# Chapter 7: AC Transistor Amplifiers

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Chapter 7: AC Transistor Amplifiers The transistor amplifiers that we studied in the last chapter have some serious problems for use in AC signals. Their most serious shortcoming is that there is a dead region where small signals do not turn on the transistor. So, if your signal is smaller than 0.6 V, or if it is negative, the transistor does not conduct and the amplifier does not work. Design goals for an AC amplifier Before moving on to making a better AC amplifier, let s define some useful terms. We define the output range to be the range of possible output voltages. We refer to the maximum and minimum output voltages as the rail voltages and the output swing is the difference between the rail voltages. The input range is the range of input voltages that produce outputs which are not at either rail voltage. Our goal in designing an AC amplifier is to get an input range and output range which is symmetric around zero and ensure that there is not a dead region. To do this we need make sure that the transistor is in conduction for all of our input range. How does this work? We do it by adding an offset voltage to the input to make sure the voltage presented to the transistor s base with no input signal, the resting or quiescent voltage, is well above ground. In lab 6, the function generator provided the offset, in this chapter we will show how to design an amplifier which provides its own offset. Now that you understand capacitors it is pretty easy to see how to add and subtract an offset voltage to a signal, at least for AC signals. From here on, you will design transistor circuits with a bias network. This bias network is simply a voltage divider that is connected to the input. Its job is to insure that the output stays at approximately half the supply voltage for small input signals. Then, the output voltage can vary over a wide range (positive and negative) while always keeping the transistor conducting. The trick to make this work is to separate these quiescent voltages and currents from the input and output signals. To do this, you will use blocking capacitors to isolate the input and the output. If you connect an AC input to a capacitor, it will not pass any DC offset voltages but it does pass the fast AC signals. Similarly, an output blocking capacitor will pass the fast signal while keeping the quiescent (resting) voltage from the amplifier from disturbing whatever comes next. This is shown schematically in the first figure (next page). Some Design Basics This week we are going to redesign our emitter follower and inverting amplifier to use bias networks. To help you with your design, we will make a step by step list for designing each of these basic transistor circuits. Here are a couple initial design decisions we will make

2 You will begin by determining the quiescent (DC, no signal) current through the collector. You usually want the quiescent current to be larger than any current you will use to drive a load. A quiescent current of 1 ma is typical, and we will use that in our example designs. We will also use a single +15 V power supply to power the collector (the common collector voltage or V CC ) for and the bias network. We need to be careful about loading the different stages of this amplifier. The transistor s base current will load the output of our bias voltage divider. To bias the base, we need a stiff voltage divider (i.e. low impedance). Our rule of thumb for designing voltage dividers was to have a factor of 10 difference in impedance at each stage. AC Emitter-Follower Design steps for the emitter-follower of figure 7.1 proceed as follows: 1. To have the maximum symmetric range of output voltages we would like our quiescent base voltage to be half of the (15 V) supply voltage. So, we will use a 1:1 input voltage divider. This means that both biasing resistors will be the same. 2. We then choose the emitter resistor. The quiescent voltage at the emitter is a diode drop below the voltage in the middle of the bias network (i.e. V cc /2 if we have a 1:1 divider). This is roughly +7 V in our case. To get our design quiescent current, the emitter resistor must be R e = V e /I e = 7 V / 1 ma = 7 kω. We will use the standard 6.8 KΩ. It is close enough. 3. To bias the base we want a stiff voltage divider (i.e. low impedance), therefore we want to use resistors that are smaller than the base-emitter-ground impedance (Z b =V b /I b ~ 750 kω) by a factor of 10 or so. For this example, we will choose two 75 kω resistors for this divider. 4. Remember to AC couple (via capacitors) the input and output. The exact values are not particularly important, though you should remember that you are making a biased high-pass RC filter. Values around 0.1µF are typical if you want f 3dB ~ 20 Hz, but you can use what you have as long as it is not too small. V IN C IN R 1 R 2 V C C OUT R e V OUT Figure 7.1: A biased emitter-follower npn transistor amplifier

3 Common-Emitter (Inverting) Amplifier In this circuit, we need to know the quiescent current and the desired gain. Let s assume a gain of -5 and a 1mA quiescent current for this example. The circuit diagram is shown in figure In this circuit we want the quiescent output (at the collector) to be set roughly halfway between the power supply and the ground for maximum output voltage swing. For I c = 1 ma, R c = V c /I c 7 V / 1 ma = 7 kω. We will use a standard resistor of about this value (e.g. R c = 6.8 KΩ) as we did for the follower. 2. The emitter resistor can be determined by the desired gain. Previously we saw that Gain = -R c /R e In our case we want a gain of 5 so we chose R e = 1.35 kω. We will approximate this by a standard 1.5 kω resistor. Note that with this choice, the emitter quiescent voltage will be given by the voltage drop across the emitter resistor I c R e = 1.5 V. 3. The tricky part is to design the bias network for this circuit. Since we know the emitter voltage, the output of the bias network (i.e. the base voltage) is just a diode drop higher than the emitter voltage. Therefore the bias resistors must be set to give a base voltage, V b, of V b = V 2 = V e V = 1.5 V V = 2.1 V. This is the drop across the lower of the two bias resistors. The other has a drop of V 1 = V cc V 2 = 15 V 2.1 V = 12.9 V The bias network s output impedance must be small enough to keep this bias up even when loaded. We will select the bias resistors so that the current running through the bias network is about 10 times larger than the current that goes into the base. If β=100, then the base current is I b = I c /β = 10 µa, V IN C 1 R 1 R 2 V cc R c C 2 R e V OUT Figure 7.2: A biased npn transistor inverting amplifier

4 and the bias current, I bias, is ten times larger: I bias = 100 µa. The total resistance of the bias network is R 1 +R 2, so we need R 1 +R 2 = (15 V) / (100 µa) = 150 kω. We can now determine the value for R 2, since from the voltage divider formula, we require: and therefore, V b / V cc = R 2 / (R 1 +R 2 ) R 2 = (2.1 V / 15 V) (150 kω) = 21 kω, R 1 = 150 kω - 21 kω = 129 kω. 4. Remember to AC couple the input and output with capacitors. The values are not particularly important, but the relevant RC time constants should be chosen so as to guarantee unimpeded passage of the AC signal to be amplified. Design Exercises Design Exercise 7-1: Design an AC emitter follower with a 1.5 ma quiescent current. Remember that you can approximate the resistor values by picking the nearest standard values. Please show any approximations when they are employed. Design Exercise 7-2: Design an AC inverting amplifier which should operate at frequencies above 100 Hz with a 0.2 ma quiescent current and a gain of

5 Lab 7: Transistor Applications 1. Transistor Switch (30 minutes 1 hour) Construct a voltage controlled transistor switch by connecting the collector of a 2N3904 transistor though a light bulb to a 6 V power supply (see design exercise 6-2). Use a square wave voltage to control the switch. Measure the voltage across the light bulb and compare with your quantitative and qualitative results from lab exercise 4-1 (if necessary repeat lab exercise 4-1). 2. DC-biased AC transistor amplifier (2 hours much longer if not prepared) a. Design and construct a common-emitter amplifier with a quiescent current I = C 0.2 ma, and a gain of ~15 at 2 khz, powered by a +15 V power supply. Measure the small-signal AC gain, and compare it to your calculation. Measure the voltage swing (i.e. the maximum output voltage swing before distortion). Measure the output impedance (Suggestion: use AC coupling). b. Short your emitter resistor to obtain the maximum gain. Measure the new small-signal gain. It will be necessary to change your bias network. Does this agree with your expectations? Measure the new voltage swing. Measure and describe any distortion. V IN R 1 +15V R C V OUT c. Return to your common-emitter amplifier with a gain of 15. Now try to eliminate the emitter resistor without affecting the DC bias, by using a by-pass capacitor parallel to the emitter resistor. Measure the new small-signal gain. Measure and describe any distortion. R 2 R E

6 - 64 -

### Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 1999 Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to develop a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must accept input

### Chapter 6: Transistors and Gain

I. Introduction Chapter 6: Transistors and Gain This week we introduce the transistor. Transistors are three-terminal devices that can amplify a signal and increase the signal s power. The price is that

### Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2005 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must

### Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### Exercise 4 - Broadband transistor amplifier

ANALOG ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Laboratory work Exercise 4 - Broadband transistor amplifier Task 1: Design a broadband amplifier using a bipolar NPN transistor in a common emitter orientation. For input signal

### Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### More courses at

More courses at www.cie-wc.edu OBJECTIVES 1. To measure the current, voltage, and power gains of the CC amplifier 2. To measure the input impedance of the CC amplifier CC = Common Collector INTRODUCTION

### Tutorial #5: Designing a Common-Emitter Amplifier

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING ECE 2115: ENGINEERING ELECTRONICS LABORATORY Tutorial #5: Designing a Common-Emitter Amplifier BACKGROUND There

### The NPN Transistor Bias and Switching

The NPN Transistor Bias and Switching Transistor Linear Amplifier Equipment Oscilloscope Function Generator (FG) Bread board 9V Battery and leads Resistors:, 10 kω, Capacitors: ( 2) NPN Transistor Potentiometer

### LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

### Tutorial Problems: Bipolar Junction Transistor (Basic BJT Amplifiers)

Tutorial Problems: Bipolar Junction Transistor (Basic BJT Amplifiers) Part A. Common-Emitter Amplifier 1. For the circuit shown in Figure 1, the transistor parameters are β = 100 and V A =. Design the

### Special notes: The transistors we ll use are in a TO-92 package; the leads are arranged like this:

Lab 4: Bipolar transistors and transistor circuits Objectives: investigate the current-amplifying properties of a transistor build a follower and investigate its properties (especially impedances) build

### Revision on Basic Transistor Amplifiers

Electronic Circuits Revision on Basic Transistor Amplifiers Contents Biasing Amplification principles Small-signal model development for BJT Aim of this chapter To show how transistors can be used to amplify

### Bipolar Junction Transistors. Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Bipolar Junction Transistors Transistor types NPN Transistor A thin, highly doped p-type region (base) is sandwiched between two n-type regions (emitter and collector). PNP Transistor A thin, highly doped

### Common-Emitter Amplifier

Common-Emitter Amplifier A. Before We Start As the title of this lab says, this lab is about designing a Common-Emitter Amplifier, and this in this stage of the lab course is premature, in my opinion,

### Bipolar Junction Transistors

Bipolar Junction Transistors Physical Structure & Symbols NPN Emitter (E) n-type Emitter region p-type Base region n-type Collector region Collector (C) B C Emitter-base junction (EBJ) Base (B) (a) Collector-base

### Figure 6.2 An amplifier with voltage-divider bias driven by an ac voltage source with an internal resistance, R S. [5]

Chapter 6 BJT Amplifiers Amplifier Operations [5], [7] 6.1.1 AC Quantities In the previous chapters, dc quantities were identified by nonitalic uppercase (capital) subscripts such as I C, I E, V C, and

### Electronics The application of bipolar transistors

Electronics The application of bipolar transistors Prof. Márta Rencz, Gergely Nagy BME DED October 1, 2012 Ideal voltage amplifier On the previous lesson the theoretical methods of amplification using

### INPUT and OUTPUT IMPEDANCE

PH-35 INPUT and OUTPUT IMPDAN A. La osa I. PUPOS To familiarize with the concept of input and output impedance of a circuit. valuate the benefits of using of transistors to design stiffer electronic circuits.

### BJT AC Analysis. by Kenneth A. Kuhn Oct. 20, 2001, rev Aug. 31, 2008

by Kenneth A. Kuhn Oct. 20, 2001, rev Aug. 31, 2008 Introduction This note will discuss AC analysis using the beta, re transistor model shown in Figure 1 for the three types of amplifiers: common-emitter,

### The 2N3393 Bipolar Junction Transistor

The 2N3393 Bipolar Junction Transistor Common-Emitter Amplifier Aaron Prust Abstract The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a non-linear electronic device which can be used for amplification and switching.

### Lab 3. Transistor and Logic Gates

Lab 3. Transistor and Logic Gates Laboratory Instruction Today you will learn how to use a transistor to amplify a small AC signal as well as using it as a switch to construct digital logic circuits. Introduction

### EE320L Electronics I. Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #10. Frequency Response of BJT Amplifiers. Angsuman Roy

EE320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #10 Frequency Response of BJT Amplifiers By Angsuman Roy Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, Las Vegas Objective:

### Transistors. Transistor Basics

Transistors Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) Transistor Basics A Bipolar Junction Transistor is a three layer (npn or pnp) semiconductor device. There are two pn junctions in the transistor. The three

### TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS AET 8. First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947

AET 8 First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947 Objective 1a Identify Bipolar Transistor Amplifier Operating Principles Overview (1) Dynamic Operation (2) Configurations (3) Common Emitter

### LAB 6 BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS AND AMPLIFIERS

LAB 6 BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS AND AMPLIFIERS Objective In this experiment you will study the i-v characteristics of an npn bipolar junction transistor. You will bias the transistor at an appropriate point

### MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP

MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP Op-Amp Circuits: Bias, in an electronic circuit, describes the steady state operating characteristics with no signal being applied. In an op-amp circuit, the operating characteristic

### BJT Amplifier Circuits

JT Amplifier ircuits As we have developed different models for D signals (simple large-signal model) and A signals (small-signal model), analysis of JT circuits follows these steps: D biasing analysis:

### CHAPTER.4: Transistor at low frequencies

CHAPTER.4: Transistor at low frequencies Introduction Amplification in the AC domain BJT transistor modeling The re Transistor Model The Hybrid equivalent Model Introduction There are three models commonly

### Lecture #4 BJT Modeling and r e Transistor Model (small signal analysis)

October 2014 Ahmad El-Banna Benha University Faculty of Engineering at Shoubra ECE-312 Electronic Circuits (A) Lecture #4 BJT Modeling and r e Transistor Model (small signal analysis) Instructor: Dr. Ahmad

### Biasing Circuits and Transistor Amplifier Operation

Biasing Circuits and Transistor Amplifier Operation Base Bias Circuit As was previously seen the circuit below turns a transistor on. The circuit now can be referred to as Base Bias. Operation Initially

### EXPERIMENT 5 COMMON - EMITTER TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER

DOKUZ EYLUL UNIVERTSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EED 2012 LAB ANALOG ELECTRONICS EXPERIMENT 5 COMMON - EMITTER TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER Std. No. Name & Surname: 1 2 3 Group No : Submitted

### BJT Amplifier Circuits

JT Amplifier ircuits As we have developed different models for D signals (simple large-signal model) and A signals (small-signal model), analysis of JT circuits follows these steps: D biasing analysis:

### EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING

Department of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING Valery Vodovozov and Zoja Raud http://learnelectronics.narod.ru Tallinn 2012 2 Contents Introduction...

### LED level meter driver, 12-point, power scale, dot or bar display

LED level meter driver, 12-point, power scale, dot or bar display The is a monolithic IC for LED power meter applications. The display level range is 9mVrms to 380mVrms (Typ.) divided into 12 points with

### BJT Characteristics and Amplifiers

BJT Characteristics and Amplifiers Matthew Beckler beck0778@umn.edu EE2002 Lab Section 003 April 2, 2006 Abstract As a basic component in amplifier design, the properties of the Bipolar Junction Transistor

### Chapter 5. Transistor Bias Circuits

Basic Electronic Devices and Circuits EE 111 Electrical Engineering Majmaah University 2 nd Semester 1432/1433 H Chapter 5 Transistor Bias Circuits 1 Introduction As you learned in Chapter 4, a transistor

### BASIC ELECTRONICS PROF. T.S. NATARAJAN DEPT OF PHYSICS IIT MADRAS

BASIC ELECTRONICS PROF. T.S. NATARAJAN DEPT OF PHYSICS IIT MADRAS LECTURE-12 TRANSISTOR BIASING Emitter Current Bias Thermal Stability (RC Coupled Amplifier) Hello everybody! In our series of lectures

### POWER AMPLIFIERS 15.1 INTRODUCTION-DEFINITONS AND AMPLIFIER TYPES

POWER AMPLIFIERS 15.1 INTRODUCTION-DEFINITONS AND AMPLIFIER TYPES An Amplifier receives a signal from some pickup transducer or other input source and provides a larger version of the signal to some output

### Common Emitter BJT Amplifier Design Current Mirror Design

Common Emitter BJT Amplifier Design Current Mirror Design 1 Some Random Observations Conditions for stabilized voltage source biasing Emitter resistance, R E, is needed. Base voltage source will have finite

### Class A Amplifier Design

Module 2 Amplifiers Introduction to Amplifier Design What you ll learn in Module 2. Basic design process. Section 2.0 Introduction to Amplifier Design. Section 2.1 DC Conditions. Design a BJT class A common

### Fixed-bias circuit Emitter-stabilized bias circuit Collector-emitter loop Voltage divider bias circuit DC bias with voltage feedback

Chapter 4 Fixed-bias circuit Emitter-stabilized bias circuit Collector-emitter loop Voltage divider bias circuit DC bias with voltage feedback ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 2 1 All analysis

### Lab 6 Transistor Amplifiers

ECET 242 Electronic Circuits Lab 6 Transistor Amplifiers Page 1 of 5 Name: Objective: Lab Report: Equipment: Students successfully completing this lab exercise will accomplish the following objectives:

### BASIC ELECTRONICS PROF. T.S. NATARAJAN DEPT OF PHYSICS IIT MADRAS

BASIC ELECTRONICS PROF. T.S. NATARAJAN DEPT OF PHYSICS IIT MADRAS LECTURE-11 TRANSISTOR BIASING (Common Emitter Circuits, Fixed Bias, Collector to base Bias) Hello everybody! In our series of lectures

### What is an Amplifier?

Bipolar Junction Transistor Amplifiers Semiconductor Elements 1 What is an Amplifier? An amplifier is a circuit that can increase the peak-to-peak voltage, current, or power of a signal. It allows a small

### Common Base BJT Amplifier Common Collector BJT Amplifier

Common Base BJT Amplifier Common Collector BJT Amplifier Common Collector (Emitter Follower) Configuration Common Base Configuration Small Signal Analysis Design Example Amplifier Input and Output Impedances

### In the previous chapter, it was discussed that a

240 10 Principles of Electronics Single Stage Transistor Amplifiers 10.1 Single Stage Transistor Amplifier 10.2 How Transistor Amplifies? 10.3 Graphical Demonstration of Transistor Amplifier 10.4 Practical

### Physics 160. Fun with Op Amps. R. Johnson May 13, 2015

Physics 160 Lecture 14 Fun with Op Amps. Johnson May 13, 015 Ideal Op-Amp Differential gain, of course. Common-mode gain is ideally zero. Such an ideal op-amp of course does not exist, but a first analysis

### R f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response

ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response

### Basic Electronics Prof. Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronic and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati

Basic Electronics Prof. Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronic and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module -5 Power Circuits and System Lecture - 2 Transformer

### Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors

Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors Kenneth Young November 16, 2012 I. Abstract The generation of precise waveforms may be needed within any circuit design.

### 15. Transistor Amplifier Design and Measurement

1 15. Transistor Amplifier Design and Measurement Introduction The previous module was devoted to measuring the characteristics of a transistor. In particular, you measured the amplification parameter

### Multi-Stage Amplifiers

Experiment-4 Multi-Stage Amplifiers Introduction The objectives of this experiment are to examine the characteristics of several multi-stage amplifier configurations. Several of these will be breadboarded

### The George Washington University School of Engineering and Applied Science Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

The George Washington University School of Engineering and Applied Science Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Final Design Report Dual Channel Stereo Amplifier By: Kristen Gunia Prepared

### Chapter 5. BJT Biasing Circuits. 5.1 The DC Operation Point [5] DC Bias:

Chapter 5 BJT Biasing Circuits 5.1 The DC Operation Point [5] DC Bias: Bias establishes the dc operating point for proper linear operation of an amplifier. If an amplifier is not biased with correct dc

### In a stereo, radio, or television, the input signal is small. After several. stages of voltage gain, however, the signal becomes large and uses the

chapter 12 Power Amplifiers In a stereo, radio, or television, the input signal is small. After several stages of voltage gain, however, the signal becomes large and uses the entire load line. In these

### How to Bias BJTs for Fun and Profit

How to Bias BJTs for Fun and Profit Standard BJT biasing configuration: The standard biasing configuration for bipolar junction transistors, sometimes called the H-bias configuration because the resistors

### Lab 4: BJT Amplifiers Part I

Lab 4: BJT Amplifiers Part I Objectives The objective of this lab is to learn how to operate BJT as an amplifying device. Specifically, we will learn the following in this lab: The physical meaning of

### Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment

3 class days 1. Differential Amplifier Source: Hands-On chapter 8 (~HH 6.1) Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment Difference amplifier. The parts of the pot on either side of the slider serve as R3 and R4. The

### The basic cascode amplifier consists of an input common-emitter (CE) configuration driving an output common-base (CB), as shown above.

Cascode Amplifiers by Dennis L. Feucht Two-transistor combinations, such as the Darlington configuration, provide advantages over single-transistor amplifier stages. Another two-transistor combination

### Generation of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators

Generation of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators A square waveform can be generated by arranging for a bistable multivibrator to switch states periodically. his can be done by

### Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

### Operational Amplifiers

662 25 Principles of Electronics Operational Amplifiers 25.1 Operational Amplifier 25.3 Basic Circuit of Differential Amplifier 25.5 Common-mode and Differentialmode signals 25.7 Voltage Gains of DA 25.9

### = V peak 2 = 0.707V peak

BASIC ELECTRONICS - RECTIFICATION AND FILTERING PURPOSE Suppose that you wanted to build a simple DC electronic power supply, which operated off of an AC input (e.g., something you might plug into a standard

### PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual

PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual Index Page No General Instructions 2 Experiment 1 Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier 4 Experiment 2 Multistage amplifier: Cascade of two CE stages 7 Experiment

### LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors.

LM 358 Op Amp S k i l l L e v e l : I n t e r m e d i a t e OVERVIEW The LM 358 is a duel single supply operational amplifier. As it is a single supply it eliminates the need for a duel power supply, thus

### TRANSISTOR BIASING & STABILIZATION

Lecture 20 BJT TRANSISTOR BIASING & STABILIZATION 2 Transistor Biasing The basic function of transistor is amplification. The process of raising the strength of weak signal without any change in its general

### Transistor amplifiers: Biasing and Small Signal Model

Transistor amplifiers: iasing and Small Signal Model Transistor amplifiers utilizing JT or FT are similar in design and analysis. Accordingly we will discuss JT amplifiers thoroughly. Then, similar FT

### Operational Amplifier - IC 741

Operational Amplifier - IC 741 Tabish December 2005 Aim: To study the working of an 741 operational amplifier by conducting the following experiments: (a) Input bias current measurement (b) Input offset

### Amplifier Teaching Aid

Amplifier Teaching Aid Table of Contents Amplifier Teaching Aid...1 Preface...1 Introduction...1 Lesson 1 Semiconductor Review...2 Lesson Plan...2 Worksheet No. 1...7 Experiment No. 1...7 Lesson 2 Bipolar

### ECE 306 Lab 4 Class A, B and Class AB Amplifiers

ECE 06 Lab 4 Class A, B and Class AB Amplifiers Prelab Assignment Write a short description of the differences between class A and class B amplifiers. Be sure to include at least one advantage and disadvantage

### 11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION

11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION The properties of an amplifying circuit using an op-amp depend primarily on the characteristics of the feedback network rather than on those of the op-amp itself. A

### 6.101 Final Project Report Class G Audio Amplifier

6.101 Final Project Report Class G Audio Amplifier Mark Spatz 4/3/2014 1 1 Introduction For my final project, I designed and built a 150 Watt audio amplifier to replace the underpowered and unreliable

### Chapter 4. DC Biasing of BJTs

Chapter 4. Outline: Selection of operating point Various bias circuits Fixed bias Emitter bias Voltage-divider bias Introduction The dc and ac response are necessary to the analysis of a transistor amplifier.

### EXPERIMENT 6 CLIPPING AND CLAMPING DIODE CIRCUITS

EXPERIMENT 6 CLIPPING AND CLAMPING DIODE CIRCUITS OBJECTIVES To understand the theory of operation of the clipping and clamping diode circuits. To design wave shapes that meet different circuits needs.

### Experiment No. 10 DIGITAL CIRCUIT DESIGN

Experiment No. 10 DIGITAL CIRCUIT DESIGN 1. Objective: The objective of this experiment is to study three fundamental digital circuits. These three circuits form the basis of all other digital circuits,

### Transistor Operation

Transistor Operation Simple Bias Circuit As was seen with diodes the word Bias refers to turning a semiconductor device on. In this case the device to be turned-on is a transistor. Operation Initially

### Objectives The purpose of this lab is build and analyze Differential amplifiers based on NPN transistors (or NMOS transistors).

1 Lab 03: Differential Amplifiers (BJT) (20 points) NOTE: 1) Please use the basic current mirror from Lab01 for the second part of the lab (Fig. 3). 2) You can use the same chip as the basic current mirror;

### LAB VII. BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS

LAB VII. BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS 1. OBJECTIVE In this lab, you will study the DC characteristics of a Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT). 2. OVERVIEW You need to first identify the physical

### ELECTRON AND CURRENT FLOW

Lecture 2. Transistors ELECTRON AND CURRENT FLOW When electrons were discovered and were found to flow through a wire, early investigators believed they flowed from a higher potential to a lower one, similar

### Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224)

6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and

### Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003

Op-Amp Basics Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003 Op-Amp Basics Part 1 Op-Amp Basics Why op-amps Op-amp block diagram Input modes of Op-Amps Loop Configurations Negative Feedback Gain Bandwidth

### AN-581 APPLICATION NOTE

a AN-58 APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 906 Norwood, MA 02062-906 Tel: 78/329-4700 Fax: 78/326-8703 www.analog.com Biasing and Decoupling Op Amps in Single Supply Applications by Charles Kitchin

### LAB VIII. BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS

LAB VIII. BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS 1. OBJECTIVE In this lab, you will study the DC characteristics of a Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT). 2. OVERVIEW In this lab, you will inspect the

### ANALOG ELECTRONICS EE-202-F IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

ANALOG ELECTRONICS EE-202-F IMPORTANT QUESTIONS 1].Explain the working of PN junction diode. 2].How the PN junction diode acts as a rectifier. 3].Explain the switching characteristics of diode 4].Derive

### Transistor Amplifier Circuits

00 Student Workbook 91565-00 Edition 4 3091565000811T~ FOURTH EDITION Third Printing, November 2008 Copyright March, 2003 Lab-Volt Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be

### Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers

Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers The operational amplifier, or op-amp, is a basic building block of modern electronics. Op-amps date back to the early days of vacuum tubes, but they only became common

### Chapter 17. Transistors and Applications. Objectives

Chapter 17 Transistors and Applications Objectives Describe the basic structure and operation of bipolar junction transistors Explain the operation of a BJT class A amplifier Analyze class B amplifiers

### Small Signal Amplifier with Bipolar Junction Transistor

mall ignal Amplifier with Bipolar Junction Transistor This tutorial will teach you in very easy steps how to design class-a amplifiers tarting with the results of bias point design we get the following

### Lesson 2: Resistors, Transistors, Capacitors and LED s

Lesson 2: Resistors, Transistors, Capacitors and s In this lesson we will learn what resistors, transistors, capacitors and s are. How to identify them in a circuit diagram. How they work. - some of the

### Homework Assignment 06

Question 1 (2 points each unless noted otherwise) Homework Assignment 06 1. Typically, the C-E saturation voltage for a BJT, namely V CE(sat), is in the range of (circle one) Answer: (a) (a) 0.2 1.0 V

### Diodes and Transistors

Diodes What do we use diodes for? Diodes and Transistors protect circuits by limiting the voltage (clipping and clamping) turn AC into DC (voltage rectifier) voltage multipliers (e.g. double input voltage)

### A Constant-current Source

A Constant-current Source Frequently, such as when you want to measure temperature with a silicon diode, it is desirable to have a source of a reproducible, constant current. Many laboratory power supplies

### Application of the CA3018 Integrated-Circuit Transistor Array

Authors: G.E. Theriault, A.J. Leidich, and T.H. Campbell Application of the CA3018 Integrated-Circuit Transistor Array The CA3018 integrated circuit consists of four silicon epitaxial transistors produced

### NTE923 & NTE923D Integrated Circuit Precision Voltage Regulator

NTE923 & NTE923D Integrated Circuit Precision Voltage Regulator Description: The NTE923 and NTE923D are voltage regulators designed primarily for series regulator applications. By themselves, these devices

### Lecture 18: Common Emitter Amplifier. Maximum Efficiency of Class A Amplifiers. Transformer Coupled Loads.

Whites, EE 3 Lecture 18 Page 1 of 10 Lecture 18: Common Emitter Amplifier. Maximum Efficiency of Class A Amplifiers. Transformer Coupled Loads. We discussed using transistors as switches in the last lecture.

### Electronics Prof. D.C. Dube Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

Electronics Prof. D.C. Dube Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Module No. #06 Power Amplifiers Lecture No. #01 Power Amplifiers (Refer Slide Time: 00:44) We now move to the next

### Bipolar Junction Transistor Basics

by Kenneth A. Kuhn Sept. 29, 2001, rev 1 Introduction A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a three layer semiconductor device with either NPN or PNP construction. Both constructions have the identical