Today. Digital TV Broadcasting Systems: DVB-C, DVB-T & DVB-S. Cable TV Networks. TV Channel bandwidth. CATV Bandwidth.

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1 Today Digital TV Broadcasting Systems: DVB-C, DVB-T & DVB-S Janko Ćalić DVB-C Digital Video Broadcasting Cable Analogue Cable TV Hybrid Fibre Coax Networks Digital Modulation Satellite television principles Satellites Antennas Encoding Digital terrestrial television principles Multipath problems Encoding System Digital Broadcasting Technology 2 Cable TV Networks Community Antenna Television CATV networks Distributing broadcast TV & Radio locally Coaxial cable Tree-and-branch architecture Frequency Division Multiplex FDM Each program - fixed portion of bandwidth Digital Broadcasting Technology 3 Digital Broadcasting Technology 4 TV Channel bandwidth 6MHz USA / 8MHz EU Amplitude modulation Digital Broadcasting Technology 5 Digital Broadcasting Technology 6 CATV Bandwidth HFC Networks MHz ideal coax cable bandwidth 88/ /550 MHz in reality Hybrid Fiber Coax network Main trunk fiber Local network coaxial cost reasons Less amplifiers and errors Digital Broadcasting Technology 7 Digital Broadcasting Technology 8

2 HFC Bandwidth utilisation Old analogue bandwidth kept New downstream for digital TV, Video-on-Demand forward path for interactive, Fast Internet access, telephony, etc. Upstream interactive and Internet Digital Broadcasting Technology 9 Digital Broadcasting Technology 10 Downstream band Upstream band Transmitting digital signals Digital Modulation RF modems QAM used: 64-QAM: 6Mhz band = 27Mbps, 8Mhz band = 38Mbps 256-QAM: 6Mhz band = 36Mbps, 8Mhz band = 50Mbps Multiple 6Mbps or more 1.5Mbps For two-way services 5 30/42/48/65 MHz Dual/bidirectional amplifiers Dual fiber trunk Bandsplitting filters Lower band more errors QPSK or 16-QAM Not limited to 6/8MHz Upstream needs less throughput anyway Digital Broadcasting Technology 11 Digital Broadcasting Technology 12 DVB-C Worldwide Satellite TV Geostationary satellites: satellites are geosynchronous 36000km above equator Digital Broadcasting Technology 13 Digital Broadcasting Technology 14 Satellite positioning Frequency allocation On-board motors make sure that the tolerance is 0.2 o Elevation and Azimuth define satellite s position Digital Broadcasting Technology 15 Digital Broadcasting Technology 16

3 Antenna designs Transponder Low-noise block converter LNB/C Satellite intermediate frequency (SAT-IF) Microwave power amplifiers Channels separated Combined signal is broadcasted to footprint At receiver side - inversion Digital Broadcasting Technology 17 Digital Broadcasting Technology 18 Digital Television Channel Interface QPSK = 4-QAM, 2b/symbol DTV KU band GHz Downlink GHz analogue TV GHz digital TV USA, GHz EU DBS, USA, 32x24MHz 40Mbps DVB-S, EU, 40x33MHz 55Mbps MPEG-2 Transport stream multiplex Digital Broadcasting Technology 19 Digital Broadcasting Technology 20 Channel Encoding RS(204,188) error check Interleaving breaking down very long error bursts for FEC By rearranging the order of transmission of the bytes Channel Encoding Convolutional encoder Hamming distance Puncturing Digital Broadcasting Technology 21 Digital Broadcasting Technology 22 Interactive services Terrestrial Television Through PSTN or ISDN Local interaction Additional data channel in MPEG-2 transport multiplex Conditional access pay-per-view Anonymous response to broadcast Low-bitrate interaction Votes, quizzes Purchase request Teleshoping VHF UHF MHz >100MHz linear More transmitters MFN - depicted Digital Broadcasting Technology 23 Digital Broadcasting Technology 24

4 MFN Frequency Usage Digital Terrestrial TV Different modulation Microwaves reflect from objects Multipath transmission λ = c/f = 3x10 8 / 500x10 6 =0.6m Reflection, refraction Multipath dispersion, delay spread Inter-symbol interference Solution COFDM coded OFDM Digital Broadcasting Technology 25 Digital Broadcasting Technology 26 Inter-Symbol Interference Channel Interface RS(204,188) Interleaving breaking down very long error bursts for FEC By rearranging the order of transmission of the bytes Digital Broadcasting Technology 27 Digital Broadcasting Technology 28 Forney interleaving COFDM Principles To spread out the error bits enables more efficient outer coding For DVB-T i=12 branches and L=204 packet length, M=(L/i)xjis FIFO buffer size, j=0 11 Example of multiple orthogonal carrier modulation 5 carriers, ASK on-off keying, frequencies f s, 2f s, 3f s, and 4f s In the real DVB-T case, QPSK, N=[2k, 8k] carriers M=( L / i ) x j M = 17, 34, 51,, 187 bytes Digital Broadcasting Technology 29 Digital Broadcasting Technology 30 Guard interval Orthogonal carriers Receiver waits Tg (guard interval) before starting to process the symbol In order to make sure all delayed versions of the symbol have arrived To be able to determine which subset of the carrier-ensemble is present in a given symbol, carriers need to be ORTHOGONAL At carrier frequency ALL other carriers are ZERO Strict fixed spacing of 1/Ts between adjacent carriers Digital Broadcasting Technology 31 Digital Broadcasting Technology 32

5 Receiver Synchronisation Synchronising symbols essential Stream of symbols is divided into 68-symbol FRAMES Number of active carriers 2k 1705, 8k 6817 Each carrier modulated with 4-QAM 16-QAM or64-qam 2 4 or 6 bits/signal transition Continual pilot Scattered pilot TPS pilot information on operational parameters Digital Broadcasting Technology 33 Digital Broadcasting Technology 34 DVB-T Transmission System DVB-T Bandwidth 6/8 Mhz broadcast channels For 2k 16-QAM modulated carriers, removing pilots, guard, etc. the bandwidth is 24Mbps FEC and convolutional coder reduce this to 16Mbps This can be used to carry 4x4Mbps TV programmes in each 8MHz broadcast channel Digital Broadcasting Technology 35 Digital Broadcasting Technology 36 DVB-T Coverage Digital Broadcasting Technology 37

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