# Chapter 6 Digital Arithmetic: Operations & Circuits

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1 Chapter 6 Digital Arithmetic: Operations & Circuits Chapter 6 Objectives Selected areas covered in this chapter: Binary addition, subtraction, multiplication, division. Differences between binary addition and OR addition. Advantages & disadvantages among three different systems of representing signed binary numbers. Basic operation of an arithmetic/logic unit. Operation of a parallel adder/subtractor circuit. ALU integrated circuits for various logic and arithmetic operations on input data. Digital functions from libraries to implement more complex circuits. Boolean equation description to perform operations on entire sets of bits. 1

2 6-1 Binary Addition & Subtraction Binary numbers are added like decimal numbers. In decimal, when numbers sum more than 9, a carry results. In binary when numbers sum more than 1, a carry takes place. Addition is the basic arithmetic operation used by digital devices for subtraction, multiplication & division. 6-1 Binary Addition & Subtraction Binary subtraction is performed just like the subtraction of decimal numbers. Four possible situations when subtracting one bit from another in any position of a binary number. 2

3 6-2 Representing Signed Numbers Since it is only possible to show magnitude with a binary number, the sign (+) or (-) is shown by adding an extra sign bit. A sign bit of 0 indicates a positive number. A sign bit of 1 indicates a negative number. 6-2 Representing Signed Numbers The 2 s complement system is the most commonly used way to represent signed numbers. To change a binary number to 2 s complement it must first be changed to 1 s complement. Change each bit to its complement (opposite). To convert 1 s complement to 2 s complement, add 1 to the 1 s complement. A number is negated when converted to the opposite sign. A binary number can be negated by taking the 2 s complement of it. 3

4 6-3 Addition in the 2 s Complement System Perform normal binary addition of magnitudes. The sign bits are added with the magnitude bits. If addition results in a carry of the sign bit, the carry bit is ignored. If the result is positive, it is in pure binary form. If the result is negative, it is in 2 s complement form. 6-4 Subtraction in the 2 s Complement System Subtraction using the 2 s-complement system actually involves the operation of addition. The number subtracted (subtrahend) is negated. The result is added to the minuend. The answer represents the difference. 4

5 6-4 Subtraction in the 2 s Complement System Overflow can occur only when two positive or two negative numbers are being added which always produces an incorrect result. If the answer exceeds the number of magnitude bits, an overflow results. 6-4 Subtraction in the 2 s Complement System Using a number circle to add. Start at the value of the augend. Advance around the number circle clockwise by the number of spaces in the addend. The most apparent way to subtract is to move counterclockwise around the circle Any subtraction operation between four-bit numbers of opposite sign producing a result greater than 7 or less than -8 is an overflow. 5

6 6-5 Multiplication of Binary Numbers Similar to multiplication of decimal numbers. Each bit in the multiplier is multiplied by the multiplicand. Results are shifted as we move from LSB to MSB in the multiplier. All of the results are added to obtain the final product. 6-6 Binary Division Similar to decimal long division simpler, as only 1 or 0 are possible. The subtraction part of the operation is done using 2 s complement subtraction. If the signs of the dividend & divisor are the same The answer will be positive. If the signs of the dividend & divisor are different The answer will be negative. 6

7 6-7 BCD Addition When the sum of each decimal digit is less than 9, the operation is the same as normal binary addition. When the sum of each decimal digit is greater than 9, a binary 6 is added. This will always cause a carry. 6-8 Hexadecimal Arithmetic Hex addition: Add the hex digits in decimal. If the sum is 15 or less express directly in hex digits. If the sum is greater than 15 subtract 16 and carry 1 to the next position. Hex subtraction use the same method as for binary numbers. When the MSD in a hex number is 8 or greater, the number is negative. When the MSD is 7 or less, the number is positive. 7

8 6-9 Arithmetic Circuits An arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) accepts data stored in memory, and executes arithmetic and logic operations as instructed by the control unit. 6-9 Arithmetic Circuits The control unit is instructed to add a specific number from a memory location to a number stored in the accumulator register. 8

9 6-9 Arithmetic Circuits The number is transferred from memory to the B register. 6-9 Arithmetic Circuits The number in B register and accumulator register are added in the logic circuit, with sum sent to accumulator for storage. 9

10 6-9 Arithmetic Circuits The new number remains in the accumulator for further operations or can be transferred to memory for storage Part 2 10

11 6-10 Parallel Binary Adder Computers and calculators perform the addition operation on two binary numbers at a time. Each binary number can have several binary digits Parallel Binary Adder Block diagram of a five-bit parallel adder circuit using full adders. 11

12 6-11 Design of a Full Adder Construct a truth table 3 inputs (2 numbers to be added and carry in). 2 outputs (sum and carry out) Design of a Full Adder Use algebraic methods or K-maps to simplify the resulting SOP form. The result is the logic circuit shown here. 12

13 6-12 Complete Parallel Adder With Registers Four-bit parallel adder circuit, including the storage registers Complete Parallel Adder With Registers Adding binary 1001 and 0101 using the circuit: A CLR pulse is applied at t 1. The first binary number 1001 is transferred from memory to the B register at t 2. The sum of 1001 and 0000 is transferred to the A register at t is transferred from memory to B register at t 4. Sum outputs are transferred to the A register at t 5. The sum of the two numbers is now present in the accumulator. 13

14 6-12 Complete Parallel Adder With Registers Brackets indicate the contents of a register: [A]=1011 is the same as A 3 =1,A 2 =0,A 1 =1,A 0 =1 The contents of register A. Transfer of data to or from a register is indicated with an arrow [B] [A]. the contents of register B have been transferred to register A Carry Propagation Parallel adder speed is limited by carry propagation also called carry ripple. Results from having to wait for the carry bits to ripple through the device. Additional bits will introduce more delay. The look-ahead carry scheme is commonly used in high speed devices to reduce the delay. 14

15 6-14 Integrated Circuit Parallel Adder The most common parallel adder is a 4 bit device. 4 interconnected FAs, and look-ahead carry circuits. 7483A, 74LS83A, 74LS283, and 74HC283 are all four-bit parallel-adder chips Integrated Circuit Parallel Adder The A and B lines each represent 4 bit numbers to be added. C 0 is the carry-in, C 4 is the carry-out, is the sum. 15

16 6-14 Integrated Circuit Parallel Adder Parallel adders may be cascaded together to add larger numbers, in this case two 8 bit numbers s Complement System Addition of negative & positive numbers with adders is done by placing the negative number into 2 s complement form, then normal addition. 16

17 s Complement System An adder can be used to perform subtraction by designing a way to take the 2 s complement for subtraction as shown s Complement System The adder/subtractor circuit is controlled by the two control signals ADD and SUB. When ADD is HIGH, the circuit performs addition of numbers stored in the A and B registers. When SUB is HIGH, the circuit subtracts the B-register number from the A-register number. 17

18 s Complement System Parallel adder/subtractor using the 2 scomplement system ALU Integrated Circuits ALUs can perform different arithmetic and logic functions as determined by a binary code on the function select inputs. 18

19 6-16 ALU Integrated Circuits The 74LS382 (TTL) and HC382 (CMOS) is a typical device with 8 functions Troubleshooting Case Study Determine the most likely fault Mode 1: ADD = 0, SUB = 0. The sum outputs are always equal to the number in the A register plus one. 19

20 6-17 Troubleshooting Case Study Determine the most likely fault Mode 2: ADD = 1, SUB = 0. The sum is always 1 more than it should be Troubleshooting Case Study Determine the most likely fault Mode 3: ADD = 0, SUB = 1. The outputs are always equal to [A] - [B]. 20

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