Planets in the Solar System 4 The Solar System 2 Table of Contents Our Solar System 3 The Planets in the Solar System 4 Mercury 5 Venus 6 Earth 7 Mars 8 Jupiter 9 Saturn 10 Uranus 11 Neptune 12 Pluto 13 The Asteroid Belt 14 The Moon

More information

7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits

7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits 7. Our Solar System Terrestrial & Jovian planets Seven large satellites [moons] Chemical composition of the planets Asteroids & comets The Terrestrial & Jovian Planets Four small terrestrial planets Like

More information

Earth Science Lesson Plan Quarter 4, Week 6, Day 1

Earth Science Lesson Plan Quarter 4, Week 6, Day 1 Earth Science Lesson Plan Quarter 4, Week 6, Day 1 Outcomes for Today Standard Focus: PREPARE 1. Background knowledge necessary for today s reading. The outer part of the solar system is comprised of the

More information

The Main Point. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II. Chemical Condensation ( Lewis ) Model. How did the solar system form? Reading: Chapter 8.

The Main Point. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II. Chemical Condensation ( Lewis ) Model. How did the solar system form? Reading: Chapter 8. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II How did the solar system form? Chemical Condensation ("Lewis") Model. Formation of the Terrestrial Planets. Formation of the Giant Planets. Planetary Evolution. Reading:

More information

Possibly due to heat left Deeper still, liquid hydrogen

Possibly due to heat left Deeper still, liquid hydrogen Chapter 10 The Outer Planets 1 The Outer Worlds Beyond the orbit of Mars, the low temperatures of the solar nebula allowed condensing bodies there to capture hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases This, together

More information

Solar System Fact Sheet

Solar System Fact Sheet Solar System Fact Sheet (Source: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov; http://solarviews.com) The Solar System Categories Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Rocky or Gas Rocky Rocky Rocky Rocky

More information

Astronomy 103: First Exam

Astronomy 103: First Exam Name: Astronomy 103: First Exam Stephen Lepp October 25, 2010 Each question is worth 2 points. Write your name on this exam and on the scantron. 1 Short Answer A. What is the largest of the terrestrial

More information

1.1 A Modern View of the Universe" Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe?"

1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe? Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe What is our place in the universe? What is our place in the universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the universe was

More information

L3: The formation of the Solar System

L3: The formation of the Solar System credit: NASA L3: The formation of the Solar System UCL Certificate of astronomy Dr. Ingo Waldmann A stable home The presence of life forms elsewhere in the Universe requires a stable environment where

More information

Formation of the Solar System (Chapter 8)

Formation of the Solar System (Chapter 8) Formation of the Solar System (Chapter 8) Based on Chapter 8 This material will be useful for understanding Chapters 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 on Formation of the solar system, Planetary geology, Planetary

More information

Solar System Stroll: Tour Book

Solar System Stroll: Tour Book Solar System Stroll: Tour Book Version 1.2, 04/8/02 A walk through a 1 kilometer scale model of the Solar System The scale model activity Solar System Stroll is also available. 201 South Gammon Road, Madison,

More information

Solar System Formation

Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Question: How did our solar system and other planetary systems form? Comparative planetology has helped us understand Compare the differences and similarities

More information

Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System

Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Solar System Fundamentals What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Properties of Planets What is a planet? Defined finally in August 2006!

More information

Related Standards and Background Information

Related Standards and Background Information Related Standards and Background Information Earth Patterns, Cycles and Changes This strand focuses on student understanding of patterns in nature, natural cycles, and changes that occur both quickly and

More information

Homework #3 Solutions

Homework #3 Solutions Chap. 7, #40 Homework #3 Solutions ASTR100: Introduction to Astronomy Fall 2009: Dr. Stacy McGaugh Which of the following is a strong greenhouse gas? A) Nitrogen. B) Water Vapor. C) Oxygen) The correct

More information

TAKEN FROM HORIZONS 7TH EDITION CHAPTER 18 TUTORIAL QUIZ

TAKEN FROM HORIZONS 7TH EDITION CHAPTER 18 TUTORIAL QUIZ TAKEN FROM HORIZONS 7TH EDITION CHAPTER 18 TUTORIAL QUIZ 1. Which of the following are known to have ring systems? a. Saturn only. b. Jupiter, Uranus, and Saturn. c. Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune.

More information

PHYS-1000 Final Exam Study Guide Fall 2012

PHYS-1000 Final Exam Study Guide Fall 2012 This study guide is for the final exam of the course, covering chapters 1 through 5 and 7 through 13. You are responsible for all material in these chapters referenced from this guide as well as the corresponding

More information

Introduction to the Solar System

Introduction to the Solar System Introduction to the Solar System Lesson Objectives Describe some early ideas about our solar system. Name the planets, and describe their motion around the Sun. Explain how the solar system formed. Introduction

More information

Solar System Overview

Solar System Overview Solar System Overview Planets: Four inner planets, Terrestrial planets Four outer planets, Jovian planets Asteroids: Minor planets (planetesimals) Meteroids: Chucks of rocks (smaller than asteroids) (Mercury,

More information

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe Syllabus 4 tests: June 18, June 30, July 10, July 21 Comprehensive Final - check schedule Website link on blackboard 1.1 Our Modern View of the Universe Our goals for

More information

Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons

Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Our goals for learning What are asteroids like? Why is there an asteroid belt? Where do meteorites

More information

The Solar System. Source http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/starchild/solar_system_level1/solar_system.html

The Solar System. Source http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/starchild/solar_system_level1/solar_system.html The Solar System What is the solar system? It is our Sun and everything that travels around it. Our solar system is elliptical in shape. That means it is shaped like an egg. Earth s orbit is nearly circular.

More information

The moons of the planets

The moons of the planets 22th of October 2007 The planets of our solar system Our solar system contains eight planets. Beginning with the closest one to the sun they are in order: Mercury Venus Earth Uranus The moons in our solar

More information

Read the lesson. Use the words in the box to complete the concept web. The Sun is a, star or a fiery ball of hot gases.

Read the lesson. Use the words in the box to complete the concept web. The Sun is a, star or a fiery ball of hot gases. Lesson 1 Study Guide What is? Read the lesson. Use the words in the box to complete the concept web. chromosphere corona innermost photosphere prominences solar flare star sunspots Use with pages 257 259.

More information

Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice. Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt

Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice. Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt What are asteroids like? Asteroid Facts Asteroids are rocky leftovers of planet formation. Largest is Ceres, diameter ~1,000 km

More information

Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly

Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly Formation of the Moonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WpOKztEiMqo&feature =related Formation of our Solar System Conservation of Angular Momentum Why are the larger,

More information

The Outer Worlds. Chapter Sixteen

The Outer Worlds. Chapter Sixteen The Outer Worlds Chapter Sixteen ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 13 Nov. 27, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch7: Comparative Planetology

More information

Copyright 2006, Astronomical Society of the Pacific

Copyright 2006, Astronomical Society of the Pacific 2 1 3 4 Diameter: 590 miles (950 km) Distance to Sun: 257 million miles (414 million km) Orbits: # 18 Composition: Outer layer probably ice and frozen ammonia, no Diameter: 750 miles (1200 km) Distance

More information

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Gravity What is gravity? Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses and the distances between them. Every object in the universe

More information

A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK

A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK Brought to you by: THE SUN Size: The Sun is wider than 100 Earths. 1 Temperature: 27,000,000 F in the center, 10,000 F at the surface. So that s REALLY hot anywhere on the

More information

THE SOLAR SYSTEM NAME. I. Physical characteristics of the solar system

THE SOLAR SYSTEM NAME. I. Physical characteristics of the solar system NAME I. Physical characteristics of the solar system THE SOLAR SYSTEM The solar system consists of the sun and 9 planets. Table 2 lists a number of the properties and characteristics of the sun and the

More information

Earth. Earth is the third planet from the Sun. It is a rocky planet and the fifth largest in our solar system. It has one moon and no rings.

Earth. Earth is the third planet from the Sun. It is a rocky planet and the fifth largest in our solar system. It has one moon and no rings. Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun. It is a rocky planet and the fifth largest in our solar system. It has one moon and no rings. Earth Fun Facts: The word Earth means the ground. The Earth s

More information

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM Name the planets in their order from the sun. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The asteroid belt is between and Which planet has the most moons? About how many?

More information

A Solar System Coloring Book

A Solar System Coloring Book A Solar System Coloring Book Courtesy of the Windows to the Universe Project http://www.windows2universe.org The Sun Size: The Sun is wider than 100 Earths. Temperature: ~27,000,000 F in the center, ~10,000

More information

Origin of Our Universe

Origin of Our Universe Origin of Our Universe Before the Big Bang? As cosmologists begin to understand what happened just after the Big Bang, many are questioning what led up to the Big Bang (4 possibilities) 1. No previous

More information

Composition of planets. Mercury

Composition of planets. Mercury The Solar System Solar System Nebular Hypothesis of Solar System Formation. Planets drawn to scale Distances not to scale Earth approximately 12,800 km diameter Earth is about 150,000,000 km from Sun Composition

More information

Cosmic Journey: A Solar System Adventure General Information

Cosmic Journey: A Solar System Adventure General Information Cosmic Journey: A Solar System Adventure General Information Imagine it a huge spiral galaxy containing hundreds of billions of stars, spiraling out from a galactic center. Nestled deep within one of the

More information

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times.

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 5. If the distance between the Earth and the Sun were increased,

More information

15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System

15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System 15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System Planets orbiting other stars are called extrasolar planets. Until 1995, whether or not extrasolar planets existed was unknown. Since then more than 300 have been discovered.

More information

How did the Solar System form?

How did the Solar System form? How did the Solar System form? Is our solar system unique? Are there other Earth-like planets, or are we a fluke? Under what conditions can Earth-like planets form? Is life common or rare? Ways to Find

More information

8. Mercury, the planet nearest to the Sun, has extreme surface temperatures, ranging from 465 C in sunlight to 180 C in darkness.

8. Mercury, the planet nearest to the Sun, has extreme surface temperatures, ranging from 465 C in sunlight to 180 C in darkness. 6.E.1 Unit Test DO NOT WRITE ON THIS QUIZ!!! 1. The largest body in our solar system is Earth. the Sun. Jupiter. the Moon. 4. What do the four planets closest to the Sun have in common? Their solid, rocky

More information

8.1: Touring the Night Sky pg. 305

8.1: Touring the Night Sky pg. 305 Unit D: The Study of the Universe 8.1: Touring the Night Sky pg. 305 Key Concepts: 1. Careful observation of the night sky can offer clues about the motion of celestial objects. 2. Celestial objects in

More information

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L 4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED A CLOSE LOOK AT THE PLANETS ORBITING OUR SUN By Cynthia Stokes Brown, adapted by Newsela Planets come from the clouds of gas and dust that

More information

Mercury by Cynthia Sherwood

Mercury by Cynthia Sherwood Mercury 1. Why is Mercury usually hard to see without a telescope? It's often blocked by the sun's glare. 2. Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, but Venus is the hottest. Why? Venus has clouds that

More information

Chapter 12 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons. 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites

Chapter 12 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons. 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Chapter 12 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts What are asteroids like? 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Our goals for learning:! What are asteroids like?! Why is there

More information

solar storm movies from solar dynamics observatory search SDO

solar storm movies from solar dynamics observatory search SDO solar storm movies from solar dynamics observatory search SDO http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/youtube.php diverse planetary environments distance from sun : 0.4 è 40AU size/mass : Mercury : 5%M,0.4R è

More information

Tides, Moons, Rings, and Pluto

Tides, Moons, Rings, and Pluto Tides, Moons, Rings, and Pluto [Oct 27, 2016] As with all course material (including homework, exams), these lecture notes are not be reproduced, redistributed, or sold in any form. Ocean Tides high low

More information

Cosmology and the Birth of Earth

Cosmology and the Birth of Earth Cosmology and the Birth of Earth Our Island in Space The Earth is a very special and unique planet. Its temperature, composition and atmosphere favor life. It is dynamic and ever-changing. It has a long

More information

Exam #1. Exam #1. Exam #1. Nighttime observing has 4 more nights. Check the webpage.

Exam #1. Exam #1. Exam #1. Nighttime observing has 4 more nights. Check the webpage. Nighttime observing has 4 more nights. Check the webpage. 1 st exam is October 10 th Friday! Justin will have an extra office hour Thursday (10/9) before exam 4:00 to 5:00pm. I will have an extra office

More information

Lecture 19: Planet Formation I. Clues from the Solar System

Lecture 19: Planet Formation I. Clues from the Solar System Lecture 19: Planet Formation I. Clues from the Solar System 1 Outline The Solar System:! Terrestrial planets! Jovian planets! Asteroid belt, Kuiper belt, Oort cloud Condensation and growth of solid bodies

More information

ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy. Stephen Kane

ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy. Stephen Kane ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy Stephen Kane ASTR 115: The Second Mid-Term Exam What will be covered? - Everything from chapters 6-10 of the textbook. What will be the format of the exam? - It will

More information

radio telescopes satellites visible light space probes rockets reflecting telescopes space shuttles refracting telescopes

radio telescopes satellites visible light space probes rockets reflecting telescopes space shuttles refracting telescopes Name Date Class BOOK Review Packet Astronomy Overview Exploring Space Directions:Complete the concept map the terms in the list below. radio telescopes satellites visible light space probes rockets reflecting

More information

Other Citizens of the Solar System

Other Citizens of the Solar System Other Citizens of the Solar System Astronomers study the stars in the sky. They try to find new things. In 1913, Percival Lowell found a new dot of light. It was very far away. It was tiny. It was hard

More information

Asteroids. Earth. Asteroids. Earth Distance from sun: 149,600,000 kilometers (92,960,000 miles) Diameter: 12,756 kilometers (7,926 miles) dotted line

Asteroids. Earth. Asteroids. Earth Distance from sun: 149,600,000 kilometers (92,960,000 miles) Diameter: 12,756 kilometers (7,926 miles) dotted line Image taken by NASA Asteroids About 6,000 asteroids have been discovered; several hundred more are found each year. There are likely hundreds of thousands more that are too small to be seen from Earth.

More information

The Solar System. Olivia Paquette

The Solar System. Olivia Paquette The Solar System Olivia Paquette Table of Contents The Sun 1 Mercury 2,3 Venus 4,5 Earth 6,7 Mars 8,9 Jupiter 10,11 Saturn 12 Uranus 13 Neptune Pluto 14 15 Glossary. 16 The Sun Although it may seem like

More information

The Solar System and its Planets

The Solar System and its Planets The Solar System and its Planets The milky way (seen from Bryce Canyon, UT) The Solar System? A system is a set of interac+ng or interdependent components forming an integrated whole (Wikipedia) The Solar

More information

Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe. 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley

Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe. 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe Topics Our modern view of the universe The scale of the universe Cinema graphic tour of the local universe Spaceship earth 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals

More information

Jupiter (Earth for Scale) Galilean moons. Europa

Jupiter (Earth for Scale) Galilean moons. Europa OUTER PLANETS MINOR MEMBERS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM SUN Jupiter (Earth for Scale) Jupiter s bands are clouds Hubble view of Jupiter Arrow shows entry point of Galileo probe, Dec. 1995 Galilean moons Io True

More information

Study Guide: Solar System

Study Guide: Solar System Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? 4.

More information