1 VOLUME 20 NUMBER 11 NOVEMBER, 1987 Registered in US. Patent and Trademark Office; Copyright 1987 by the American Chemical Society Strong Metal-Support Interactions S. J. TAUSTER Engelhard Corporation, Specialty Chemicals Division, Menlo Park, CN 28, Edison, New Jersey Received April 21, 1987 (Revised Manuscript Received August 27, 1987) Introduction The term strong metal-support interaction was introduced in 1978 to describe the drastic changes in the chemisorption properties of group VI11 (8-10)73 noble metals that were observed when these substances were supported on titanium oxide. For years the adsorption of hydrogen had been used to indicate the particle sizes of catalytic metals such as platinum. At ambient temperature, these metals chemisorb one hydrogen atom per surface metal atom, regardless of whether they are unsupported or dispersed on common carriers such as aluminum oxide. However, the ability to chemisorb Hz (and CO) either was strongly suppressed or vanished entirely when these metals were supported on titanium oxide and activated in H, at ordinary temperatures. Trivial causes such as sintering were easily dismissed, and it was concluded that a strong metal-support interaction had somehow deprived these metals of one of their most characteristic properties. Much effort has been directed at understanding these phenomena, which are by no means limited to titanium oxide. The key to progress has proved to be the elucidation of the solid-state transformations that occur in these systems. This information has forced us to change our picture of supported metal catalysts, particularly with regard to their morphology. It has become clear that the traditional view of metal particles resting unperturbed on an oxide surface is not always correct. In many systems, the oxide support can invade Samuel J. Tauster graduated from Columbia University In 1956 and dm his Ph.D. Thesis with Rudolf Brill at the Fritz Haber Institute in Berlin. He was at Exxon for 21 years, mostly with tho Corporate Research Laboratories, before recently joining Engelhard. His major research interests have been the relationship between solid-state chemistry and heterogeneous catalysis, the mechanism of hydrocarbon reactions in zeolites, and, most recently, the development of simple methods to measure dtffuslonai resistance in solid catalysts /87/ $01.50/0 the metal surface, masking significant portions of it but also creating special contact zones with enhanced catalytic properties for some reactions. In other cases, the metal spreads to increase its coverage of the oxide. These phenomena indicate bonding interactions. The primary focus of this Account will be the direct evidence for this bonding and what has been learned about its fundamental nature. The term strong metal-support interaction will refer to the bonding itself rather than to properties (e.g., catalytic) that derive from it. There are unique features of this bonding that preclude its existence anywhere but at an interface. Understanding these systems thus becomes critically dependent on advanced surface probes, and there is perhaps no subject in contemporary catalysis in which these techniques have had a greater influence. The Migration of Reduced Titanium Oxide onto Metal Surfaces The suppression of Hz and CO chemisorption was initially attributed to an electronic perturbation of the metal atoms, caused by their interaction with titanium cations at the oxide surface. This is quite possible for thin metal crystallites, and evidence for it will be discussed later. However, the surface of a metal particle cannot be significantly affected by titanium ions more than a few atomic units away, owing to screening effects within the metal. Nevertheless, chemisorption suppression had subsequently been found with metal crystallites as large as 50 A. It was speculated2 that titania was somehow in direct contact with at least a portion of the metal surface. (1) Tauster, S. J.; Fung, S. C.; Garten, R. L. J. Am. Chem. SOC. 1978, 100, 170. (2) Santos, J.; Phillips, J.; Dumesic, J. A. J. Catal. 1983, 81, 147. (3) Meriaudeau, P.; Dutel, J. F.; Dufaux, M.; Naccache, C. Stud. Surf. Sei. Catal. 1982, 11, 95. (4) Resasco, D. E.; Haller, G. L. J. Catal. 1983, 82, American Chemical Society
2 390 Tauster Accounts of Chemical Research Surface science investigations reported in confirmed this. Surprisingly, titanium oxide was found to migrate considerable distances in short terms and to appear on initially pristine metal surfaces. This mobility meant that regardless of a metal particle's size, its surface was vulnerable to interaction with titania. There was an important prerequisite. Titanium oxide had first to be reduced, at its surface, to a lower valency; invariably, the species appearing atop the metal was found to be "TiO," with x < 2. This critical role of support reduction had in fact been inferred from previous findings concerning chemisorption upp press ion.^ It has proved to be a central theme throughout this research. The distance covered by migrating TiO, is remarkable. The surface of a Ti02-supported Ni film 120 A thick shows signs of TiO, encroachment after 10-min exposure to H2 at 425 OC.8 This includes time necessary to reduce the surface of the substrate to TiO,. A 30- &thick Pt or Rh film on prereduced titania is covered with half a monolayer of TiO, after 2 min at 400 OC.l0 With temperature ramping, the onset of TiO, attack is placed at 200 OC6 The mechanism of TiO, migration to the metal surface is not well-understood and represents a challenging materials science problem. The migration appears to occur via grain boundaries, since it is far too rapid to be accounted for by diffusion of titanium and oxygen through the meta1.l' This migration requires the rupture of the titania lattice. It can only occur if the loss of Madelung energy is outweighed by the strength of the Ti0,-metal surface interaction. Thus, an important aspect of TiO, overlayer formation is the demonstration of this strength. None of the phenomena mentioned so far are restricted to titania. This oxide was singled out in early studies because titanium cations had been shown to bond to various other transition-metal cations in a group of oxides known as "hexagonal barium titanates".12 This suggested the possibility of d-orbital overlap between titanium cations and supported metal atoms, but it was soon obvious that strong metal-support interactions were far broader. Suppressed H2 chemisorption was demonstrated for iridium supported not only on titania but also on the oxides of niobium, vanadium, and mangane~e.~ Of these three transition metal oxides, only the last has been studied for possible overlayer formation. (Two main group oxides, A and Si02,7 have been investigated, with negative results.) Like titania, manganese oxide will invade the surface of a superjacent metal, and this migration, in fact, occurs more rapidly than with TiO,. A 150-A-thick Ni film, deposited on MnO, shows substantial amounts of MnO, on its surface after 100 s of vacuum annealing at 230 OC.14 Clearly, titania is not unique either in giving rise to strong metal-support interactions or in the time and temperature required to do so. The Spreading of TiO, on Metals and of Metals on TiO, Closely related to TiO, overlayer formation is the behavior of increments of titania that are added to a metal surface. Normally, an adlayer will agglomerate to form three-dimensional islands, but if an interaction exists it may spread. The covered metal will be unavailable for chemisorption of H2 or CO, and the adsorption suppression produced by a given amount of oxide measures its tendency to "wet" the surface. KO and Gorte showed in this way that both TiO, and NbO, wetted a Pt surface 5 times as efficiently as either A1203 or Si0215 and that one equivalent monolayer of titania was sufficient for complete coverage of Pt, Pd, or Rh.16 Studies comparing titania and alumina adlayers on nickel have had analogous results. Their effects were qualitatively similar with regard to the strengths of H2 and CO adsorption and the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. However, 0.1 equivalent monolayer of titania was equal to 0.7 equivalent monolayer of alumina in bringing about these changes.17 Direct observations of the titania/ni system, by means of controlled atmosphere electron microscopy, have shown that large aggregates of Ti02 spread, upon reduction to TiO,, to cover the metal surface.18 If the above geometry is reversed by depositing a metal onto titania, the interaction is sometimes sufficient to bring about or stabilize a raftlike configuration of the metal. An early electron microscopy study by Baker19 compared Pt/titania with Pt on the noninteracting support Si02. After treatment in H2 at 800 "C, the Pt particles on Si02 (see Figure la) were large and globular, while those on titania (Figure lb) were much smaller and thinner. Electron diffraction showed that Ti02 had been reduced to Ti407. At higher magnification (Figure 2) the lattice fringes of the Ti407 substrate were visible through many of the Pt particles. A later studyb showed that the morphology of Pt particles on titania could be changed reversibly by alternating oxidation and reduction treatments at high temperature (600 "C). Following treatment in 02, the particles were large and dense, i.e., similar to Pt on Si02, while treatment in H2 reduced Ti02 to Ti407 and caused the metal particles to spread into thin, flat structures. Baker subsequently determined that spreading occurred within 10 s at 565 0C.21 Not all metals have been found to exhibit this behavior. PdZ2 and Rh23 do not, whereas Ag,24 Ni,25 and (5) Sadeghi, H. R.; Henrich, V. E. J. Catal. 1984,87,279; Appl. Surf. Sci. 1984, 19, 330. (6) Belton, D. N.; Sun, Y. M.; White, J. M. J. Phys. Chem. 1984,88, 5172; J. Am. Chem. SOC. 1984,106, (7) Simoens, A. J.; Baker, R. T. K.; Dwyer, D. J.; Lund, C. R. F.; Madon, R. J. J. Catal. 1984,86, 359. (8) Takatani, S.; Chung, Y. W. J. Catal. 1984,90,75; Appl. Surf. Sci. 1984, 19, 341. (9) Tauster, S. J.; Fung, S. C. J. Catal. 1978, 55, 29. (10) White, J. M., private communication. (11) Sun, Y. M.; Belton, D. N.; White, J. M. J. Phys. Chem. 1986, 90, 517R. (12) Dickenson, J. G.; Katz, L.; Ward, R. J. Am. Chem. Sac. 1961,83, (13) Sun, Y. M.; Belton, D. N.; White, J. M. ACS Symp. Ser. 1985, No. 288, 80. (14) Chung, Y. W.; Zhao, Y. B. ACS Symp. Ser. 1986, No. 298, 54. (15) KO, C. S.; Gorte, R. J. Surf. Sci. 1985, 155, 296. (16) KO, C. S.; Gorte, R. J. Surf. Sci. 1985, 161, 597. (17) Raupp, G. B.; Dumesic, J. A. J. Phys. Chem. 1986, 90, 3359; J. Catal. 1985, 95, 587. (18) Dumesic, J. A.; Stevenson, S. A.; Chludzinski, J. J.; Sherwood, R. D.; Baker, R. T. K. ACS Symp. Ser. 1986, No. 298, 99. (19) Baker, R. T. K.; Prestridge, E. B.; Garten, R. L. J. Catal. 1979, 56, 390. (20) Baker, R. T. K.; Prestridge, E. B.; Garten, R. L. J. Catal. 1979, 59, 293. (21) Baker, R. T. K., private communication. (22) Baker, R. T. K.; Prestridge, E. B.; McVicker, G. B. J. Catal. 1984, 89, 422. (23) Newcomb, S. B.; Little, J. A.; Stobbs, W. M. Proc. Int. Congr. Catal., 8th, , 3,
3 Vol. 20, 1987 Strong Metal-Support Interactions 391 Figure 1. (a, left) Electron micrograph of Pt on Si02 after treatment in H2 at 800 "C for 1 h. The lack of metalaupport interaction is indicated by the large, globular shape of the metal particles. A bar representing 100 nm is shown at the bottom of the micrograph. (b, right) Electron micrograph of Pt on titania after treatment in H2 at 800 "C for 1 h. Before this reduction the support was in its fully oxidized form (Ti02), but afterward its surface was shown to have been reduced to Ti407. The small, thin metal particles (contrast with (a)) are indicative of a strong metal-support interaction. A bar representing 100 nm is shown at the bottom of the micrograph. 4 / 0.55nn Figure 2. Electron micrograph of Pt on titania after treatment in H2 at 550 "C. The magnification is about 9 times greater than in Figure la,b. The support surface has been reduced to Ti4O7, and the thinness of many of the raftlike Pt particles permits the Ti40, lattice fringes to be seen through them. Fe20 do. Spreading, if it occurs, does so only on the reduced titania surface. Thus, the transformation of large, globular Ag particles into small, thin rafts takes place only in the vicinity of Pt particles, which catalyze the reduction of the surface by the hydrogen spillover mechanism." The spreading of Fe on titania, induced (24) Baker, R. T. K.; Prestridge, E. B.; Murrell, L. L. J. Catal. 1983, 79, 348. (25) Raupp, G. B.; Dumesic, J. A. J. Catal. 1986,97,85. (26) Tatarchuk, B. J.; Chludzinski, J. J.; Sherwood, R. D.; Dumesic, J. A.; Baker, R. T. K. J. Catal. 1981, 70,433. by reduction at 500 "C, leads to a doughnut configuration of the metal particles.26 Apparently, those atoms at the center of the particle are attracted to the periphery, due to the greater concentration of reduced (Ti3') centers there; the flux of spillover hydrogen is greatest in this zone. This may also explain the breakup of large (>40 A) Ni particles on titania caused by reduction at 475 0C.25 Metal-Ti3+ Interactions The consistent observation that strong metal-titania interactions require reduction to TiO, suggests that reduced titanium ions (e.g., Ti3+) are central to this chemistry. An important finding is that these cations interact directly with group VI11 (8-10) metals. If a surface containing Ti3+ ions is exposed to a flux of metal atoms, the spectroscopic signature of these ions is either decreased or eliminated. Six studies have shown this, involving Ni,27-29 PttO Pd,31 or Rh32 as the vapor-deposited metal and Ti02 or SrTiO1 as the substrate. Surface Ti3+ was produced by Ar ion sputtering, reduction in H2, or vacuum annealing. The presence of these ions and their subsequent attenuation were followed with electron energy loss spectros~opy,~~ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),n-29*31 or, in a recent report, by these two techniques plus ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy ( UPS).32 (27) Kao, C. C.; Tsai, S. C.; Bahl, M. K.; Chung, Y. W.; Lo, W. J. Surf. Sci. 1980, 95, 1. (28) Kao, C. C.; Tsai, S. C.; Chung, Y. W. J. Catal. 1982, 73, 136. (29) Chung, Y. W.; Xiong, G.; Kao, C. C. J. Catal. 1984, 85, 237. (30) Chung, Y. W.; Weissbard, W. B. Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 1979,20,3456. (31) Bastl, Z.; Mikusik, P. Czech. J. Phys. B 1984, 34, 989. (32) Sadeghi, H. R.; Henrich, V. E. J. Catal., in press.
4 392 Tauster Accounts of Chemical Research The attenuation of Ti3+ was not a simple masking of the substrate, since the amounts of deposited metal (usually monolayers) were far too small. In one study, analysis of the XPS spectrum showed that the metal did not significantly interact with surface oxygen ions, and UPS indicated that Rh was essentially physisorbed on the fully oxidized (Ti02) surface.32 Clearly, the reaction of the metal atoms with Ti3+ cations is specific. This bond, of course, can only exist at an interface, since metal atoms and cations are mutually incompatible within a solid lattice. It appears to be partially ionic, with net electron transfer from Ti3+ to the metal. It was observed, by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), that the titania surface was more "oxidized" after Rh deposition, and the UPS change was similar to that brought about by the adsorption of This agrees with an early Xa molecular orbital calculation by H~rsley.~~ There have also been two recent efforts to structurally identify a direct Rh-Tin+ bond, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. Koningsberger et al.% reported a Rh-Tin+ coordination at 3.4 A, which is obviously too long to represent a strong interaction. Haller and co-~orkers,3~ however, have reported a coordination at 2.55 A, which occurred in a Rh/titania catalyst after reduction at 500 "C. This distance is significantly shorter than found in a Rh-Ti alloy (2.68 A) and suggests the titanium is cationic. Further EXAFS studies of metal/titania and related systems are clearly desirable. Metal-TiO, Interaction Effects with and without Overlayers A small metal particle placed on a Ti02 surface finds itself in a precarious situation as the system is reduced in H2. As TiO, evolves, a strong interaction is unleashed that has the potential of enveloping the metal and obliterating its catalytic properties. This simple picture, in fact, is in good agreement with several features of metal/ti02 catalysts after hightemperature reduction. Their H2 and CO chemisorption capacities often decrease to near-zero values.36 Their catalytic activities for hydrogenolysis (i.e., the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the presence of H2) are frequently suppressed by orders of magnit~de.~~ Both these observations are most easily accounted for by a simple blanketing of the metal surface by TiO,. Attractive as the simple-site-blocking model may be, not all observations are in agreement with it. (We exclude for now CO-H2 synthesis reactions, which present special features.) Some studies of metal/ titania catalysts have found sharp decreases in hydrogenolysis activity with only slight effects on dehydrogenation ac- ti~ity.~~-~~ Apparently, an incomplete overlayer can exert different effects on different reactions. Strong (33) Horsley, J. A. J. Am. Chem. SOC. 1979, 101, (34) Koningsberger, D. C.; Martens, J. H. A.; Prins, R.; Short, D. R.; Sayers, D. E. J. Phys. Chem. 1986, 90, (35) Sakellson, S.; McMillan, M.; Haller, G. L. J. Phys. Chem. 1986, 90, (36) Bond, G. C.; Burch, R. Catalysis (London) 1983, 6, 27. (37) Haller, G. L.; Resasco, D. E.; Rouco, A. J. Discuss. Faraday SOC. 1982, 72, 109. (38) Engels, S.; Freitag, B.; Morke, W.; Roschke, W.; Wilde, M. Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 1981, 474, 209. (39) Engels, S.; Banse, B. D.; Lausch, H.; Wilde, M. Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 1984,512, 164. metal-support interactions have been reported to increase selectivity for the reduction of trienes to dienes in fats and and for the hydrogenation of carbonyl groups.41 In cases where chemisorption suppression is not total, atypical features are found. H2 becomes much more competitive with CO for the available surfa~e,4~,*~ and a fraction of adsorption sites with unusual lability for both H2 and CO is ob~erved.*~*~~ There is evidence that chemisorption suppression can be induced by underlying Ti0, Since overlayer formation must be prevented in these investigations, they involve low-temperature deposition of the metal with carefully controlled subsequent heat treatment. Reducing the substrate before metal deposition has a strong effect on the capacity of the metal to chemisorb H2 or CO, indicating electronic perturbation by TiO,. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) indicates Ti0,-induced adsorption states of lower binding energy. These effects disappear if the metal film is more than a few monolayers If overlayers are present, the question becomes whether sites other than those directly covered by TiO, are affected. This has become one of the most debated topics in this field. Some investigators of the TiO,/Pt system have concluded that the degree of chemisorption suppression agrees with the fractional coverage by the ~verlayer.'~j~*~~~ TPD used in these studies revealed no changes in adsorption energy on the uncovered surface. Other investigations of TiO,/Pt have reported TPD evidence for weaker adsorption of H2 and/or C TiO, overlayers on Ni have been found to suppress CO adsorption on uncovered sites8 (MnO, did not give this effect)52 and to weaken the adsorption of CO, viz., that of H p54 Simple geometric blocking has been claimed for NbO, on Pt15 and for TiO, on Rh and Pd.16 Other studies of TiO, on Rh report low-energy CO adsorption states on the metal and suppression of chemisorption within a perimeter region one Rh-Rh bond length around each TiO, island.55 It is obviously impossible to arrive at a general con,clusion in the light of these conflicting results. The fact that TiO, underlayers can perturb thin metal films suggests that a TiO, overlayer should have this effect on nearby metal atoms, but not all evidence is in agreement with this. CO-H2 Reactions The catalytic effect of titania on metals is, in general, neutral or deactivating, but an important exception is the reaction of CO with H2 to form methane or higher hydrocarbons. Introducing TiO, onto a Pt film in- (40) Rosen, B. I. US. Patent , (41) Wismeijer, A. A.; Kieboom, A. P. G.; Van Bekkum, H. React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 1985,29, 311. (42) Vannice, M. A.; Wang, S. Y.; Moon, S. H. J. Catal. 1981, 71,152. (43) Vannice, M. A.; Twu, C. C.; Moon, S. H. J. Catal. 1983, 79, 70. (44) Marcelin, G.; Lester, J. E. React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 1985,28,281. (45) Marcelin, G.; Lester, J. E.; Mitchell, S. F. J. Catal. 1986,102, 240. (46) Belton, D. N.; Sun, Y. M.; White, J. M. J. Phys. Chem. 1984,88, (47) Belton, D. N.; Sun, Y. M.; White, J. M. J. Catal. 1986,102, 338. (48) Dwyer, D. J.; Cameron, S. D.; Gland, J. Surf. Sci. 1985, 159, 430. (49) Demmin, R. A.; KO, C. S.; Gorte, R. J. J. Phys. Chem. 1985,89, (50) KO, C. S.; Gorte, R. J. J. Catal. 1984, 90, 59. (51) Dwyer, D. J.; Robbins, J. L.; Cameron, S. D.; Dudash, N.; Hardenbergh, J. ACS Symp. Ser. 1986, No. 298, 21. (52) Zhao, Y. B.; Chung, Y. W. J. Catal., in press. (53) Raupp, G. B.; Dumesic, J. A. J. Phys. Chem. 1984, 88, 660. (54) Raupp, G. B.; Dumesic, J. A. J. Catal. 1985, 96, 597. (55) Levin, M.; Salmeron, M.; Bell, A. T.; Somorjai, G. A. Surf. Sci. 1986,169, 123.
5 Vol. 20, 1987 Strong Metal-Support Interactions 393 creases the rate of methane formation at low temperature by an order of magnitude or NbO, has a similar effect.57 Ni supported on titania is about an order of magnitude more active than when supported on alumina or silica and shows an increased propensity to form higher hydrocarbon^.^^ Similar, although smaller, effects have been seen with some other metals as well.59 The reason for this behavior is not entirely clear. One suggestion is that the metal-tio, contact perimeter provides active sites for the dissociation of CO;60 the molecule is thought to straddle the interface, with the 0 atom coordinated to the titanium (or similar) cation and the C atom to the metal. This implies that TiO, and the metal are joined to within atomic dimensions. Metal-TiO, bonding is conducive to such a contact perimeter and may be required for it to occur to a significant extent. The above explanation may be applicable to Pt or Pd, for which CO dissociation limits the reaction rate. In the case of Ni, enhanced activity and selectivity have been related to changes in the relative adsorption strengths of H2 and CO, as revealed by TPD. They predict an enhanced ability of hydrogen to compete with CO for the metal surface.54 Of course, in certain instances the predominant effect of the TiO, interaction may be simply to inhibit agglomeration of the metal under reaction conditions. In any case, it is important to establish whether TiO, is stable in the CO-H2 reaction environment. The question arises because H20, a coproduct, is an oxidant which, by itself, will convert Ti3+ to Ti4+. The reactants H2 and CO are both reductants and have the opposite effect. The result is a dynamic competition. Particularly important is spillover hydrogen: H2 that dissociates on the metal into atoms that spill onto the surrounding support to provide highly active reducing species. It appears, in fact, that an appreciable concentration of Ti3+ exists under reaction conditions. Dwyer et al., using XPS, found that Ti3+ was clearly evident in a TiO,/Pt model catalyst after 16 h of CO-H2 synthe~is.~~ Ion scattering spectroscopy studies of this system showed a marked tendency for TiO, to spread on the Pt surface, and this coverage (indicative of bonding) was only slightly decreased by the reaction.61 Gorte et al. reported that the O/Ti atomic ratio (measured with AES) of a TiO,/Pt catalyst used for CO-H2 synthesis continued to indicate reduced titania.49 Indirect evidence supports this, too. Suppressed Ni(C0)4 formation during the CO-H2 reaction was found for a titaniasupported NiFe catalystf2 This points to the continued presence of a TiO, overlayer and corresponds to earlier reports (using in situ IR spectroscopy) of suppressed CO adsorption on Pd/titania and Pt/titania during CO-H2 ~ynthesis.~~>~~ The spreading of Fe on titania (noted earlier) occurred in the presence of 1% H20 in H2.26 Gorte and co-workers, using XPP3 and (56) Vannice, M. A.; Sudhakar, C. J. Phya. Chem. 1984, 88, (57) Demmin, R. A.; Gorte, R. J. J. Catal. 1986, 98, 577. (58) Vannice, M. A.; Garten, R. L. J. Catal. 1979,56, 236. (59) Vannice, M. A. J. Catal. 1982, 74, 199. (60) Bracey, J. D.; Burch, R. J. Catal. 1984, 86, 384. (61) Robbins, J. L.; Dwyer, D. J. Presented at the American Chemical Society National Meeting, Denver, April (62) Jiang, X. Z.; Stevenson, S. A.; Dumesic, J. A. J. Catal. 1985,91, 11. AES,49 have inferred that TiO, is stabilized against oxidation by its interaction with Pt. The Extent of Strong Metal-Support Interactions The question of scope is an important one that bears on the nature of the bonds involved. Until recently, it appeared that these interactions required transitionmetal cations with d electrons. This explained the need for reducing Ti02 to TiO, since this converted Ti4+, with a do electron configuration, to, e.g., Ti3+ with a dl configuration. The absence of strong metal-support interactions with some transition metal oxides (e.g., Zr02) was attributed to the difficulty of reducing their do cations to the dl state. It appears, however, that even difficult to reduce oxides, such as Zr02, can sometimes undergo superficial reduction, particularly with a supported metal providing spillover hydr~gen.~~~~~ Why this is observed in some studies while not in others is not clear. In any case, surface-reduced zirconia ( ZrO, ) inhibits the chemisorption of H2 onto supported Rh.64 Even alumina, which in countless investigations has given no evidence for support reduction or chemisorption suppression, has twice (with supported Pt or Pd) been reported to exhibit both.66s67 In one of these studies, reduction was found to be promoted by sulfur.66 Surprising reducibility has also been found for lanthanum oxide, described by Bell and co-workers in re- ports covering the Pd/lanthana ~ystem.~~-~l La203 is reduced to LaO,, and its interaction with the Pd surface weakens the adsorption of CO but not that of H2, which is able to compete more effectively for the metal surface. These observations are reminiscent of metal/ titania systems.72 There are some differences as well. Lao, has a smaller effect on H2 adsorption capacity than TiO, and interacts with both the Pd (100) and Pd (111) surfaces, whereas TiO, selectively interacts with the former.72 Both Lao, and TiO, increase the CO dissociation rate of a Pd catalyst. What is the nature of the reduced centers formed by the reduction of Zr02? of La2O3? of A1203? What is the symmetry of the orbitals in which their valence electrons reside, and how do they interact with metals? These questions await future studies. Summary/Conclusions It is clear that several metals, including noble metals, form interfacial bonds with the surfaces of reduced transition metal oxides. The most direct evidence for (63) Greenlief, C. M.; White, J. M.; KO, C. S.; Gorte, R. J. J. Phys. Chem. 1985,89, (64) Dall Agnol, C.; Gervasini, A.; Morazzoni, F.; Pinna, F.; Strukul, G.; Zanderighi, L. J. Catal. 1985,96, 106. (65) Jozwiak, W. K. React. Kinet. Catal. Lett. 1986,30, 345. (66) Kunimori, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Soma, M.; Uchijima, T. J. Catal. 1983, 79, 185. (67) Chang, T. C.; Chen, J. J.; Yeh, C. T. J. Catal. 1985, 96, 51. (68) Fleisch, T. H.; Hicks, R. F.; Bell, A. T. J. Catal. 1984, 87, 398. (69) Hicks, R. F.; Yen, Q. J.; Bell, A. T. J. Catal. 1984, 89, 498. (70) Rieck, J. S.; Bell, A. T. J. Catal. 1985, 96, 88. (71) Fleisch, T. H.; Hicks, R. F.; Bell, A. T.; Regalbuto, J. R.; Thomson, R. T.; Lane, G. S.; Wolf, E. E. Presented at the 10th North American Catalysis Society Meeting, San Diego, May (72) Rieck, J. S.; Bell, A. T. J. Catal. 1986, 99, 262. (73) In this paper the periodic group notation in parentheses is in accord with recent actions by IUPAC and ACS nomenclature committees. A and B notation is eliminated because of wide confusion. Groups IA and IIA become groups 1 and 2. The d-transition elements comprise groups 3 through 12, and the p-block elements comprise groups 13 through 18. (Note that the former Roman number designation is preserved in the last digit of the new numbering: e.g., I11-3 and 13.)
6 394 Tauster Accounts of Chemical Research this is the spontaneous increase in the metal-oxide interfacial area that is observed in many systems, often at the expense of rupturing strong bonds in order to bring these phases together. In the case of titanium oxide, which has received the most attention, direct interactions between metal atoms and reduced titanium ions are seen with a variety of spectroscopic techniques. This chemistry appears to extend to several other transition metal oxides and even to some that are nontransitional and nominally nonreducible, provided that surface reduction actually occurs. The best documented cases (other than titania) are the oxides of niobium, manganese, and lanthanum. When metals are dispersed on titania or similar substrates, the onset of the strong metal-support interaction convulses the system. If the particles are large, the oxide moves rapidly to inundate their surface, so that the term support is no longer descriptive. With small metal particles, the major morphological change is sometimes a flattening to form thin, raftlike structures. In either event, the metal s ability to chemisorb H2 and CO, and to crack carbon-carbon bonds, is drastically decreased. A general loss of activity for hydrocarbon conversions is observed. There are cases, however, in which hydrogenation and dehydrogenation activity are only mildly affected, and selectivity for a preferred conversion is sometimes improved. CO-H2 synthesis is unusual in that activity is substantially improved for some metals; for others, changes in selectivity (toward higher hydrocarbons) are the major consequence. A precise explanation of these catalytic effects is a difficult undertaking. In the case of CO-H2 synthesis, the metal-tio, contact perimeter may be important in some systems, whereas with other metals altered competition between CO and H2 may be the significant factor. A combination of kinetic and surface characterization studies will be required to firmly establish these mechanisms. But it is the materials science aspects of these interactions that pose the most provocative questions. The rapid migrations of TiO, and MnO, are mechanistically unexplained. The interactions of metal atoms with reduced cations other than Ti3+ have not been studied. There is much chemistry to be learned from these unusual systems, and it is to be hoped that the progress made in the past few years will continue into the future.
1 CHEMICAL KINETICS (RATES OF REACTION) Introduction Chemical kinetics is concerned with the dynamics of chemical reactions such as the way reactions take place and the rate (speed) of the process. Collision
Organometallic Compounds In simpler terms these are compounds containing metal-carbon bonds Examples: CH 3 -MgBr, Ph-Li, [Ni(CO) 4 ], Ferrocene etc. These compounds can be seen as having covalent bonds
Chapter 6 CO oxidation on RuO 2 (101) 6.1 Introduction In this chapter, we will pay attention to the CO adsorption on bulk RuO 2 (101) and its activity in the CO oxidation. The objective is to probe experimentally,
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