1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38"

Transcription

1 UNIT 1: Biochemistry 1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg Carbohydrates Function, primary energy source for the cell, can also be a structural component of cells and organisms. Carbohydrates are the most common biological molecules on Earth. Plants, through the process of photosynthesis, convert sunlight energy, carbon dioxide and water into a chemical energy called glucose. All living organisms require carbohydrates to survive. Glucose is required for a cellular process called cellular respiration. Carbohydrate - is a molecule that consists of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Monosaccharides The simplest form of sugar is the monosaccharide. There are three different monosaccharides; glucose, galactose, and fructose which contain 6 carbons and are isomers of each other. Monosaccharide - is the simplest form of carbohydrate, consisting of a single sugar unit; a building block for more complex carbohydrates. Monosaccharide: triose pentose hexose 3 carbons 5 carbons 6 carbons glyceraldehydes ribose glucose

2 Figure 2: pg 30 The basic formula for a simple sugar molecule is CnH2nOn (C6H12O6), or a ratio of 1:2:1 for carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Glucose is the most important monosaccharide, and is linked together to form complex carbohydrates. Glucose is a linear molecule, but in the presence of water it forms a ringed molecule as functional groups (hydroxyl and carbonyl) from the molecule interact. When glucose forms a ring there are two possible arrangements created when the -OH group attached to the carbon at position 1: α - glucose β- glucose Isomer is a molecule that has the same composition as another, but a different arrangement of atoms.

3 These two forms, α glucose, β- glucose: are isomers. Disaccharides When two monosaccharides are bond together through a dehydration reaction, a disaccharide molecule is created. There are three types of disaccharides; maltose, lactose and sucrose.

4 Maltose is created when two glucose molecules form a glycosidic bond between the OH group on carbon position 1 of one glucose and the -OH group on carbon position 4 of another glucose molecule. glucose + glucose Maltose α - linkage glucose + galactose Lactose β - linkage glucose + fructose Sucrose α - linkage Disaccharide - is a carbohydrate molecule that is made from two monosaccharide units. Glycosidic bond - is a bond between two monosaccharides A linkage is determined by the orientation of the OH group, to the carbon position 1 (1 carbon). α - linkage β- linkage Figure 3: pg 31

5 Complex Carbohydrates: Polysaccharides Complex carbohydrates are important energy storage and structural molecules, depending on the number of monosaccharides make up the chain. Glycogen and starch are examples of energy storage molecules, while chitin and cellulose are structural molecules. Complex carbohydrate - is a molecule that is composed of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides linked together; an essential part of nutrition and a valuable energy source. Macromolecule, such as: a polysaccharide is made up of many monosaccharide subunits bond together, glycosidic bonds, through a dehydration reaction. This is a polymerization reaction, where large molecules are synthesized. Polysaccharide molecule - is a molecule that contains many linked monosaccharides. Polymerization - is a process in which small subunits are linked to form a large molecule. The most common polysaccharides are: plant starch, glycogen and cellulose. Cellulose is a structural molecule found in plants, making up the cell walls. Starch is an energy storage molecule found in plants, produced through a process called photosynthesis. Glycogen is an energy storage molecule found in animals, created after the digestion of starch. Monomer - is a small molecule that can bind chemically to other molecules. Polymer - is a large molecule that is formed when monomers link together chemically in a chain.

6 Energy molecule Structural molecule Animal Glycogen Chitin Plant Starch Cellulose

7 Lipids The function of a lipid is a secondary energy source for the cell (2 X more energy), structural component of cells, hormones, certain vitamins, immune response, insulation and water proofing. Lipids are non-polar molecules, composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen and some oxygen, and are insoluble in water. Lipids are not polymers, because they are not made up of repeating subunits, although they are considered to be macromolecules. Lipid - is a non-polar compound that is made mostly of carbon and hydrogen. Fatty Acids Fatty acid - is a molecule that consists of a carboxyl group and a hydrocarbon chain. Fatty acids consists of a single hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl functional group (-COOH) at one end. It is this carboxyl group allows for the fatty acid chain to interact with other molecules and gives it its acidic properties. Fatty acid chains consist of four or more carbons in their hydrocarbon backbone. The most common forms of fatty acids have an even number of carbons ranging from 14 to 22. Saturated chains are chains that are made up of carbons bonded together by single covalent bonds. An unsaturated chain made have one or more double covalent bonds between carbons making up the chain. Monounsaturated, only one double covalent bond present in the chain, polyunsaturated chain has many double covalent bonds present.

8 Fats Fats are made up of two molecules, glycerol and a fatty acid chains. The fatty acid chains are bonded to a glycerol group, by a dehydration synthesis reaction, forming an ester linkage. The carboxyl group of the acid reacts with the hydroxyl group of the glycerol molecule.

9 Triglyceride - is a fat, three fatty acid chains linked to a glycerol group. Triglycerides are primarily an energy storage molecule, and produce more energy (2X) then carbohydrates. Saturated fat - is a lipid that is composed of saturated fatty acids with single bonds in their hydrocarbon chain. Unsaturated fat - is a lipid that is composed of unsaturated fatty acids with double bonds in their hydrocarbon chain. Fats obtained from animals, such as; butter or lard contain only saturated fatty acid chains, while fats from plants (known as oils) contain unsaturated fatty acid chains, and are liquid at room temperature.

10 Phospholipids Phospholipid - is a lipid that consists of two fatty acids and a phosphate group bounded to a glycerol group. Phospholipids are the primary lipids of cell membranes. These molecules are hydrophilic and hydrophobic, containing 1 phosphate group, 1 glycerol molecule and 2 fatty acid chains. The phosphate portion (head region) is polar and therefore hydrophilic. The fatty acid chains are non-polar and therefore hydrophobic to water. The phospholipid molecules create a bi-layer cell membrane. The bi-layer is created because of the properties of the molecule. The hydrophobic ends of two molecules will face each other and avoiding water. The hydrophilic ends of each molecule face outward or inward towards water environments. Figure 9: Phospholipid Molecule, pg. 35

11 Steroids Steroid - is a lipid that is composed of four carbon rings. Sterol is the most abundant steroid. Cholesterol is a steroid that is essential for animal cell membranes and converts into a number of compounds; such as vitamin D. Cholesterol can also be harmful. A high concentration of cholesterol in your diet may lead to atherosclerosis and eventually to heart attacks. Sex hormones, such as; estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone are specialized steroids, that control the development of secondary sex characteristics as adolescents reach puberty. Anabolic steroids, banned by all major sporting bodies, mimics testosterone and are used by athletes to increase muscle mass, and are used to gain an advantage over other competitors. Steroids can very harmful to your body. Figure 11: Cholesterol and the sex hormones progesterone, estradiol, and testosterone are members of the sterol family of lipids. Notice their structural similarity.

12 Waxes Wax - is a lipid that is formed when long fatty acid chains are joined to alcohols or carbon rings. Waxes are ideal for water proofing in plants and animals.

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The FOUR Classes of Large Biomolecules All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: Carbohydrates

More information

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Organic vs. Inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living organisms Exceptions: hydrocarbonates, carbonates, oxides of carbon. Inorganic

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Bio 100 Molecules of cells 1 Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Compounds containing carbon are called organic compounds Molecules such as methane that are only composed of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons

More information

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Chapter 3 MACROMOLECULES Macromolecules: polymers with molecular weights >1,000 Functional groups THE FOUR MACROMOLECULES IN LIFE Molecules in living organisms: proteins,

More information

Biological molecules:

Biological molecules: Biological molecules: All are organic (based on carbon). Monomers vs. polymers: Monomers refer to the subunits that, when polymerized, make up a larger polymer. Monomers may function on their own in some

More information

Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry of Cells Biochemistry of Cells 1 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Carbon

More information

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3 Lesson Overview 2.3 The Chemistry of Carbon Carbon atoms can form strong covalent bonds with many other elements. Molecules containing carbon are called organic. Living organisms are composed of molecules

More information

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport.

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport. 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES 3.1 Organic Molecules The chemistry of carbon accounts for the diversity of organic molecules found in living things. Carbon has six electrons, four of which

More information

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

Elements in Biological Molecules

Elements in Biological Molecules Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Most Macromolecules are polymers: Polymer: (poly: many; mer: part) Large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together.

More information

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE C A R B O H Y D R A T E S, L I P I D S, P R O T E I N S, A N D N U C L E I C A C I D S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 115, Page 1 of 29) Carbon

More information

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage.

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage. CH 5 Structure & Function of Large Molecules: Macromolecules Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules WEEK ONE VOCABULARY Acid- hydrogen donors; acids increase the hydrogen ion concentration in solution Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules Alpha (α) helix- secondary protein

More information

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids I. Chapter 5 Summary A. Simple Sugars (CH 2 O) n : 1. One C contains a carbonyl (C=O) rest contain - 2. Classification by functional group: aldoses & ketoses 3. Classification by number of C's: trioses,

More information

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them. 2. Circle the three classes that are called

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells I. Introduction A. Most of the world s population cannot digest milk-based foods. 1. These people are lactose intolerant because they lack the enzyme lactase. 2. This illustrates

More information

Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids

Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids VEA Bringing Learning to Life Program Support Notes Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids Grades 10 - College 25mins Teacher Notes by Sue Wright, B. Sc., Dip. Ed. Produced by VEA Pty Ltd

More information

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for?

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Organic Compounds Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Aristotle: Francesco Redi: What do we already know? Spontaneous

More information

Carbon-organic Compounds

Carbon-organic Compounds Elements in Cells The living substance of cells is made up of cytoplasm and the structures within it. About 96% of cytoplasm and its included structures are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,

More information

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose 1. How is a polymer formed from multiple monomers? a. From the growth of the chain of carbon atoms b. By the removal of an OH group and a hydrogen atom c. By the addition of an OH group and a hydrogen

More information

CHAPTER 5 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES. Section B: Carbohydrates - Fuel and Building Material

CHAPTER 5 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES. Section B: Carbohydrates - Fuel and Building Material CHAPTER 5 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES Section B: Carbohydrates - Fuel and Building Material 1. Sugars, the smallest carbohydrates, serve as fuel and carbon sources 2. Polysaccharides,

More information

macromolecule: monomer: polymer: a. The elements found in carbohydrates occur in a specific ratio. Describe that ratio.

macromolecule: monomer: polymer: a. The elements found in carbohydrates occur in a specific ratio. Describe that ratio. NAME: DATE: Biological Macromolecule Poster Project HOUR: BIOLOGY You and your table mates will be researching and creating an informational poster on one of four biological macromolecules: carbohydrates,

More information

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis 1 Dehydration Synthesis: Figure 3: Hydrolysis Hydrolysis: II. Organic Macromolecules Class I: Carbohydrates:

More information

Biology Content Standards

Biology Content Standards Biology Content Standards 1. The Chemistry of Life Broad Concept: Chemical elements form organic molecules that interact to perform the basic functions of life. 1.1 Recognize that biological organisms

More information

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary Worksheet 13.1 Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary α-helix Refers to a secondary structure of a protein where the chain is twisted to form a regular helix, held by hydrogen bonds between peptide bonds

More information

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman Slide 1 All of the biological macromolecules are built from smaller subunits. Each subunit features - H and - OH substituents

More information

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life The Molecules of Life - Overview The Molecules of Life The Importance of Carbon Organic Polymers / Monomers Functions of Organic Molecules Origin of Organic Molecules The Molecules of Life Water is the

More information

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Objectives -Know the difference between a reducing sugar and a non-reducing sugar. -Distinguish Monosaccharides from Disaccharides and Polysaccharides -Understand

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Date: Per: Table # Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds can be

More information

Chemistry of Life - Part 2 Biological Molecules

Chemistry of Life - Part 2 Biological Molecules Chemistry of Life - Part 2 Biological Molecules 1 Of the 92 naturally occurring elements, 16 are known to be important constituents of living systems. The important elements are C, H, O, N, P, S, K, Ca,

More information

WATER CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY "THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE" POLARITY HYDROGEN BONDING

WATER CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE POLARITY HYDROGEN BONDING CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY "THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE" WATER Compare the body of the jellyfish with our own bodies. The jellyfish will die if it is removed from its water environment, yet we can live in the

More information

Guided Reading Activities

Guided Reading Activities Name Period Chapter 3: The Molecules of Cells Guided Reading Activities Big idea: Introduction to organic compounds Answer the following questions as you read modules 3.1 3.3: 1. Is this molecule an organic

More information

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 Macromolecules and Living Systems The body is made up of more than 60 % water. The water is found in the cells cytoplasm, the interstitial fluid and the blood (5

More information

Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82)

Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82) Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82) Lipids Features Have oily, greasy or waxy consistency Relatively insoluble in water Protein and carbohydrates may be converted into lipids by enzymes an

More information

Building Macromolecules

Building Macromolecules Building Macromolecules NGSSS: SC.A.912.L.18.1 Describe the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four major categories of biological macromolecules. (AA) Background: Biological macromolecules

More information

Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen. Questions: 1. Name the 4 main elements that make up 95% of an organism. 2. Name the 4 types of bonds carbon can form.

Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen. Questions: 1. Name the 4 main elements that make up 95% of an organism. 2. Name the 4 types of bonds carbon can form. Biology 1 Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Name Date our Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids

the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids and their sub-units; the role of lipids in the plasma

More information

1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following?

1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following? Organic Molecules and Water 1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following? A. organization B. shape C. movement D. all of these 2. Technology Enhanced Questions

More information

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Name Biology 3 ID Number Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Section 1 - Organic Molecules Section 2 - Functional Groups Section 3 - From Building Blocks to Macromolecules Section 4 - Carbohydrates

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four

More information

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbon The element of life! All living things contain the element carbon. Organic means it contains carbon The reason for this is because of carbon s ability

More information

Carbohydrates. Pentose-carbon sugars MONOSACCHARIDES. Chemical Formulas. Hexose-carbon sugars. Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Metabolism

Carbohydrates. Pentose-carbon sugars MONOSACCHARIDES. Chemical Formulas. Hexose-carbon sugars. Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Metabolism Carbohydrates Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Metabolism Anatomy and Physiology Text and Laboratory Workbook, Stephen G. Davenport, Copyright 2006, All Rights Reserved, no part of this publication can be used

More information

NAME: BLOCK: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

NAME: BLOCK: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms NAME: BLK: Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure.

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Nucleus- positively charged contains protons (p+), neutrons(n0),

More information

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Chapter 5 1 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley

More information

Carbon-Based Molecules. Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things. CH A simplified structure can also be shown as:

Carbon-Based Molecules. Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things. CH A simplified structure can also be shown as: 2.3 arbon-based Molecules VABULARY polymer carbohydrate lipid fatty acid protein amino acid nucleic acid compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates,

More information

Name: Date: Block: Molecular Modeling

Name: Date: Block: Molecular Modeling Name: Date: Block: Molecular Modeling Background: In biology, the four most important elements found in living things are: H hydrogen (1 valence electron) O oxygen (2 valence electrons) N nitrogen (3 valence

More information

Name Period. Biology Biochemistry

Name Period. Biology Biochemistry Name Period Biology Biochemistry Date Assignment Points Earned Possible Points Chapter 2 Vocabulary 25 Unique Properties of Water Notes 5 Writing Prompts 1 & 2 7 Organic Molecules: Lipids / Carbohydrates

More information

Chemical Level of Organization

Chemical Level of Organization Chemical Level of Organization Matter and Energy Matter occupies space and has mass Energy is capacity to move mass Potential vs. kinetic Energy forms radiant-moving waves electrical-moving charged particles

More information

Chapter 2 Chemical Principles

Chapter 2 Chemical Principles Chapter 2 Chemical Principles I. Chemistry. [Students should read this section on their own]. a. Chemistry is the study of the interactions between atoms and molecules. b. The atom is the smallest unit

More information

BIOMOLECULES. reflect

BIOMOLECULES. reflect reflect A child s building blocks are relatively simple structures. When they come together, however, they can form magnifi cent structures. The elaborate city scene to the right is made of small, simple

More information

Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins

Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins Oct 15 8:05 PM What is an Organic Molecule? An Organic Molecule is a molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen and oxygen Carbon is found

More information

McMush Lab Testing for the Presence of Macromolecules

McMush Lab Testing for the Presence of Macromolecules 5 Testing for the Presence of Macromolecules OBJECTIVE Students will learn confirmation tests for the presence of glucose, starch, lipids and proteins. Students will then apply the test procedures to a

More information

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

More information

First we ll list the basic monomers and polymers, and then discuss and show their properties in more detail.

First we ll list the basic monomers and polymers, and then discuss and show their properties in more detail. BIOMOLECULES. I. (up to proteins) Basic Molecules of Terrestrial Self-Replication (brief version) Theory for origin of life by chemical evolution must explain following: nuclei--->atoms--->molecules--->monomers--->polymers

More information

CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date:

CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date: CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date: 1. A lipid is any substance of biochemical origin that is A) soluble in water but insoluble in nonpolar solvents B) insoluble in both water and nonpolar solvents C) insoluble

More information

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives.

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives. 1 Lab 2 Biochemistry Learning Objectives The lab has the following learning objectives. Investigate the role of double bonding in fatty acids, through models. Developing a calibration curve for a Benedict

More information

Dept.Anatomy Cytology / Lec 2-chmistry of cell Dr.sarsb

Dept.Anatomy Cytology / Lec 2-chmistry of cell Dr.sarsb Dept.Anatomy Cytology / Lec 2-chmistry of cell Dr.sarsb CHEMICAL ORGANIZATION OF CYTOSOL Chemically, the cytoplasmic matrix is composed of many chemical elements in the form of atoms, ions and molecules.

More information

3) How many monosaccharides are connected to each other in a disaccharide? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4

3) How many monosaccharides are connected to each other in a disaccharide? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 2e (Frost) HOMEWORK Chapter 6 Carbohydrates Life s Sweet Molecules 6.1 Multiple-Choice 1) Which of the following is a polysaccharide? Glucose Sucrose C) Starch D) Maltose

More information

Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall Unit 1: Scientific Method. Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. Control. Constant

Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall Unit 1: Scientific Method. Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. Control. Constant Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall 2016 Name: Unit 1: Scientific Method Term Definition Independent Variable Dependent Variable Control Constant 1. Holly wants to know which plant food is the best for

More information

1. 5. Carbohydrates. 1: Biochemistry of macromolecules and metabolic pathways

1. 5. Carbohydrates. 1: Biochemistry of macromolecules and metabolic pathways . Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a key group of biological molecules about 0% of all the organic matter of a cell is made up of carbohydrates. This topic guide looks at their basic chemical structures

More information

Biochemistry. B.9.C identify and investigate the role of enzymes

Biochemistry. B.9.C identify and investigate the role of enzymes Biochemistry B.9.A compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids B.9.D analyze and evaluate the evidence regarding

More information

Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Proteins and Nucleic Acids Proteins and Nucleic Acids Chapter 5 Macromolecules: Proteins Proteins Most structurally & functionally diverse group of biomolecules. : o Involved in almost everything o Enzymes o Structure (keratin,

More information

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Topic 1: Biological Principles Cells and the Organization of Life Characteristics of Life all living things share the following characteristics:

More information

- smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties

- smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties Atom- - smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties -Atoms are made up of 3 smaller particles. These smaller particles are: protons particle with a positive charge located in the nucleus

More information

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Worksheets (Opening image courtesy of David Iberri, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:camkii.png, and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.) Lesson 2.1: Matter

More information

Chapter 15 Carbohydrates

Chapter 15 Carbohydrates Chapter 15 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a major source of energy from our diet; they are composed of the elements C, and O and are composed of simple building blocks of smaller molecules called saccharides

More information

BIO 3A LABORATORY Biologically Important Molecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids

BIO 3A LABORATORY Biologically Important Molecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids BIO 3A LABORATORY Biologically Important Molecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids Objectives To perform tests that detect the presence of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

What is Food Chemistry? Submitted by Deb Dommel Modified from IFT Experiments Series Food Chemistry

What is Food Chemistry? Submitted by Deb Dommel Modified from IFT Experiments Series Food Chemistry Page 1 of 7 What is Food Chemistry? Submitted by Deb Dommel Modified from IFT Experiments Series Food Chemistry What is food chemistry? Food Science deals with the production, processing, distribution,

More information

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information

Chemistry Comes Alive: Part B

Chemistry Comes Alive: Part B 2 Chemistry Comes Alive: Part B Classes of Compounds Inorganic compounds Water, salts, and many acids and bases Do not contain carbon Organic compounds Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids

More information

Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life

Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Chapter 4 Objectives Explain how carbon s electron configuration accounts for its ability to form large, complex, and diverse organic molecules. Describe how

More information

Ch24_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch24_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch24_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Substances originating in plant or animal material and soluble in non-polar organic solvents

More information

Lipids. There are 2 types of lipids; those that contain the structural component of a fatty acid; and

Lipids. There are 2 types of lipids; those that contain the structural component of a fatty acid; and Lipids Lipids are biomolecules that contain fatty acids or a steroid nucleus. soluble in organic solvents, but not in water. named for the Greek word lipos, which means fat. extracted from cells using

More information

2. Structure and bonding of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

2. Structure and bonding of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids 2. Structure and bonding of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids 2.1. Polymers, monomers, and bonding Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are primary nutritional ingredients for humans. The breakdown of

More information

Topic B Part 4 Lipids. IB Chemistry Topic B Biochem

Topic B Part 4 Lipids. IB Chemistry Topic B Biochem Topic B Part 4 Lipids IB Chemistry Topic B Biochem B3 B4 Lipids - 3.5 hours B.4.1 Compare the composition of the three types of lipids found in the human body. (3) B.4.2 Outline the difference between

More information

Chapter 2 The Molecules of Cells

Chapter 2 The Molecules of Cells Chemistry is the science dealing with the properties & the transformations (chemical reactions) of all forms of matter Matter is any substance: solid, liquid, gas, plasma All matter is composed of elements

More information

Chapter 17 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Synthetic Polymers

Chapter 17 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Synthetic Polymers 263 Chapter 17 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Synthetic Polymers Review Skills 17.1 Organic Compounds Formulas for Organic Compounds Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Arenes (Aromatics)

More information

General Structure of Lipids. Lipids are naturally occurring compounds that are soluble in organic solvents but not in water.

General Structure of Lipids. Lipids are naturally occurring compounds that are soluble in organic solvents but not in water. Chapter 15 Lipids 1 Lipids Lipids are biomolecules that contain fatty acids or a steroid nucleus soluble in organic solvents, but not in water named for the Greek word lipos, which means fat extracted

More information

Activity 4/5.1 How Can You Identify Organic Macromolecules?

Activity 4/5.1 How Can You Identify Organic Macromolecules? Answers? Activity 4/5.1 ow an You Identify rganic Macromolecules? efer to the figure (Some Simple hemistry) on the next page when doing this activity. Part A. Answer the questions. Then use your answers

More information

Testing for Biologically Important Molecules

Testing for Biologically Important Molecules Testing for Biologically Important Molecules General Principles There are four major classes of organic compounds found in living organisms - arbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and ucleic Acids. The chemical

More information

Lipids. Classes of Lipids. Types of Lipids. Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Fatty Acids. 15.1 Lipids 15.2 Fatty Acids

Lipids. Classes of Lipids. Types of Lipids. Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Fatty Acids. 15.1 Lipids 15.2 Fatty Acids hapter 15 15.1 15.2 Fatty Acids are biomolecules that contain fatty acids or a steroid nucleus. soluble in organic solvents, but not in water. named for the Greek word lipos, which means fat. extracted

More information

Carbon-Based Molecules KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.

Carbon-Based Molecules KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life. SETI 2.3 arbon-based Molecules KEY EPT arbon-based molecules are the foundation of life. Student text pages 44 48 S.912.L.18.1 arbon atoms have unique bonding properties. Most molecules that make up living

More information

Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations

Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations I. Introduction By weight, cells are about 70% water, about 1% ions, about 6% small organic molecules (including amino acids, sugars, nucleotides), and about 23% macromolecules.

More information

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total)

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total) AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 10th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Name: Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total) Chapter

More information

Reactions of Fats and Fatty Acids

Reactions of Fats and Fatty Acids Reactions of Fats and Fatty Acids Outline Fats and Oils Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Biodiesel Homework We hear quite a lot about the place of fats and oils in human nutrition. Foods high in fat are at the

More information

Lecture 5: Basic Plant Biochemistry: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids and Secondary metabolites

Lecture 5: Basic Plant Biochemistry: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids and Secondary metabolites Lecture 5: Basic Plant Biochemistry: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids and Secondary metabolites Reference texts for this lecture: Biology, 6th edition by Campbell and Reece Introduction to Botany

More information

(Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry

(Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry (Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry An atom consists of a central portion, the NUCLEUS (made up of Protons and Neutrons) and Electrons which are found outside the nucleus. An uncharged atom has an

More information

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules Food Labels All living things use materials and energy Our food comes from living things The food labels we see show us what our food is made of The stuff we are studying today can be found on food labels

More information

Biological Molecules: Structure and Methods of Analysis

Biological Molecules: Structure and Methods of Analysis Biol 1107 Revised Fall 2010 Biological Molecules: Structure and Methods of Analysis This handout is to be used with your textbook: Biological Science, Freeman, 4 th ed. I. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are

More information

Chemistry is the foundation of all living organisms. All basic physiological processes of life take place at the chemical level

Chemistry is the foundation of all living organisms. All basic physiological processes of life take place at the chemical level The Chemical Level of Organization Objectives Describe atomic structure Compare the ways atoms combine to form molecules and compounds Distinguish among the major types of chemical reactions Describe the

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Topic 5: Digestion and Absorption Page 1: Title Page Page 2: Goals Page 3: Food is broken down mechanically and chemically

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Topic 5: Digestion and Absorption Page 1: Title Page Page 2: Goals Page 3: Food is broken down mechanically and chemically THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Topic 5: Digestion and Absorption Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1: Title Page Chemical digestion

More information

Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration. Hot Seat

Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration. Hot Seat Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Hot Seat Hot Seat Instructions You are competing against classmates in your row (across the classroom). The hot seat is the seat in each row closest to the outside

More information