Respirable Dust Exposure Study

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1 Respirable Dust Exposure Study Presented by Lockton Companies June 17, 2014 to June 20, 2014 Prepared for: Doug Galbreth Director of Quality, Health, Safety and Environmental RockPile Energy Services Prepared by: David R. Lee Assistant Vice President Lockton Companies Lockton makes no representation or warranty nor assumes any responsibility that locations, products, work places, operations, procedures, machinery, or equipment of the Company are or will be safe or healthful or in compliance with any law, rule, or regulation. L O C K T O N C O M P A N I E S

2 PAGE RISK CONTROL CONSULTATION REPORT... 3 INTRODUCTION... 4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... 5 DISCUSSION... 6 Monitoring Strategy... 6 Study Methods... 7 Data & Observations... 8 DATA AND OBSERVATIONS...13 Data & Observations...13 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS...16 Bulk Plant Operation...16 Hydraulic Fracturing Operation...16 Maintenance Shop Noise Exposure...17 Lockton makes no representation or warranty nor assumes any responsibility that locations, products, work places, operations, procedures, machinery, or equipment of the Company are or will be safe or healthful or in compliance with any law, rule, or regulation. 2

3 RISK CONTROL CONSULTATION REPORT Locations Surveyed: RockPile Tucker Energy Services 2225 West Villard Street Dickinson, North Dakota/ Monson - Hydraulic Fracturing Site McKenzie County, North Dakota Person Contacted/Interviewed: Doug Galbreth Director of QHSE RockPile Energy Services Telephone Number: Dates of Visit(s): June 17, 2014-June 20, 2014 Date of Report: July 20, 2014 Report Prepared By: David R. Lee, ARM, CIH, CSP Assistant Vice President Risk Control Services All Lockton Risk Control Services inspections, report, and recommendations are purely advisory and for the purpose of assisting clients in Risk Control and safety procedures. Observations and recommendations are the result of practices and conditions observed and information made available to use at the time of our visit and do not purport to refer to or guarantee compliance with local, state, or federal regulations which may be applicable to such practice and conditions. This report should not be regarded as a definitive listing of all existing hazards nor an absolute solution to all indicated hazards. No responsibility for the implementation, management, and operation of risk control and safety procedures is assumed by Lockton Risk Control Services. Lockton makes no representation or warranty nor assumes any responsibility that locations, products, work places, operations, procedures, machinery, or equipment of the Company are or will be safe or healthful or in compliance with any law, rule, or regulation. 3

4 INTRODUCTION Lockton Risk Control performed industrial hygiene monitoring at the sand warehouse (bulk plant) and maintenance shop located at 2225 West Villard Street; Dickinson, North Dakota, from June 18, 2014 to June 20, 2014, and at the Monson hydraulic fracturing operation located in McKenzie County, North Dakota, on June 19, 2014, at the request of Mr. Doug Galbreth, Director of QHSE, RockPile Energy Services. The industrial hygiene monitoring consisted of respirable dust containing crystalline silica at the sand warehouse and hydraulic fracturing operation and noise monitoring at the maintenance shop. The respirable dust containing crystalline silica monitoring was conducted to: Evaluate employee exposures while loading bulk sand trailers and offloading sand from railcars at the sand warehouse. Evaluate employee exposures while operating pneumatically-driven sand movers. Compare employee exposure findings from pneumatically-driven sand movers to respirable dust exposures using SandBox sand delivery systems, at a later date by RockPile management. The noise study was conducted to: Evaluate employee exposures to noise while performing various tasks throughout the maintenance shop and while testing equipment outside the maintenance shop. Determine which, if any, employees would be required to participate in an effective, continuing, hearing conservation program as described in the 29 CFR ; and Identify work areas and operations where noise was found to exceed 85 decibels on the A scale while performing various tasks the maintenance shop and adjacent outdoor operations. Diesel exhaust particulate was scheduled for the maintenance shop in the original monitoring plan; however, there was no work involving diesel engine starting in the maintenance shop during any monitoring period. Lockton makes no representation or warranty nor assumes any responsibility that locations, products, work places, operations, procedures, machinery, or equipment of the Company are or will be safe or healthful or in compliance with any law, rule, or regulation. 4

5 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Employee were found to be exposed respirable dust and respirable quartz below Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limits (PEL s) at Monson hydraulic fracturing operation (the sand mover and bulk trailer spotter). Although these findings reveal respirable dust exposures below OSHA allowable limits, weather conditions and hydraulic fracturing equipment positioning accounted for relatively the low respirable dust levels that were found. Thus, the following is recommended: Employees continue to be required to properly maintain and use MSA-GME, half-facepiece respirators with P-100 cartridge filter, or similar respirators, until it can be determined from objective, representative monitoring data that the use of respirators is not required to protect these employees from potentially harmful airborne, respirable dust Representative sampling should be performed to evaluate employee exposures to respirable dust and respirable silica under a variety of weather conditions and equipment positioning to characterize the respirable dust exposure during hydraulic fracturing operations, and to access the need for additional controls. In addition, several dust-control suggestions should be considered to further reduce airborne dust exposures during hydraulic fracturing. These include: 1. Repositioning sand movers and other equipment, when possible, to take advantage of prevailing wind currents. Repositioning equipment crosswind to employee work areas reduces airborne dust exposures. 2. Reducing the height of the spouts (dragon tails) delivering sand to the T-belt and blend hopper. The dragon tail height reduction will decrease the amount of potential energy and the amount of dust in the air. 3. Using wetting agents on the fracturing sands and water on roadways to reduce the airborne dust. 4. Monitoring the capping of fill ports to reduce dust that is released, especially during filling. 5. Using socks or cyclone dust collectors and a portable baghouse connected to open thief hatches to capture and collect dust that is released from the openings. 6. Other local exhaust ventilation with dust collection systems or skirts on equipment and machinery where dust is released to reduce dust levels. 7. Installing thick, plastic stilling curtains around the bottom sides of the sand movers to reduce dust generated by the belt conveyor. 8. Minimize the number of employees exposed to airborne dust. Lockton makes no representation or warranty nor assumes any responsibility that locations, products, work places, operations, procedures, machinery, or equipment of the Company are or will be safe or healthful or in compliance with any law, rule, or regulation. 5

6 The bulk plant employees who were monitored were found to have no detectable exposure to respirable dust containing silica while offloading railcars and loading bulk trailers based on one (1) representative monitoring period. Thus, there are no recommendations at this time. Mechanics tested for noise exposure were found to be well below the OSHA action level for noise. Thus, participation in an effective, continuing hearing conservation program is not required. Although noise levels were within acceptable OSHA limits, the use of hearing protectors such as the Howard-Leight Max, intra-aural inserts with noise-reduction rating 33, or similar hearing protection, should be encouraged when working with, or near high-noise hand tools and equipment. DISCUSSION Monitoring Strategy Sand Warehouse Operations Sand was offloaded from railcars into silos, and pneumatically loaded into bulk trailers for delivery to well sites for injection into wells. In the process of offloading sand from railcars and transporting the sand to the well site, airborne dust containing at least 95 percent ( 95%) silica quartz was produced, according to the manufacturer s (Manley Brothers of Indiana) material safety data sheet (MSDS). Hydraulic Fracturing Operations Fracturing sand was pneumatically offloaded into Convey-All sand movers from bulk sand trailers. The fracturing sand, was then conveyed from the pneumatically-driven sand movers, blended with other hydraulic fracturing material and injected at high pressure into the well. Approximately 243,000 pounds (~243,000 lbs.) of sand was blended with corundum/mullite mesh during the monitoring period. In the process of transporting, moving, blending and injecting the fracturing sand, airborne dust was created. This dust contained 95% silica quartz, SiO 2, according to the Manley Brothers of Indiana MSDS. Lockton makes no representation or warranty nor assumes any responsibility that locations, products, work places, operations, procedures, machinery, or equipment of the Company are or will be safe or healthful or in compliance with any law, rule, or regulation. 6

7 The Noise Study Mechanics used impact wrenches, air guns, hand grinders, a chop saw to repair and replace motors, bearings and shafts in the maintenance shop. Operating mobile equipment was tested outside the shop. In the process of maintaining vehicles and equipment, noise was created. Study Methods Air and Noise Monitoring Compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limits (PEL s) and OSHA action levels were determined as follows: Sample Type & Instruments Sample Collection Calibration Sample Analysis Methods Analytical Laboratory Determining OSHA Compliance Personal Respirable dust containing crystalline silica was collected using GilAir 3, High- Flow/Low-Flow Air Pumps through SKC aluminum cyclones. Quest NoisePro DL Type 2 noise dosimeters. Quest 2900 Sound Level Meter. Respirable dust containing crystalline silica 3-Piece, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) filters. Noise Noise dosimeter microphones clipped to the lapel of employee. Sound level meter readings were recorded near the ear of the employee working near the noise source monitored. The air pumps were calibrated at two and one-half (2.5) liters per minute. Pre- and postcalibration air flow rates were within one percent ( 1%). The noise dosimeters and sound level meter pre- and post-calibrated at dba. These calibrations recommended by the manufacturer. Modified NIOSH Respirable Nuisance Dust. NIOSH 7500/Modified OSHA ID 142 Respirable quartz and cristobalite. Galson Laboratories, an AIHA-accredited laboratory (ID No ). Respirable dust concentration (mg/m 3 ) = respirable dust weight (mg)/total air volume sampled (m 3 ). Percent respirable crystalline silica in respirable dust sample = % respirable crystalline silica (mg) x 100/respirable dust weight (mg). PEL for quartz sample = 10 mg/m 3 /2 + % respirable crystalline silica. PEL for cristobalite and tridymite samples = 10 mg/m 3 /½(2 + % respirable crystalline silica). Tridymite was not monitored. Tridymite is rarely found in fracturing sand. All inert or nuisance dusts, whether mineral, inorganic, or organic, not listed specifically by substance name are covered by this limit, which is the same as the Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated (PNOR) limit in Table Z-1. Results compared eight-hour, time-weighted averages (8-hr., TWA s) to published permissible exposure limits for PNOR. Noise 8-hr., TWA s were calculated by converting the measured dose to a full-shift dose. The full-shift exposures were then compared to the OSHA standard to determine whether employees exceeded the OSHA action level for noise. The activities performed during this study were considered representative of day-to-day operations at each work area that was monitored. Lockton makes no representation or warranty nor assumes any responsibility that locations, products, work places, operations, procedures, machinery, or equipment of the Company are or will be safe or healthful or in compliance with any law, rule, or regulation. 7

8 Data & Observations Sand Warehouse Operations As shown in TABLE 1 Bulk Plant Respirable Crystalline Silica Dust Study Results and TABLE 3 Bulk Plant Respirable Crystalline Silica Dust Study Results, respirable dust containing silica was found to be well below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limits (PEL s) for the bulk plant supervisor and bulk plant operators. No sample contained detectable amounts of respirable dust and crystalline quartz, cristobalite and tridymite. Employees wore RockPile fire-resistive uniforms, safety-toe shoes; safety glasses; hard hats, work gloves, and Howard-Leight Max, noise-reduction rating 33, intra-aural inserts for personal protection. MSA-GME, half-facepiece respirators with MSA P-100 cartridges were available, when needed. Hydraulic Fracturing Operation TABLE 2 Hydraulic /Fracturing Respirable Crystalline Silica Dust Study Results, shows respirable dust as particles not otherwise regulated (PNOR) and respirable dust containing crystalline silica were found to be below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limits (PEL s) for the sand mover operator, hydration unit and chemical trailer operator, bulk trailer spotter and quality control operator. Although sand mover operator and bulk trailer spotter samples that were collected contained respirable PNOR and respirable quartz, the hydration unit operator, quality control operator and chemical trailer operator samples collected contained no detectable amounts of respirable PNOR and crystalline silica. The weather conditions were overcast with a strong southeastly wind during monitoring. The wind speed and direction as well as sand mover positioning had an affect on employee exposure, as evidenced by these findings. With the exception of the bulk trailer spotter, employees worked upwind from dust released from the sand movers. The bulk trailer spotter, who worked downwind from the sand movers was exposed to the highest level of respirable quartz. Employees wore RockPile fire-resistive uniforms, safety-toe shoes; safety glasses; hard hats, work gloves, Howard-Leight Max, noise-reduction rating 33, intra-aural inserts and Setcom noiseattenuating headsets for personal protection. The sand mover operator and quality control operator wore MSA-GME, half-facepiece respirators with MSA P-100 cartridges when performing tasks outside the data trailer. All employees used these respirators when exposed to airborne dust, except when spotting trailers. Lockton makes no representation or warranty nor assumes any responsibility that locations, products, work places, operations, procedures, machinery, or equipment of the Company are or will be safe or healthful or in compliance with any law, rule, or regulation. 8

9 TABLE 1 BULK PLANT - RESPIRABLE CRYSTALLINE SILICA DUST STUDY RESULTS Date/Employee Name/ Employee Identification Number (EIN) Description of Work Activity/ Air Contaminant/Sample ID Monitoring Duration Concentration Measured During Monitoring Duration OSHA PEL s June 18, 2014 Supervising Bulk Plant Operations Minutes mg/m 3 mg/m 3 Respirable Dust L < Caron, D./ EIN: 111 Respirable Quartz L < Respirable Cristobalite L < Respirable Tridymite L < June 18, 2014 Trailer Loading (1) & Bulk Plant Operations Minutes mg/m 3 mg/m 3 Respirable Dust L < Pugliese, L./ EIN: 406 Respirable Quartz L < Respirable Cristobalite L < Respirable Tridymite L < June 18, 2014 Trailer Loading (1) & Bulk Plant Operations Minutes mg/m 3 mg/m 3 Respirable Dust L < Beynon, J./ EIN: 249 Respirable Quartz L < Respirable Cristobalite L < Respirable Tridymite L < June 18, 2014 Trailer Loading (1) & Bulk Plant Operations Minutes mg/m 3 mg/m 3 Respirable Dust L < Tobol, T./ EIN: 290 Respirable Quartz L < Respirable Cristobalite L < Respirable Tridymite L <

10 TABLE 2 HYDRAULIC FRACTURING - RESPIRABLE CRYSTALLINE SILICA DUST STUDY RESULTS Date/Employee Name/ Employee Identification Number (EIN) Description of Work Activity/ Air Contaminant/Sample ID Monitoring Duration Concentration Measured During Monitoring Duration OSHA PEL s June 19, 2014 Spotting Bulk Sand Trailers Minutes mg/m 3 mg/m 3 Respirable Dust L Tolmsoff, C./ EIN: 398 Respirable Quartz L Respirable Cristobalite L < Respirable Tridymite L < June 19, 2014 Sand Mover Operator Minutes mg/m 3 mg/m 3 Respirable Dust L Kosinski, T./ EIN: 492 Respirable Quartz L Respirable Cristobalite L < Respirable Tridymite L < June 19, 2014 Hydration Unit Operator Minutes mg/m 3 mg/m 3 Respirable Dust L < Wimmer, M./ EIN: 257 Respirable Quartz L < Respirable Cristobalite L < Respirable Tridymite L < June 19, 2014 Quality Control Operator Minutes mg/m 3 mg/m 3 Respirable Dust L < Layman, J./ EIN: 187 Respirable Quartz L < Respirable Cristobalite L < Respirable Tridymite L <

11 TABLE 2 (CONTINUED) HYDRAULIC FRACTURING RESPIRABLE CRYSTALLINE SILICA DUST STUDY RESULTS Date/Employee Name/ Employee Identification Number (EIN) Description of Work Activity/ Air Contaminant/Sample ID Monitoring Duration Concentration Measured During Monitoring Duration OSHA PEL s June 19, 2014 Chemical Trailer/Sand Loading/Maintaining Belts Minutes mg/m 3 mg/m 3 Respirable Dust L < Ebne, R./ EIN: 198 Respirable Quartz L < Respirable Cristobalite L < Respirable Tridymite L <

12 TABLE 3 BULK PLANT - RESPIRABLE CRYSTALLINE SILICA DUST STUDY RESULTS Date/Employee Name/ Employee Identification Number (EIN) Description of Work Activity/ Air Contaminant/Sample ID Monitoring Duration Concentration Measured During Monitoring Duration OSHA PEL s June 20, 2014 Trailer Loading (9) & Railcar Offloading (6) Minutes mg/m 3 mg/m 3 Respirable Dust L < Collin, M./ EIN: 430 Respirable Quartz L < Respirable Cristobalite L < Respirable Tridymite L < June 20, 2014 Trailer Loading (9) & Railcar Offloading (6) Minutes mg/m 3 mg/m 3 Respirable Dust L < Oakland, B./ EIN: 289 Respirable Quartz L < Respirable Cristobalite L < Respirable Tridymite L <

13 DATA AND OBSERVATIONS NOISE STUDY Data & Observations As shown in TABLE 4 Maintenance Shop Noise Dosimetry Study Results (June 24, 2014), noise exposures were found to be well below the OSHA action level dose for noise during equipment maintenance, repair and troubleshooting operations. TABLE 5 Maintenance Shop Sound Level Meter Study Results, shows noise levels exceeding 85.0 decibels measured on the A scale, near the following noise sources when hand-held, pneumatically powered tools and the chop saw was used and when mobile equipment engines were operated. Employees wore RockPile fire-resistive uniforms, safety-toe shoes; safety glasses; hard hats, work gloves, shop aprons and Howard-Leight Max, noise-reduction rating 33, intra-aural inserts for personal protection. Lockton makes no representation or warranty nor assumes any responsibility that locations, products, work places, operations, procedures, machinery, or equipment of the Company are or will be safe or healthful or in compliance with any law, rule, or regulation. 13

14 TABLE 4 MAINTENANCE SHOP NOISE DOSIMETRY STUDY RESULTS Employee Name/ Employee Identification Number (EIN) Work Assignment Start Finish Monitoring Period Dose SPL Equiv. Period Dose 8-Hour TWA Dose OSHA TWA Dose Houser, J./ EIN: 288 Danielson, P./ EIN: 273 Montgomery, J./ EIN: 387 Dulumeau, B./ 274 Worthy, S./ EIN: 275 Jensen, J./ EIN: 303 Removed Cooler/Replaced Fan Motor On Frac. Trailer Removed Cooler/Replaced Fan Motor On Frac. Trailer Changed Bearings In Motor/Cut Round Stock Removed Radiator/ Worked On Fan Motor Rebuilt Regen. Unit/ Replaced Pillow Block Bearings Rebuilt Regen. Unit/ Replaced Unit On Trailer 6:08 p.m. 3:10 a.m. 8.70% 71.3 dba 7.60% 50% 6:10 p.m. 3:25 a.m. 15.7% 75.6 dba 13.1% 50% 6:00 a.m. 4:38 p.m. 20.7% 76.5 dba 15.5% 50% 6:09 a.m. 4:30 p.m. 12.5% 73.0 dba 9.50% 50% 7:46 a.m. 4:37 p.m. 23.0% 78.6 dba 20.8% 50% 7:47 a.m. 3:48 p.m. 8.99% 72.6 dba 7.98% 50% 14

15 TABLE 5 MAINTENANCE SHOP SOUND LEVEL METER SURVEY RESULTS Location Bay 1 Activity Description Measurement taken while new frac. trailer engines were tested (full throttle) outside Bay 1. Ambient noise. Measured Sound Level 91.7 dba 65.8 dba Bay 2 Measurement taken while new frac. trailer engines were tested (full throttle) outside Bay 1. Ambient noise dba 66.1 dba Bay 3 Measurement taken near three feet (3 ) from Milwaukee Radio. Measurement taken using Snap-On, 18-V, impact wrench. Measurement taken using ATD air gun to blow debris from trailer bolts. Ambient noise dba dba 94.5 dba 66.6 dba Bay 4 Measurement taken while mechanic used Porter-Cable, hand-held angle grinder. Measurement taken while cutting flat stock using the Evolution EVO Raptor chop saw. Ambient noise dba dba 66.3 dba Outdoors Measurement taken near forward CAT diesel engine on the Blend Unit Trailer BL001 (Stewart and Stevenson). Measurement taken near aft CAT diesel engine on the Blend Unit Trailer BL001 (Stewart and Stevenson). Measurement taken in trailer cab with door open/closed. Measurement taken from new frac. trailer engines were tested (full throttle) outside Bay dba dba 86.1/<70.0 dba 99.3 dba 15

16 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Bulk Plant Operation TABLE 1 Bulk Plant Respirable Crystalline Silica Dust Study Results and TABLE 3 Bulk Plant Respirable Crystalline Silica Dust Study Results, shows respirable dust containing silica was found to be well below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limits (PEL s) for the bulk plant supervisor and bulk plant operators. The June 20, 2014 monitoring was representative of a typical workshift. There were six (6) railcars offloaded and nine (9) bulk trailers loaded during the workshift. During the June 18, 2014 and June 19, 2014 monitoring periods, there was one (1) bulk trailer loaded each workshift. Typically, bulk plant operators load 10 or more ( 10) bulk trailers with sand during the night shift, and load 10 or more bulk trailers, and offload six (6) or more railcars during the day shift. Regardless of the amount of trailers loaded and railcars offloaded in this study, respirable dust levels were below analytical method reporting limits. Thus, there are no recommendations for the bulk plant at this time. Hydraulic Fracturing Operation TABLE 2 Hydraulic Fracturing Respirable Crystalline Silica Dust Study Results, shows respirable dust as particles not otherwise regulated (PNOR) and respirable dust containing crystalline quartz were found to be below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limits (PEL s) for the sand mover operator, hydration unit and chemical trailer operator, bulk trailer spotter and quality control operator. Although these findings reveal respirable dust exposures below OSHA allowable limits, weather conditions and hydraulic fracturing equipment positioning accounted for the relatively low respirable dust levels. Thus, the following is recommended: Employees continue to be required to properly maintain and use MSA-GME, halffacepiece respirators with P-100 cartridge filter, or similar respirators, until it can be determined from objective, representative monitoring data that the use of respirators is not required to protect these employees from potentially harmful airborne, respirable dust Representative sampling should be performed to evaluate employee exposures to respirable dust and respirable silica under a variety of weather conditions and equipment positioning to characterize the respirable dust exposure during hydraulic fracturing operations, and to access the need for additional controls. In addition, several dust-control suggestions should be considered to further reduce airborne dust exposures during hydraulic fracturing. These include: 1. Repositioning sand movers and other equipment, when possible, to take advantage of prevailing wind currents. Repositioning equipment crosswind to employee work areas reduces airborne dust exposures.

17 2. Reducing the height of the spouts (dragon tails) delivering sand to the T-belt and blend hopper. The dragon tail height reduction will decrease the amount of potential energy and the amount of dust in the air. 3. Using wetting agents on the fracturing sands and water on roadways to reduce the airborne dust. 4. Monitoring the capping of fill ports to reduce dust that is released, especially during filling. 5. Using socks or cyclone dust collectors and a portable baghouse connected to open thief hatches to capture and collect dust that is released from the openings. 6. Other local exhaust ventilation with dust collection systems or skirts on equipment and machinery where dust is released to reduce dust levels. 7. Installing thick, plastic stilling curtains around the bottom sides of the sand movers to reduce dust generated by the belt conveyor. 8. Minimize the number of employees exposed to airborne dust. Maintenance Shop Noise Exposure TABLE 4 Maintenance Shop Noise Dosimetry Study Results, noise exposures were found to be well below the OSHA action level dose for noise during equipment maintenance, repair and troubleshooting operations. This included removing, rebuilding and replacing cooler motors; removing and rebuilding fans on regen. units; replacing power take-offs on trailers; replacing pillow block bearings; and testing frac.trailer engines. The noise exceeding 85 dba was found while operating hand-held, pneumatically powered tools, while the chop saw was used and while mobile equipment engines were operated, as shown in TABLE 5 Maintenance Shop Sound Level Meter Study Results. Based on these findings, mechanic participation in an effective, continuing hearing conservation program is not required and thus, there are no recommendations to reduce noise at this time. Although the mechanic s noise exposures were within acceptable OSHA limits, the use of hearing protectors such as the Howard-Leight Max, intra-aural inserts with noise-reduction rating 33, which were available at the maintenance shop, should be encouraged when working with, or near high-noise hand tools and equipment.

18 ANALYTICAL RESULTS RockPile Energy Services

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21 To be the worldwide value and service leader in insurance brokerage, employee benefits, and risk management To be the best place to do business and to work Lockton, Inc. All rights reserved. (Rev. 01/04/14) Images 2013 Thinkstock. All rights reserved.

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