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1 Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. Chemistry Chemical bonding, molecular structure and Gases Blizzard Bag Which of the following is a unit of pressure? A. newton-meters per second (N m/s) B. kilogram-meters per second squared (kg m/s 2 ) C. newton per meter squared (N/m 2 ) D. meters squared per second squared (m 2 /s 2 ) E. joules per meter squared (J/m 2 ) 2. A scientist is very precisely measuring the volumes of 1.00-mol samples of chlorine gas, methane gas, and helium gas, each at standard temperature and pressure. What statements describe the three volumes she measures? I. The volume of each gas is very close to the same value. II. The mass of each gas is very close to the same value. III. The three gases have slightly different volumes when measured with enough precision. A. I and III only B. III only C. I, II, and III D. II only E. I only 3. In a molecule of iodine trichloride (ICl3), an iodine atom is bonded to three chlorine atoms. Both iodine and chlorine are halogens. What is the molecular shape of iodine trichloride? A. seesaw B. trigonal bipyramidal C. T-shaped D. trigonal pyramidal E. trigonal planar

2 4. The following samples of gases are each kept at the same temperature and pressure. Which sample has the greatest volume? A. 2 mol of ammonia (NH3) B. 2 mol of oxygen (O2) C. 3 mol of hydrogen (H2) D. 1 mol of methane (CH4) E. 4 mol of neon (Ne) 5. Both carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) are molecular compounds made up of three atoms. Which has a linear shape, and why? A. water only, because its central atom lacks any unbonded electron pairs B. both molecules, because all three-atom molecules have linear shapes C. neither molecule, because all three-atom molecules have bent shapes D. carbon dioxide only, because its central atom lacks any unbonded electron pairs E. both molecules, because oxygen atoms always have unbonded electron pairs 6. In which of the following molecules is each bond angle 90 degrees? A. O3 B. PCl3 C. SF6 D. CCl4 E. H2O 7. In each of these compounds, atoms of hydrogen and a halogen form a diatomic molecule. In which compound, if any, does the hydrogen-halogen bond have the greatest dipole moment? A. hydrobromic acid (HBr) B. hydroiodic acid (HI) C. hydrofluoric acid (HF) D. All the bonds have equal dipole moments. E. hydrochloric acid (HCl)

3 8. Nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), and fluorine (F) are the first elements of groups 5A, 6A, and 7A of the periodic table, respectively. Each commonly forms a stable diatomic (two-atom) molecule. Why is this not true of carbon, which is the first element of group 4A? A. Carbon is less electronegative than nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. B. Carbon is more electronegative than nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. C. Carbon tends to form ionic bonds rather than covalent bonds. D. Carbon atoms are stable without forming chemical bonds. E. Diatomic carbon would need to contain a quadruple bond, which is not stable. 9. When sodium metal (Na) reacts with chlorine gas (Cl2), one electron per atom is transferred completely from sodium to chlorine. The chemical bond that forms is called a(n) A. covalent bond. B. ionic bond. C. electron bond. D. metallic bond. E. polar covalent bond. 10. The sulfate anion (SO4) is made of a sulfur atom joined to four oxygen atoms. What type of bonds are found in the compound copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4)? I. ionic bonds II. covalent bonds III. metallic bonds A. I and III only B. I, II, and III C. II only. D. I only E. I and II only

4 11. A piston with a freely movable top has a valve through which gases can enter and leave. In one procedure, the piston is filled with 4.5 mol of carbon dioxide gas (CO2). The piston is then compressed to one third its size, forcing much of the gas out the valve. How much carbon dioxide remains in the piston? (Assume the procedure does not change the pressure and temperature of the carbon dioxide inside the piston.) A. 4.0 mol B. 1.5 mol C mol D. 2.2 mol E. 2.0 mol 12. The electron configuration of carbon is [He]1s 2 2p 2. When carbon forms four covalent bonds, as it does in methane (CH4), what best describes the orbitals of its valence electrons? A. They become a set of three sp 2 hybrid orbitals. B. They become a set of four sp 3 hybrid orbitals. C. No hybridization takes place. D. The 2p orbitals, but not the 2s orbitals, become sp 3 hybrid orbitals. E. They overlap with hydrogen orbitals to become sp 3 hybrid orbitals. 13. A chlorine atom has the electron configuration of [Ne]3s 2 3p 5. According to the valence-bond theory, the covalent bond in a molecule of chlorine (Cl2) forms from... A. a hybrid of 3p orbitals and 2p orbitals. B. a hybrid between a 3s orbital and a 3p orbital. C. the overlap of two 3s orbitals, one from each chlorine atom. D. a 3p orbital from one chlorine atom only. E. the overlap of two 3p orbitals, one from each chlorine atom.

5 14. The three most common gases in Earth's atmosphere are nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and Argon (Ar). A scientist seals a flask with a sample of the atmosphere at a pressure of 1.0 atm, and then raises its temperature from 20ºC to 80ºC. Which of these data, if any, does the scientist need to accurately predict the new pressure inside the flask? I. the partial pressures of each component gas II. the relative volumes of each component gas III. the volume of one particle (either atom or molecule) of each component gas A. II only B. I only C. I and III only D. III only E. None of these data are needed. 15. Magnesium (Mg) is an alkaline earth metal (group 2A). Chlorine (Cl) is a halogen (group 7A). The compound magnesium chloride is a(n) compound, and it has the chemical formula. A. molecular; MgCl2 B. metallic; Mg2Cl2 C. ionic; MgCl2 D. molecular; Mg2Cl E. ionic; Mg2Cl

Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved.

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