CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding"

Transcription

1 CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16 Covalent Bonding Goals : To gain an understanding of : NOTES: 1. Valence electron and electron dot notation. 2. Stable electron configurations. 3. Covalent bonding. 4. Polarity of bonds and molecules Valence electrons are the electrons in the highest energy level of an atom. For example, in the calcium atom (electron configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 ) the 4s 2 electrons are the valence electrons. In the titanium atom (electron configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 2 ) The 4s 2 electrons are still the valence electrons -they are in the highest energy level. In the phosphorus atom (electron configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3 ) the 3s 2 3p 3 are the valence electrons. The valence electron numbers of the representative elements are: Group 1-1 valence electron Group 2-2 valence electrons Group 13-3 valence electrons Group 14-4 valence electrons Group 15-5 valence electrons Group 16-6 valence electrons Group 17-7 valence electrons Group 18-8 valence electrons The Noble gases (Group 0) have a stable electron configuration (s 2 p 6 ) with 8 electrons filling the outer s and p orbitals. This stability comes from the low energy state of this configuration and also accounts for the low reactivity of these elements (most elements react with other elements to get to a lower, more stable energy state). For example the halogens (Group 7A) have 7 valence electrons (s 2 p 5 ) and want to gain one electron to get the low energy, stable electron configuration of the noble gases. The elements in group 6 (s 2 p 4 ) want to gain 2 electrons to get the low energy, stable electron configuration of the noble gases. The Group 1A elements (s 1 ) want to lose their outer electron to empty their outer shell and get a stable electron configuration. For example if sodium (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 ) loses its 3s 1 electron it will have filled s and p orbitals in its outer energy level. Gilbert Lewis, in 1916, proposed the octet rule : Atoms react by changing their number of electrons so as to acquire the stable electron configuration of a noble gas (s 2 p 6 ). An exception to the octet rule is the electron configuration of helium. Helium(1s 2 ) is a noble gas, only it has only one orbital, the s orbital. It is filled and therefore stable and elements close to it (lithium, beryllium and sometimes hydrogen) try to acquire its electron configuration by losing or gaining electrons). Covalent bonding is a type of bonding that occurs between nonmetals. Nonmetals have many valence electrons and wish to gain electrons in order to fill their outer energy level to become stable (fulfill the octet rule - get the outer electron configuration of a noble gas, s 2 p 6 ). For example fluorine (F 2 ) is a diatomic molecule consisting of two fluorine atoms covalently bonded together. Each atom is one electron shy of the noble gas electron configuration (valence electrons are s 2 p 5 ) and so they each share one of each other's electrons to fill up their outer energy level. In a Bohr model it would look like this:

2 The electron dot structure would look like: We can translate the above dot structure into a structural formula - a formula which represents the bonding pair of electrons as a line. All other valence electrons are ignored. In a quantum mechanical representation it would look like this : The outer electrons occupy the same orbital, outlined in red, giving each atom the s 2 p 6 noble gas electron configuration. Note the electrons in the outer orbital (outlined in red) have opposite spins according to the Pauli exclusion principle. Here is another example using carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Carbon has four valence electrons (s 2 p 2 ) and needs four more (to get to s 2 p 6 ) and each of the oxygen atoms has 6 valence electrons (s 2 p 4 ) and needs to share two more. I will skip the Bohr model as it is not the most accurate representation of modern atomic theory. Electron dot structure: Structural formula: Quantum mechanical model: Note each model represents four bonding pairs of electrons and each model shows the outer energy level filled - having the s 2 p 6 electron configuration with the shared electrons. Another observation is that carbon is no longer in its ground state. Note in the above diagram of the quantum mechanical model that carbon has only one electron in its 2s orbital. In order to get four unpaired electrons (to bond with the two oxygen atom's four unpaired electrons) from carbon one of the 2s electrons moves into the 2p orbitals to form what are called sp 3 orbitals - one s orbital combined with 3 p orbitals). This is called hybridization and is shown below.

3 Single bonds are formed when one pair of electrons forms the bond (e.g fluorine - see above). Double bonds are formed when two pairs of electrons form bonds between atoms (e.g. CO 2 - see above). Triple bonds are formed when three pairs of electrons form bonds between atoms. An example is nitrogen (N 2 ). A nitrogen atoms has the outer electron configuration of s 2 p 3 and therefore needs three electrons and forms a triple bond when bonding with another nitrogen atom as shown below. An exception to the octet rule is when atoms bond to attain the electron configuration of the noble gas helium (1s 2 ). This is also a very stable, low energy electron configuration. An example of this is hydrogen (H 2 ). Polyatomic ions are groups of atoms that are covalently bonded together that have, as a group, gained or lost electrons to form an ion. The covalent bonds holding them together are strong so they usually act as a single unit and do not break apart or change during chemical reactions. An example is the sulfate ion (SO 4 2- ). It consists of one sulfur atom and 4 oxygen atoms that have gained two electrons and therefore have a 2- charge. The dot structure is shown below. Sulfur and oxygen are group 16 elements and have six valence electrons (s 2 p 4 ). Sulfur's electrons are in black, oxygen's are in blue and the electrons gained from another source (probably from a metallic element) are in red. The whole polyatomic ion in shown in brackets with the charge indicated. Resonance is the phenomenon ion which two or more equally valid formulas (electron dot or structural) can be drawn for a molecule. This can be seen in the ozone (O 3 ) molecule below (I have chosen to show it as a linear molecule. The actual shape is bent triatomic). When the total number of valence electrons of a substance is odd it is impossible to arrange the electrons in such a way as to fulfill the octet rule. For example, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) has a total of 17 valence electrons (5 from the nitrogen and six from each oxygen). If we draw the structural formula of one of the resonance forms with the remaining valence electrons we find that there is always an unpaired electron:

4 The results of this are that an orbital will have only one electron with a certain spin. This spinning electron creates a magnetic field causing the substance to be attracted to an external magnetic field. These substances are called paramagnetic and can be detected experimentally by determining their mass in and out of a magnetic field. A magnetic field can be placed so that it will pull down on a paramagnetic substance giving it a greater apparent mass than it has outside of the magnetic field. Substances which have an even number of electrons have orbitals with a pair of electrons with opposite spins. These opposite spins create magnetic fields which cancel each other out leaving no net magnetic effect on the substance. These substances are called diamagnetic. The VSEPR theory stands for Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory. This theory explains the shape of molecules based on the idea that electron pairs repel each other so that the electrons involved in bonds try to get as far apart as possible. For example, CO 2 has two oxygen atoms double bonded to the central carbon. The two pairs of electrons involved in the bond all have the same charge (negative) and so try to move as far apart as possible, making it a linear molecule. It would be wrong to draw the bonds closer together than they would have to be, as illustrated below. While bonding pairs of electrons repel each other, unshaired pairs have a greater effect on the shape of a molecule. Their charge is not diluted between the attraction for opposite nuclei and so repel bonded pairs to a great extent. If we look again at the ozone molecule we can see why its actual shape is bent. The unshared pair of electrons at the top of the molecule repels the electrons in the bonds forcing them downward into a bent shape. The molecular shape of a compound is important because the shape of a compound's molecule determines many of the chemical and physical properties of the compound. Covalent bonds can be either polar or nonpolar. In a nonpolar covalent bond the electrons are evenly distributed between the two atoms sharing the electrons. This is because the electronegativities of the two atoms are very similar. Diatomic substances (made up of two of the same atoms, e.g. F 2, O 2, N 2 etc.) are nonpolar because atoms of the same element will have identical electronegativities. In a polar covalent bond one of the atoms has a greater electronegativity and therefore the shared electrons are pulled toward that atom creating a polar bond - a bond with a negative and positive side. Polar bonds can be illustrated by using the sigma (+ or -) symbol or by an arrow starting with a + sign as shown below. In the water molecule oxygen is more electronegative so it attracts the electrons to itself making the oxygen side of the bond negative and leaving the hydrogen side of the bond positive. A nonpolar molecule has an even distribution of its electrons making it nonpolar - no positive or negative side or pole. A polar molecule has one or more positive or negative poles. A dipole is a molecule that has two poles, a positive pole and a negative pole. Dipoles are formed between atoms with differing electronegativities. Van der Waals forces are intermolecular forces. They are forces between molecules and not within molecules. The three van der Waals forces are : London dispersion forces or dispersion forces - weakest - thought to be created by the motion of electrons. The more electrons a molecule has the greater its attraction for other molecules.

5 Dipole-dipole interaction - this is an electrostatic force is created by the attraction of opposite charges. The positive side of one molecule will attract and form a weak bond with the negative side of another molecule. Hydrogen bond - strongest of the van der Waals forces - formed when a hydrogen atom involved in a polar bond (making it positively charged) of one molecule attracts an unshared electron pair of another molecule. See below. The halogens (Group 17) are all diatomic molecules. As you go down the halogen group (F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2 ) the number of electrons increases and so does the dispersion force. This means the intermolecular forces become greater which explains why fluorine and chlorine are gases (weaker intermolecular forces) bromine is a liquid (stronger intermolecular forces) and iodine is a solid (strongest intermolecular forces of the halogens listed above). Covalent Compounds Chemical bond - A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together. Attractive forces between the nuclei and electrons must outweigh the repulsive forces between the nuclei of each element and the electrons of each element. Introduction to Chemical Bonding I. Types of Chemical Bonding A. Ionic Bonding 1. Chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between cations and anions 2. Electrons are transferred in pure ionic bonding B. Covalent Bonding 1. Results from the sharing of electron pairs between two or more nonmetal atoms a. Nonpolar Covalent Bond - A covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of charge b. Polar Covalent Bond - A covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons and a resulting unbalanced distribution of charge

6 Covalent Bonding and Molecular Compounds I. Important Definitions A. Molecule 1. A neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds B. Diatomic Molecule 1. A molecule containing only two atoms (H 2 N 2 O 2 F 2 Cl 2 Br 2 I 2 ) memorize these 7 diatomic molecules! C. Molecular Compound 1. A chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules D. Chemical Formula 1. Indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind of a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts E. Molecular Formula 1. Shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound II. Formation of a Covalent Bond A. Interatomic Forces 1. As atoms approach one another, there are a number of forces at work a. repulsion of one nucleus for another b. repulsion of electrons for other electrons c. attraction of electrons to nuclei B. Energy Considerations 1. Atoms approach each other a. Potential energy decreases as attractive forces dominate over repulsive forces 2. Atoms get too close a. Potential energy begins to increase as repulsive forces dominate over attractive forces III. Characteristics of the Covalent Bond A. Bond Length 1. The distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy B. Bond Energy 1. The energy required to break of chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms H kj 2H 2. Covalent Bonding in Hydrogen

7 IV. The Octet Rule A. The Octet Rule 1. Chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level B. Diatomic Fluorine C. Exceptions to the Octet Rule 1. Hydrogen a. Two valence electrons (helium configuration) 2. Expanded Octet a. More than eight electrons b. d orbitals involved as well as s and p c. atoms in the 3 rd row and beyond that have d orbitals available to hold extra electrons d. Boron likes to be electron deficient (only 6 electrons) V. Electron-Dot Notation (Lewis dot or Lewis structures) A. Electron-dot Notation 1. An electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element's symbol 2. Inner shell electrons are not shown 3. The valence electrons are the electrons involved in the formation of covalent bonds

8 VI. Lewis Structures A. Unshared Electron Pairs (Lone Pairs) 1. A pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding B. Lewis Structures 1. Formulas in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons (lone pairs) C. Structural Formula 1. Formulas indicating the kind, number, arrangement, and bonds but not unshared pairs of the atoms in a molecule D. Drawing Lewis Structures (trichloromethane, CHCl 3 as an example) 1. Determine the type and number of atoms in the molecule 2. Determine the total number of valence electrons in the compound C 1 x 4e - = 4e - H 1 x 1e - = 1e - Cl 3 x 7e - = 21e - Total = 26e - valence electrons to be used 3. Arrange the atoms to form a skeleton structure for the molecule. If carbon is present, it is the central atom. Otherwise, the first element in the formula or the least electronegative element atom is central (except for hydrogen, which is never central). Then connect the atoms by electron-pair bonds. 4. Add unshared pairs of electrons so that each hydrogen atom shares a pair of electrons and each other nonmetal is surrounded by eight electrons. (Obey the octet and the duet rules) 5. Count the electrons in the structure to be sure that the number of valence electrons used equals the number available and be sure to check that you have obeyed the octet and duet rules

9 VII. Multiple Covalent Bonds A. Double Bonds 1. A covalent bond produced by the sharing of two pairs of electrons (4 electrons) between two atoms 2. Higher bond energy and shorter bond length than single bonds B. Triple Bonds 1. A covalent bond produced by the sharing of three pairs of electrons (6 electrons) between two atoms VIII. Resonance Structures A. Resonance 1. Resonance refers to bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure IX. A Comparison of Ionic and Molecular Compounds A. Polyatomic Ions 1. A charged group of covalently bonded atoms Molecular Geometry I. VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) Theory A. Molecular Polarity 1. The uneven distribution of molecular charge 2. Molecules with preferential orientation in an electric field

10 B. VSEPR Theory 1. Repulsion between the sets of valence-level electrons surrounding an atom causes these sets to be oriented as far apart as possible C. VSEPR and Unshared Electron Pairs 1. Unshared pairs take up positions in the geometry of molecules just as atoms do 2. Unshared pairs have a relatively greater effect on geometry than do atoms 3. Lone (unshared) electron pairs require more room than bonding pairs (they have greater repulsive forces) and tend to compress the angles between bonding pairs. II. Intermolecular Forces (IMF) A. Intermolecular Forces 1. Forces of attraction between molecules a. Generally weaker than bonds that join atoms in molecules b. Boiling point gives a rough estimate of intermolecular forces (1) high bp = large attractive forces (2) low bp = small attractive forces

11 B. Molecular Polarity and Dipole-Dipole Forces 1. Dipole: represented by an arrow with a head pointing toward the negative pole and a crossed tail at the positive pole 2. Dipole-Dipole forces a. The negative region of one molecule is attracted to the positive region of another molecule b. A polar molecule can induce a dipole in a nonpolar molecule by temporarily attracting its electrons C. Hydrogen Bonding (very strong IMF) 1. The intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative (N O F) atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule. H 2 O is bonded to other H 2 O molecules by hydrogen bonding. D. London Dispersion Forces (van de Waals Forces) 1. The intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles a. Electrons moving in an atom may create temporary unbalanced distribution of charge b. All molecules experience London forces c. London forces are the only forces of attraction among noble-gas atoms and nonpolar molecules 2. London forces increase with the number of electrons in an atom or molecule a. Greater mass = Greater London forces

Drawing Lewis Structures

Drawing Lewis Structures Drawing Lewis Structures 1. Add up all of the valence electrons for the atoms involved in bonding 2. Write the symbols for the elements and show connectivity with single bonds (2 electrons shared). a.

More information

Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures

Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures Introduction Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures Molecular compounds are formed by sharing electrons between non-metal atoms. A useful theory for understanding the formation of molecular

More information

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds A. Ionic Bonding 1. Electrons are transferred 2. Metals react with nonmetals 3. Ions paired have lower energy

More information

Covalent Bonds. A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is called a molecule.

Covalent Bonds. A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is called a molecule. Covalent Bonds The bond formed when atoms share electrons is called a covalent bond. (Unlike ionic bonds, which involve the complete transfer of electrons). A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds

More information

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 1 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties design of periodic table is based on observing properties

More information

Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure

Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure There are three types of strong bonds: Ionic Covalent Metallic Some substances contain both covalent and ionic bonding or an intermediate. 4.1 Ionic bonding Ionic

More information

Chemical Bonding. Elements of the Lewis Theory. More Lewis Theory. Electron Dot Diagrams. Lewis Structures, Polarity and Bond Classification

Chemical Bonding. Elements of the Lewis Theory. More Lewis Theory. Electron Dot Diagrams. Lewis Structures, Polarity and Bond Classification Elements of the Lewis Theory Chemical Bonding Lewis Structures, Polarity and Bond Classification 1. Valence electrons play a fundamental role in chemical bonding 2. Sometimes bonding involves the TRANSFER

More information

Molecular Compounds. Chapter 5. Covalent (Molecular) Compounds

Molecular Compounds. Chapter 5. Covalent (Molecular) Compounds Molecular Compounds Chapter 5 Covalent (Molecular) Compounds Covalent Compound- a compound that contains atoms that are held together by covalent bonds Covalent Bond- the force of attraction between atoms

More information

Effect of unshared pairs on molecular geometry

Effect of unshared pairs on molecular geometry Chapter 7 covalent bonding Introduction Lewis dot structures are misleading, for example, could easily represent that the electrons are in a fixed position between the 2 nuclei. The more correct designation

More information

Laboratory 20: Review of Lewis Dot Structures

Laboratory 20: Review of Lewis Dot Structures Introduction The purpose of the laboratory exercise is to review Lewis dot structures and expand on topics discussed in class. Additional topics covered are the general shapes and bond angles of different

More information

Covalent Bonding and Intermolecular Forces

Covalent Bonding and Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular forces are electromagnetic forces that hold like molecules together. Strong intermolecular forces result in a high melting point and a solid state at room temperature. Molecules that are

More information

CHEM 2323 Unit 1 General Chemistry Review

CHEM 2323 Unit 1 General Chemistry Review EM 2323 Unit 1 General hemistry Review I. Atoms A. The Structure of the Atom B. Electron onfigurations. Lewis Dot Structures II. Bonding A. Electronegativity B. Ionic Bonds. ovalent Bonds D. Bond Polarity

More information

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding SECTION 1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding OBJECTIVES 1. Define Chemical bond. 2. Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds. 3. Describe ionic and covalent bonding.. 4. Explain

More information

Chemical Bonds: A Preview Chapter 9 Section 1.1 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic

Chemical Bonds: A Preview Chapter 9 Section 1.1 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic Chemical Bonds: A Preview Chapter 9 Section 1.1 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic compounds. Chemical bonds are electrostatic forces; they

More information

Covalent Bonding Notes

Covalent Bonding Notes Covalent Bonding Notes Ionic vs Covalent Bonding Ionic: electron(s) leave one atom & gained by another atom to satisfy both atoms octets, this results in the formation of ions. The resulting opposite charges

More information

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 11 Chemical Bonds The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter Outline 11.1 11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 11.3 The Ionic Bond Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 11.4 Predicting Formulas of

More information

5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules

5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules 5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules What you will accomplish in this experiment This experiment will give you an opportunity to draw Lewis structures of covalent compounds, then use those

More information

A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is called a(n)

A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is called a(n) Chemistry I ATOMIC BONDING PRACTICE QUIZ Mr. Scott Select the best answer. 1) A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is

More information

Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8)

Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8) Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8) End of Chapter questions: 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18, 23, 27, 28, 32, 33, 39, 43, 46, 67, 77 Chemical reaction valence electrons of atoms rearranged (lost,

More information

Periodic Table Trends

Periodic Table Trends Name Date Period Periodic Table Trends (Ionization Energy and Electronegativity) Ionization Energy The required to an electron from a gaseous atom or ion. Period Trend: As the atomic number increases,

More information

The Lewis electron dot structures below indicate the valence electrons for elements in Groups 1-2 and Groups 13-18

The Lewis electron dot structures below indicate the valence electrons for elements in Groups 1-2 and Groups 13-18 AP EMISTRY APTER REVIEW APTER 7: VALENT BNDING You should understand the nature of the covalent bond. You should be able to draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for any atom, molecule, or polyatomic ion.

More information

A pure covalent bond is an equal sharing of shared electron pair(s) in a bond. A polar covalent bond is an unequal sharing.

A pure covalent bond is an equal sharing of shared electron pair(s) in a bond. A polar covalent bond is an unequal sharing. CHAPTER EIGHT BNDING: GENERAL CNCEPT or Review 1. Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself. Electronegativity is a bonding term. Electron affinity is the

More information

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW. Chemical Bonding. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW. Chemical Bonding. Answer the following questions in the space provided. Name Date lass APTER 6 REVIEW hemical Bonding SETIN 1 SRT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. a A chemical bond between atoms results from the attraction between the valence

More information

Aufbau principle Electron affinity Electron orbitals (s, p, d, and f) Electron configuration Electron-dot structure Hund s rule Ion Polyatomic Ion

Aufbau principle Electron affinity Electron orbitals (s, p, d, and f) Electron configuration Electron-dot structure Hund s rule Ion Polyatomic Ion Aufbau principle states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available. Electron affinity energy released when an electron is added to an atom to form an ion. Electron orbitals the different

More information

Lewis Theory Ionic bonding transfer Covalent bonding sharing ns2np6 octet rule

Lewis Theory Ionic bonding transfer Covalent bonding sharing ns2np6 octet rule Lewis Theory 1916-1919 - Lewis, Kossel, and Langmuir made several important proposals on bonding which lead to the development of Lewis Bonding Theory Elements of the theory: 1. Valence electrons play

More information

Chapter 8. Chemical Bonding. Introduction. Molecular and Ionic Compounds. Chapter 8 Topics. Ionic and Covalent. Ionic and Covalent

Chapter 8. Chemical Bonding. Introduction. Molecular and Ionic Compounds. Chapter 8 Topics. Ionic and Covalent. Ionic and Covalent Introduction Chapter 8 Chemical Bonding How and why to atoms come together (bond) to form compounds? Why do different compounds have such different properties? What do molecules look like in 3 dimensions?

More information

Lewis Structures. Sections Learning goals:

Lewis Structures. Sections Learning goals: 1 Lewis Structures. Sections 3.3-3.7 Learning goals: (1) Writing valid Lewis structures for the constitutional structure of molecular substances for a given composition. (2) Predicting molecular geometry

More information

Chemical Bonding - Practice Questions

Chemical Bonding - Practice Questions Name: Class: _ Date: _ Chemical Bonding - Practice Questions Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the name given to the electrons in

More information

Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance

Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance Lewis Dot notation is a way of describing the outer shell (also called the valence shell) of an

More information

Assignment 9 Solutions. Chapter 8, #8.32, 36, 38, 42, 54, 56, 72, 100, 102, Chapter 10, #10.24, 40, 55, 63. Number of e in Valence Shell

Assignment 9 Solutions. Chapter 8, #8.32, 36, 38, 42, 54, 56, 72, 100, 102, Chapter 10, #10.24, 40, 55, 63. Number of e in Valence Shell Assignment 9 Solutions Chapter 8, #8.32, 36, 38, 42, 54, 56, 72, 100, 102, Chapter 10, #10.24, 40, 55, 63. 8.32. Collect and Organize Of B 3+, I, Ca 2+, and Pb 2+ we are to identify which have a complete

More information

Lab Manual Supplement

Lab Manual Supplement Objectives 1. Learn about the structures of covalent compounds and polyatomic ions. 2. Draw Lewis structures based on valence electrons and the octet rule. 3. Construct 3-dimensional models of molecules

More information

Chemical Bonds. a. Duet Rule: 2 electrons needed to satisfy valence shell. i. What follows this rule? Hydrogen and Helium

Chemical Bonds. a. Duet Rule: 2 electrons needed to satisfy valence shell. i. What follows this rule? Hydrogen and Helium Chemical Bonds 1. Important points about Lewis Dot: a. Duet Rule: 2 electrons needed to satisfy valence shell. i. What follows this rule? Hydrogen and Helium b. Octet Rule: 8 electrons needed to satisfy

More information

Chemical Bonding -- Lewis Theory (Chapter 9)

Chemical Bonding -- Lewis Theory (Chapter 9) Chemical Bonding -- Lewis Theory (Chapter 9) Ionic Bonding 1. Ionic Bond Electrostatic attraction of positive (cation) and negative (anion) ions Neutral Atoms e - transfer (IE and EA) cation + anion Ionic

More information

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules INTRODUCTION Lewis dot structures are our first tier in drawing molecules and representing bonds between the atoms. The method was first published

More information

Bonding Practice Problems

Bonding Practice Problems NAME 1. When compared to H 2 S, H 2 O has a higher 8. Given the Lewis electron-dot diagram: boiling point because H 2 O contains stronger metallic bonds covalent bonds ionic bonds hydrogen bonds 2. Which

More information

Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key

Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key 1) Nitrogen is the central atom in each of the following species: N2 N2 - N2 + Nitrogen can also form electron deficient compounds with a single unpaired electron on the

More information

8/19/2011. Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures. Review PERIODIC Table

8/19/2011. Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures. Review PERIODIC Table Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures Chapter 11 Review PERIODIC Table Recall, Mendeleev and Meyer organized the ordering the periodic table based on a combination of three components: 1. Atomic Number

More information

Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies

Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies Without consulting Table 8.2, arrange the ionic compounds NaF, CsI, and CaO in order of increasing lattice energy. Analyze From the formulas for three

More information

Chapter 2: Chemical Bonds

Chapter 2: Chemical Bonds Ch 2 pg. 1 Chapter 2: Chemical Bonds Compound: A substance composed of two or more elements united chemically in definite proportions. Molecule: A chemical combination of two or more atoms. Chemical bonds:

More information

Electron Dot Diagrams. Electron Dot Diagrams. Unbonded Atoms Ionic Bonding Covalent Bonding

Electron Dot Diagrams. Electron Dot Diagrams. Unbonded Atoms Ionic Bonding Covalent Bonding Specific Outcomes: i. I can define valence electron, electronegativity, ionic bond and intramolecular force. ii. I can draw electron dot diagrams. iii. I can use the periodic table and electron dot diagrams

More information

Covalent Bonding SLO 4/14/16. Students will be able to draw Lewis Dot Structures of Covalent Compounds and explain resonance structures.

Covalent Bonding SLO 4/14/16. Students will be able to draw Lewis Dot Structures of Covalent Compounds and explain resonance structures. Covalent Bonding SLO 4/14/16 Students will be able to draw Lewis Dot Structures of Covalent Compounds and explain resonance structures. Classwork Check! Written Assignment: pg. 225, #1, 3, 4, 5, 6 1. Molecular

More information

The breaking of bonds and the forming of bonds occur during chemical reactions.

The breaking of bonds and the forming of bonds occur during chemical reactions. Chemical Bonding The breaking of bonds and the forming of bonds occur during chemical reactions. Aspirin The formula for a molecule of aspirin is C 9 H 8 O 4 Is it an ionic or covalent (molecular) compound?

More information

Illustrating Bonds - Lewis Dot Structures

Illustrating Bonds - Lewis Dot Structures Illustrating Bonds - Lewis Dot Structures Lewis Dot structures are also known as electron dot diagrams These diagrams illustrate valence electrons and subsequent bonding A line shows each shared electron

More information

Chapter 8. Homework. Valence Electrons. Molecular Structure & Bonding. Example of Lewis Dot Symbols

Chapter 8. Homework. Valence Electrons. Molecular Structure & Bonding. Example of Lewis Dot Symbols Homework Chapter 8 Bonding and Molecular Shapes: Fundamental Concepts Chapter 8 21, 23, 31, 35, 39, 47, 51, 57, 61, 65, 71, 73, 81, 83, 89, 105, 109, 113 Molecular Structure & Bonding Structure Refers

More information

GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES SESSION 3: CHEMICAL BONDING. Key Concepts. X-planation

GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES SESSION 3: CHEMICAL BONDING. Key Concepts. X-planation GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES SESSION 3: CHEMICAL BONDING Key Concepts In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Bonding Covalent bonding Electronegativity in covalent bonding

More information

Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life

Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life Multiple-Choice Questions 1) About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living

More information

Molecular Models & Lewis Dot Structures

Molecular Models & Lewis Dot Structures Molecular Models & Lewis Dot Structures Objectives: 1. Draw Lewis structures for atoms, ions and simple molecules. 2. Use Lewis structures as a guide to construct three-dimensional models of small molecules.

More information

When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS

When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS 1. The 3 types of chemical bonds are IONIC, COVALENT, and METALLIC bonds. 2. When atoms have 8 valence electrons they are most stable. (exception 2 for

More information

Chemical Bonding. Why Do Atoms Stick Together? Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds

Chemical Bonding. Why Do Atoms Stick Together? Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds Chemical Bonding Why Do Atoms Stick Together? Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost occupied shell of an atom ydrogen: 1s 1 elium: 1s 2 Carbon: 1s 2

More information

Lecture 2 ( ) Chapters 2 and 3

Lecture 2 ( ) Chapters 2 and 3 Lecture 2 (9-12-16) Chapters 2 and 3 Goals: Review Periodic Table and the atom, types of bonding for carbon (hybridization), and Lewis structure Learn how to draw bond-line structures Problems: (for all

More information

Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms

Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms Lewis dot formulas or Lewis dot representations are a convenient bookkeeping method for tracking valence electrons. Valence electrons are those electrons that are transferred

More information

Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes; VSEPR, Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories

Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes; VSEPR, Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 1 0 P a g e 1 Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes; VSEPR, Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories Homework: Read Chapter 10: Work out sample/practice

More information

Chemical Reactions Packet 2 Bonding-REG.

Chemical Reactions Packet 2 Bonding-REG. Chemical Reactions Packet 2 Bonding-REG. Ms. Rabenda Name: Period: 1 Lewis Dot Diagram Notes Illustrates the number of valence electrons. Valence electrons = Placed around the symbol of the element Helps

More information

Sharing of Electrons. Covalent Bonding Chapter 8. Ch. 8 Vocabulary OBJECTIVES. Exothermic Reaction Structural Formula (Ch. 8.3) Polar Covalent Bond

Sharing of Electrons. Covalent Bonding Chapter 8. Ch. 8 Vocabulary OBJECTIVES. Exothermic Reaction Structural Formula (Ch. 8.3) Polar Covalent Bond Ch. 8 Vocabulary 2 Covalent Bonding Chapter 8 Covalent bond Molecule Lewis Structure Sigma bond Pi bond Bond Dissociation Energy Endothermic Reaction Exothermic Reaction Structural Formula (Ch. 8.3) Polar

More information

Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Ionic and Covalent Bonds Ionic and Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonds Transfer of Electrons When metals bond with nonmetals, electrons are from the metal to the nonmetal The becomes a cation and the becomes an anion. The between the cation

More information

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 2 WORKSHEET

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 2 WORKSHEET Name Date _ AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 2 WORKSHEET MULTIPLE CHOICE. 25 pts. Place the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question in the blank.. 1. About 25 of the 92 natural

More information

Models. Localized Electron Model. Localized Electron Model. Fundamental Properties of Models

Models. Localized Electron Model. Localized Electron Model. Fundamental Properties of Models Models Models are attempts to explain how nature operates on the microscopic level based on experiences in the macroscopic world. Fundamental Properties of Models A model does not equal reality. Models

More information

Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding

Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Octet rule-duet role: when undergoing chemical reaction, atoms of group 1A-7A elements tend to gain, lose, or share sufficient electrons to achieve an electron

More information

Lewis Dot Symbols for Representative Elements

Lewis Dot Symbols for Representative Elements CHEM 110 - Section 4 Guest Instructor: Prof. Elizabeth Gaillard Fall 2011 Lewis Dot Symbols for Representative Elements Principal Types of Chemical Bonds: Ionic and Covalent Ionic bond - a transfer of

More information

Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 7 Covalent molecules, networks and layers

Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 7 Covalent molecules, networks and layers E1. a Give the electronic configuration for an atom of beryllium. b How many electrons are in the outer shell of an atom of beryllium in the molecule BeH 2? AE1. a 1s 2 2s 2 b 4 E2. The noble gases helium

More information

Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds 4.1 Chemical Bonding o Chemical Bond - the force of attraction between any two atoms in a compound. o Interactions involving valence

More information

Question 4.2: Write Lewis dot symbols for atoms of the following elements: Mg, Na, B, O, N, Br.

Question 4.2: Write Lewis dot symbols for atoms of the following elements: Mg, Na, B, O, N, Br. Question 4.1: Explain the formation of a chemical bond. A chemical bond is defined as an attractive force that holds the constituents (atoms, ions etc.) together in a chemical species. Various theories

More information

CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING

CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING Active Learning Questions: 3-9, 11-19, 21-22 End-of-Chapter Problems: 1-36, 41-59, 60(a,b), 61(b,d), 62(a,b), 64-77, 79-89, 92-101, 106-109, 112, 115-119 An American chemist

More information

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW Answer the following questions. CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW 1. What are the three kinds of bonds which can form between atoms? The three types of Bonds are Covalent, Ionic and Metallic. Name Date Block 2.

More information

Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies

Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies Without consulting Table 8.2, arrange the following ionic compounds in order of increasing lattice energy: NaF, CsI, and CaO. Analyze: From the formulas

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A chemical bond formed between two identical atoms is a(an) bond. A) covalent B) ionic C) molecular

More information

Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chemical Bonds Three types: Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions Covalent Sharing of electrons Metallic Metal atoms bonded to several other atoms Ionic Bonding

More information

Covalent Bonding And Molecular Geometry

Covalent Bonding And Molecular Geometry ovalent Bonding And Molecular Geometry Questions: 1.ow can the valence electrons of an atom be represented? 2.ow do atoms achieve an octet? 3.ow are electrons shared in a molecule? 4.ow can the geometries

More information

Chapter 8: Bonding General Concepts. Valence Electrons. Representative Elements & Lewis Dot Structures

Chapter 8: Bonding General Concepts. Valence Electrons. Representative Elements & Lewis Dot Structures Chapter 8: Bonding General Concepts Valence Electrons 8.1 Chemical Bond Formation 8.2 Covalent Bonding (Lewis Dot Structures) 8.3 Charge Distribution in Covalent Compounds 8.4 Resonance 8.5 Molecular Shapes

More information

Lewis Structures. Molecular Shape. VSEPR Model (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory)

Lewis Structures. Molecular Shape. VSEPR Model (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory) Lewis Structures Molecular Shape VSEPR Model (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory) PART 1: Ionic Compounds Complete the table of Part 1 by writing: The Lewis dot structures for each metallic and

More information

Lewis Structure Exercise

Lewis Structure Exercise Lewis Structure Exercise A Lewis structure shows how the valence electrons are arranged and indicates the bonding between atoms in a molecule. We represent the elements by their symbols. The shared electron

More information

Lewis Structures & the VSEPR Model

Lewis Structures & the VSEPR Model Lewis Structures & the VSEPR Model A Directed Learning Activity for Hartnell College Chemistry 1 Funded by the Title V STEM Grant #P031S090007 through Hartnell College For information contact lyee@hartnell.edu

More information

Principal energy levels are divided into sublevels following a distinctive pattern, shown in Table 5.1 below.

Principal energy levels are divided into sublevels following a distinctive pattern, shown in Table 5.1 below. 56 Chapter 5: Electron Configuration, Lewis Dot Structure, and Molecular Shape Electron configuration. The outermost electrons surrounding an atom (the valence electrons) are responsible for the number

More information

Lewis Dot Representation. Compounds and chemical bonding. University Chemistry

Lewis Dot Representation. Compounds and chemical bonding. University Chemistry Compounds and chemical bonding Elements combine to form chemical compounds through the formation of chemical bonds. The Octet Rule: in forming chemical bonds, atoms usually gain, lose or share electrons

More information

Valence shell electrons repel each other Valence shell electrons are arranged geometrically around the central atom to

Valence shell electrons repel each other Valence shell electrons are arranged geometrically around the central atom to Molecular Geometry (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion -VSEPR) & Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals (Valance Bond Theory) Chapter 10 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Valence shell electrons

More information

CHEM 110 Exam 2 - Practice Test 1 - Solutions

CHEM 110 Exam 2 - Practice Test 1 - Solutions CHEM 110 Exam 2 - Practice Test 1 - Solutions 1D 1 has a triple bond. 2 has a double bond. 3 and 4 have single bonds. The stronger the bond, the shorter the length. 2A A 1:1 ratio means there must be the

More information

Chapter 5. The covalent bond model

Chapter 5. The covalent bond model Chapter 5 The covalent bond model What s a comin up? Covalent bond model Lewis structures for molecular compounds Multiple bonds Coordinate covalent bonds Guidelines for drawing correct Lewis structures

More information

Molecular Geometry and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland Community College for the use of this experiment.

Molecular Geometry and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland Community College for the use of this experiment. Molecular and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland ommunity ollege for the use of this experiment. Objectives To construct molecular models for covalently bonded atoms in molecules and polyatomic ions

More information

Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding. Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II Molecular Geometry & Intermolecular Forces

Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding. Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II Molecular Geometry & Intermolecular Forces onour Chemistry Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II Molecular Geometry & Intermolecular orces 10.1: Molecular Geometry Molecular Structure: - the three-dimensional

More information

Atomic Theory and Bonding

Atomic Theory and Bonding Atomic Theory and Bonding Textbook pages 168 183 Section 4.1 Summary Before You Read What do you already know about Bohr diagrams? Record your answer in the lines below. What are atoms? An atom is the

More information

Bonding & Molecular Shape Ron Robertson

Bonding & Molecular Shape Ron Robertson Bonding & Molecular Shape Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\00bondingtrans.doc The Nature of Bonding Types 1. Ionic 2. Covalent 3. Metallic 4. Coordinate covalent Driving

More information

Periodic Table Study Guide

Periodic Table Study Guide Chemistry Periodic Table Name: Period: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Periodic Table Study Guide Directions: Please use this packet as practice and review. DO NOT try to answer these questions during presentations, take

More information

Type of Chemical Bonds

Type of Chemical Bonds Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared

More information

Introduction to Ionic Bonds

Introduction to Ionic Bonds Introduction to Ionic Bonds The forces that hold matter together are called chemical bonds. There are four major types of bonds. We need to learn in detail about these bonds and how they influence the

More information

Health Science Chemistry I CHEM-1180 Experiment No. 15 Molecular Models (Revised 05/22/2015)

Health Science Chemistry I CHEM-1180 Experiment No. 15 Molecular Models (Revised 05/22/2015) (Revised 05/22/2015) Introduction In the early 1900s, the chemist G. N. Lewis proposed that bonds between atoms consist of two electrons apiece and that most atoms are able to accommodate eight electrons

More information

Lewis Structures. X } Lone Pair (unshared pair) } Localized Electron Model. Valence Bond Theory. Bonding electron (unpaired electron)

Lewis Structures. X } Lone Pair (unshared pair) } Localized Electron Model. Valence Bond Theory. Bonding electron (unpaired electron) G. N. Lewis 1875-1946 Lewis Structures (The Localized Electron Model) Localized Electron Model Using electron-dot symbols, G. N. Lewis developed the Localized Electron Model of chemical bonding (1916)

More information

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding 1. There are paired and unpaired electrons in the Lewis symbol for a phosphorus atom. (a). 4, 2 (b). 2, 4 (c). 4, 3 (d). 2, 3 Explanation: Read the question

More information

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions 7.4 Using the Bohr Theory LEARNING TIP Models such as Figures 1 to 4, on pages 218 and 219, help you visualize scientific explanations. As you examine Figures 1 to 4, look back and forth between the diagrams

More information

2.1. The Formation of Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Clues in Naturally Occurring Compounds SECTION. Key Terms

2.1. The Formation of Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Clues in Naturally Occurring Compounds SECTION. Key Terms SETI 2.1 The Formation of Ionic and ovalent Bonds Key Terms octet rule ionic bond ionic compound covalent bond molecular compound single bond double bond triple bond bonding pair lone pair Lewis structure

More information

Bonding Web Practice. Trupia

Bonding Web Practice. Trupia 1. If the electronegativity difference between the elements in compound NaX is 2.1, what is element X? bromine fluorine chlorine oxygen 2. Which bond has the greatest degree of ionic character? H Cl Cl

More information

Chemistry 4th Edition McMurry/Fay

Chemistry 4th Edition McMurry/Fay 7 Chapter Covalent Bonding Chemistry 4th Edition McMurry/Fay Dr. Paul Charlesworth Michigan Technological University The Covalent Bond 01 Covalent bonds are formed by sharing at least one pair of electrons.

More information

Elements in the periodic table are indicated by SYMBOLS. To the left of the symbol we find the atomic mass (A) at the upper corner, and the atomic num

Elements in the periodic table are indicated by SYMBOLS. To the left of the symbol we find the atomic mass (A) at the upper corner, and the atomic num . ATOMIC STRUCTURE FUNDAMENTALS LEARNING OBJECTIVES To review the basics concepts of atomic structure that have direct relevance to the fundamental concepts of organic chemistry. This material is essential

More information

Ch a p t e r s 8 a n d 9

Ch a p t e r s 8 a n d 9 Ch a p t e r s 8 a n d 9 Covalent Bonding and Molecular Structures Objectives You will be able to: 1. Write a description of the formation of the covalent bond between two hydrogen atoms to form a hydrogen

More information

Packet 4: Bonding. Play song: (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs)

Packet 4: Bonding. Play song:  (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs) Most atoms are not Packet 4: Bonding Atoms will, or share electrons in order to achieve a stable. Octet means that the atom has in its level. If an atom achieves a stable octet it will have the same electron

More information

and Molecular Structure

and Molecular Structure 8 Covalent Unit utline 8.1 An Introduction to Covalent Bonding 8.2 Lewis Structures 8.3 Bond Properties 8.4 Electron Distribution in Molecules Bonding and Molecular Structure 8.5 Valence-Shell Electron-Pair

More information

2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties:

2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: Electronegativity and polarity Polar and non-polar bonds: 1) Non-Polar bonds: 2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: A covalent bond shares an electron pair: In a hydrogen molecule, the electrons

More information

Recall that ionic bonds form when the combining atoms give up or accept electrons. Another way that atoms can combine is by sharing electrons.

Recall that ionic bonds form when the combining atoms give up or accept electrons. Another way that atoms can combine is by sharing electrons. Molecular Compounds and Covalent Bonds Recall that ionic bonds form when the combining atoms give up or accept electrons. Another way that atoms can combine is by sharing electrons. Atoms that are held

More information

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy Science of Kriyayoga IST 111-01, Spring 2005 Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy In our discussion so far, we have discussed human nervous system and cell biology, in addition to the

More information

UNIT TEST Atomic & Molecular Structure. Name: Date:

UNIT TEST Atomic & Molecular Structure. Name: Date: SCH4U UNIT TEST Atomic & Molecular Structure Name: _ Date: Part A - Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Who postulated that electrons

More information

What is an Atom? smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element

What is an Atom? smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element Date: Science 10 4.1 Atomic Theory & Bonding What is an Atom? smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element An atom = proton(s) + electron(s) + neutron(s) (PEN) Fun Fact:

More information