Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics

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1 SOAR: The Sky in Motion y Life on the Tilted Teacup Ride Phases of the Moon Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics

2 Kiva December 1997 October 27, 2009

3 Celestial Coordinates Right Ascension RA or α From prime meridian (0 h ) to 23 h 59 m 59 s Eastward NCP Declination Dec or δ From celestial equator (0º) to poles N & S 90º SCP

4 Tilted Sky Observers see sky tilted due to latitude We see ourselves on top of the Earth, beneath the sky. To NCP To NCP Zenith To Celestial Equator So we see sky motions tilted Observer s Latitude λ

5 Clock Time = Position of Sol Observers move through h times It s 9 pm. It s 6 pm (sunset). It s 3 pm. It s midnight. It s noon. It s 3 am. It s 9 am. It s 6 am (sunrise).

6 Sun in the sky View from Earth Rotate to Earth s equatorial plane Center on Earth Project sun onto sky The Ecliptic NCP Vernal Equinox SCP

7 The Ecliptic (path of the sun) View from Earth Sun moves ~1º/day eastward across stars Sun moves north and south in declination i Solstices & Equinoxes are positions in the sky. This motion is through the YEAR!

8 View from Earth Sun in the sky Sun moves ~1º/day eastward across stars Sun moves north and south in declination 18 h, 12 h, 6 h, 0 h, 23.5º Celestial Equator 0º +23.5º 0º Winter Solstice in Sagittarius Autumnal Equinox in Virgo Summer Solstice in Taurus Vernal Equinox in Pisces

9 Position of Sunrise & Sunset Azimuth of rising i depends d on δ sinδ = cosλ In Potsdam (44 40 N W) 1 Arise cos degrees Summer: Winter: 1 sin 23.5 A = cos = 55.9 degrees rise cos sin A = cos = degrees rise cos

10 Position of Sunrise & Sunset Sun rises at 56 in Summer, 124 in Winter North Summer Summer 45 NE East Winter South 180 Winter

11 When on Earth? Earth Rotates Once Each Day 360 with respect to Earth-Sun line All Earthlings ride along To Sol

12 Observers move through times Clock Time 6 pm 9 pm 3 pm 12 am 12 pm 3 am 9 am 6 am

13 Moon orbits Earth Solar Month New Moon to New Moon 29d 12h 44m ~ 29.5d Sidereal Month Moon moves d 7h 43m Moon rotates on its axis once/month Keeps same face toward Earth hangs heavy side down Appears larger at perigee than apogee

14 Moon orbits Earth Lunar Month New Moon to New Moon 29d 12h 44m ~ 29.5d

15 Moon Phase is lit moon visible Insert is moon as see from Earth

16 Moon Phases New Moon: Elongation = 0 (angle from sun to moon) Waxing Phases: visible after sunset Waxing Crescent: 0 < Elongation < 90 E First Quarter: Elongation = 90 E Waxing Gibbous: 90 E < Elongation < 180 Full Moon: Elongation = st QUARTER transit WAXING GIBBOUS eastern sky Observer s meridian WAXING CRESCENT western sky FULL rising south Elongation = Angle from Sun NEW setting SUN SETTING

17 Evening Moon Phases Look south at sunset 9/28/6 6:47:00 pm Waxing Gibbous 11/18/9 11/19/9 11/20/9 11/21/9 11/22/9 11/23/9 11/24/9 11/25/9 11/26/9 11/27/9 11/28/9 11/29/9 11/30/9 12/01/9 4:29:55 4:29:05 4:27:29 4:21:53 4:26:45 4:26:03 4:25:23 4:24:46 4:24:11 4:23:38 4:23:09 4:28:16 4:22:41 4:22:15 pm Almost First Waxing Quarter Full Crescent Gibbous

18 Evening Moon Phases Look south at sunset 9/28/6 6:47:00 pm Waxing Gibbous 11/18/9 11/19/9 11/20/9 11/21/9 11/22/9 11/23/9 11/24/9 11/25/9 11/26/9 11/27/9 11/28/9 11/29/9 11/30/9 12/01/9 4:29:55 4:29:05 4:27:29 4:21:53 4:26:45 4:26:03 4:25:23 4:24:46 4:24:11 4:23:38 4:23:09 4:28:16 4:22:41 4:22:15 pm Almost First Waxing Quarter Full Crescent Gibbous

19 Moon Phases Full Moon: Elongation = 180 Waning Phases: visible before sunrise Waning ng Gibbous: 90 W < Elongation < 180 Third Quarter: Elongation = 90 W Waning Crescent: 0 < Elongation < 90 W New Moon: Elongation = 0 3 rd QUARTER transit WANING CRESCENT eastern sky Observer s meridian WANING GIBBOUS western sky SUN RISING NEW rising Elongation = Angle from Sun south Full setting

20 Morning Moon Phases Look south at sunrise the cold moon 12/02/6 5:00:00 am Full Moon

21 Morning Moon Phases Look south at sunrise 12/02/9 12/03/9 12/04/9 12/05/9 12/06/9 12/07/9 12/08/9 12/09/9 12/10/9 12/11/9 12/12/9 12/13/9 12/14/9 12/15/9 7:27:35 7:26:42 7:28:26 7:30:02 7:30:46 7:29:15 7:19:47 7:21:53 7:22:55 7:23:54 7:24:52 7:25:48 7:18:41 7:20:51 am Full Third Waning Moon Quarter Crescent Gibbous

22 Morning Moon Phases Look south at sunrise 12/02/9 12/03/9 12/04/9 12/05/9 12/06/9 12/07/9 12/08/9 12/09/9 12/10/9 12/11/9 12/12/9 12/13/9 12/14/9 12/15/9 7:27:35 7:26:42 7:28:26 7:30:02 7:30:46 7:29:15 7:19:47 7:21:53 7:22:55 7:23:54 7:24:52 7:25:48 7:18:41 7:20:51 am Full Third Waning Moon Quarter Crescent Gibbous

23 Moon Phases & Time of Day Moon phase Due to positions of Earth, Sun & Moon Time of Day Due to positions of Earth, Sun & Observer Position & Phase of Moon Gives Time of Day

24 Earth rotates beneath each phase Example: First Quarter

25 Single observer sees moon in sky Observer sees moon rising

26 Single observer sees moon in sky Observer sees moon in eastern sky

27 Single observer sees moon in sky Observer sees moon transiting as sun sets

28 Single observer sees moon in sky Observer sees moon in western sky

29 Single observer sees moon in sky Observer sees moon setting

30 Earth rotates beneath each phase Example: First Quarter

31 Earth Observer Observer views moon from own horizon system

32 Earth Observer Observer only aware of own horizon system

33 1 st Quarter Observer Light from the sun

34 Waning Gibbous Observer Light from the sun

35 Phases Rising & Setting 1 st Quarter Rises at noon Sets at midnight waxing gibbous 1 st quarter 90 6pm waxing crescent eastern elongations ns Waning Gibbous Rises at 9 pm waning Sets at 9 am full 180 gibbous mdnt noon Earth am 90 western elongations waning crescent new 3 rd quarter

36 Today s Fun Determine rising, i transit and setting times of each phase Time is the one above the observer s head! full waxing gibbous 9pm Observer s Time Above mdnt Rising Moon to East Transiting Moon Above 1 st quarter 6pm Setting Moon to West Earth rotation 3pm waxing crescent noon new waning gibbous 3am 6am 9am waning crescent 3 rd quarter

37 Phases & Times What s the phase of the moon that rises at 3 am? waxing gibbous 9pm 1 st quarter 6pm 3pm waxing crescent 3 am is the OBSERVER S TIME! full mdnt Earth rotation noon new No other times matter! Rising moon on eastern horizon No other phases matter! waning gibbous 3am Observer s Time Above 6am Rising 9am Moon to East waning crescent 3 rd quarter

38 Phases & Times What time does the phase rise & transit Turn observer through h day Find time for transit Find time for setting mdnt 9pm 3am Rising Time 6pm 6am 3pm 9am Setting Time noon Transit Time waning crescent Waning Crescent rises at 3 am, transits at 9 am, sets at 3 pm

39 Now show the diagram 1 st Quarter Rises at noon Transits at 6 pm Sets at midnight waxing gibbous At midnight, moon s Setting in the West 1 st quarter 90 6pm full 180 mdnt noon 0 At 6 pm, moon is Transiting in the southern sky waxing crescent It s noon and the moon is Rising in 0 the East new 6am 90 waning gibbous waning crescent 3 rd quarter

40 Now show the diagram Waning Gibbous Rises at 9 pm Transits at 3 am Sets at 9 am At 3 am, moon s transiting in the southern sky waxing gibbous At 9 pm, moon s Rising in the East full 180 waning gibbous 1 st quarter 90 6pm 180 mdnt noon 0 6am 90 waxing crescent It s ts9a am,,the moon s Setting in the West waning crescent new 3 rd quarter

41 Question An observer sees the full moon transit. What time is it? a) 6 pm b) Midnight c) 6 am full waxing gibbous 9pm Transiting Moon Above mdnt Observer s Time Above waning gibbous 3am 1 st quarter 6pm 6am 3pm 9am waxing crescent noon waning crescent new 3 rd quarter

42 Question An observer sees the moon rise at 9 am. What phase is it? waxing gibbous 9pm 1 st quarter 6pm 3pm Rising Moon to East waxing crescent full a) Waning Gibbous b) Waning Crescent c) Waxing Crescent mdnt waning gibbous 3am 6am noon new Observer s Time Above 9am waning crescent 3 rd quarter

43 Question An observer sees the moon set at 6 pm. What phase is it? waxing gibbous 9pm 1 st quarter 6pm Observer s Time Above 3pm Setting Moon to West waxing crescent a) New Moon b) First Quarter c) Full Moon full mdnt waning gibbous 3am 6am 9am noon waning crescent new 3 rd quarter

44 Question An observer sees the waxing crescent moon rise. What time is it? waxing gibbous 9pm 1 st quarter 6pm 3pm Rising Moon on eastern horizon waxing crescent full mdnt noon new a) 9am b) 3 pm c) 9 pm waning gibbous 3am 6am Observer s Time Above 9am waning crescent 3 rd quarter

45 Harvest Moon 2009 Some full moons are named harvest moon = full moon closest to equinox October 4, 2:11 am Moon bright at rising for days Allowed farmers to work into the night hunter s moon = follows harvest moon November 2, 2:14 pm

46 10/1/9 10/2/9 10/3/9 10/4/9 10/5/9 Harvest Moon 2009 Some full moons are named harvest moon = full moon closest to equinox October 4, 2:11 am Moon bright at rising for days hunter s moon = follows harvest moon November 2, 2:14 pm

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