Contents. Before you begin. What you will learn Competency standard What is expected of a Certificate III learner

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1 Contents Contents Before you begin What you will learn Competency standard What is expected of a Certificate III learner Assessment Employability skills How to work through this unit Resources v v vi viii viii ix x xi Introduction: Working effectively with culturally diverse clients 1 and co-workers Chapter 1: Reflecting cultural awareness in your work practice Clarifying diversity concepts Explaining cultural diversity Respecting cultural diversity 10 Discussion topics 20 Chapter summary 20 Checklist for Chapter 1 20 Assessment activity 1: Reflecting cultural awareness in your work practice 21 Record your employability skills 22 Chapter 2: Embracing cultural diversity Maintaining positive attitudes toward others Developing effective relationships Being culturally sensitive Adopting an anti-bias approach 29 Discussion topics 32 Chapter summary 33 Checklist for Chapter 2 33 Assessment activity 2: Embracing cultural diversity 34 Record your employability skills 34 iii

2 Chapter 3: Communicating effectively with culturally diverse 35 people 3.1 Using thoughtful communication Eliminating communication barriers Communicating effectively Building trust 43 Discussion topics 44 Chapter summary 44 Checklist for Chapter 3 44 Assessment activity 3: Communicating effectively with culturally diverse people 45 Record your employability skills 46 Chapter 4: Resolving cross-cultural differences Identifying conflict Resolving conflict 51 Discussion topics 55 Chapter summary 56 Checklist for Chapter 4 56 Assessment activity 4: Resolving cross-cultural differences 57 Record your employability skills 58 Final assessment: HLTHIR403A Work effectively with culturally 59 diverse clients and co-workers Employability skills 62 iv

3 Before you begin Before you begin What you will learn This workbook is based on HLTHIR403B Work effectively with culturally diverse clients and co-workers from the CHC08 Community Services Training Package. Knowledge and skills required The following is a list of the knowledge and skills required to develop the cultural and linguistic awareness required for effective communication and cooperation with people of diverse cultures. After you have completed this workbook you should have the necessary skills and knowledge. Knowledge Learners should be able to: recognise cultural diversity in Australian society with many individuals living in many cultures recognise cultural influences and changing cultural practices in Australia and its impact on diverse communities that make up Australian society know own cultural conceptions and pre-conceptions and perspective of diverse cultures recognise the impact of cultural practices and experiences on personal behaviour, interpersonal relationships, perception and social expectations of others recognise culture as a dynamic social phenomenon recognise culture as a range of social practices and beliefs evolving over time recognise that the word normal is a value-laden, excluding concept that often precludes acknowledgment of the diversity of people, their life experiences and situations recognise the unique way individuals may experience a culture and respond to past experiences know the principles of equal employment opportunity, sex, race, disability, antidiscrimination and similar legislation and the implications for work and social practices know the availability of resources and assistance within and external to the organisation in relation to cultural diversity issues know the role and use of language and cultural interpreters understand the special needs of people seeking political asylum (experiencing trauma etc.). v

4 1.2 Explaining cultural diversity Each individual person has a lifestyle culture that is unique to them. This is determined by customs, religious backgrounds, political issues, society, life experiences and the way they were raised, including family values, influences and beliefs. The values and beliefs of a culture are formed from past experiences; therefore child rearing and parental expectations of how their children are to behave play a major role in developing an individual s culture. Culture is also affected by changes over time, which may occur due to: laws society values new practices relocation. Of particular importance to carers is an understanding that children s experiences can have both a short- and long-term impact on their behaviour. Traumatic events particularly can have a serious lasting impact on a child s ability to form trusting relationships. To effectively develop relationships with children and adults it is important to adapt your actions and interactions to suit any value changes in society and your community. The following example discusses different cultures. Example All the people who live in your street may be Australian, but may all have completely different values, beliefs and backgrounds. They may also have various attitudes relating to issues and styles of living. These differences are due to the fact that we have all been raised by different parents or families. Each family has their own ideas about what is important to them, how they discipline their children, their family values or how their children should be raised. These ideas form the basis of differing family cultures, resulting in a diverse community. Practice task 2 Think about your parents or grandparents and their parental values. Then write down, or tell your trainer, your answers to the following questions. 1. Do they have the same family values as you? 2. Did they use the same discipline techniques on their children as you use on yours (or the children you care for)? 3. Were their lifestyles the same or similar to yours? 4. Was their family structure the same as what yours is today? Your own experiences influence your thoughts and beliefs and although you may have the same racial background as another person, your values regarding what is important may differ. 6

5 Chapter 1: Reflecting cultural awareness in your work practice You may come across many cultures in your work in children s services, so you need to be respectful of these differences and accommodate them wherever possible. Tip The word normal or norms is a value-laden concept that does not take into consideration the diversity of people, their life experiences and situations. Rephrase sentences to exclude the word normal or norms to describe people. For example, rather than saying It is normal for Australians to speak English, say Most Australians speak English. You are then showing recognition of the differences in others and also encouraging others to recognise this. There are many factors that make up a culture, some are easy to see and understand, while others are harder to recognise. Knowledge of these various factors can assist you in developing trusting relationships that are non-discriminatory and may also help you to meet the needs of children, families and co-workers. Children are able to recognise differences among others and point them out. They will also copy your actions and behaviour, so positive attitudes that reflect equality and the value of others should be displayed at all times. This will help to influence children, other carers and parents to develop understanding and acceptance of diversity. The following table contains examples of factors that may vary in different cultures. Factor Beliefs and customs Race and ethnicity Language Example Every family has their own beliefs and customs that are based on their values. Some values may be associated with a race, religion or another cultural aspect that they are influenced by. Some families may believe leisure time is the most important thing in their life. Some may highly value sport and focus life around this. Some families may have busy schedules and so purchase takeaway food often. Others may value the importance of sitting down and eating a meal together as a family. Race and ethnicity refers to a person s country of origin, or a particular group of people having similar characteristics. Australia is home to many populations of people, all following different beliefs, styles of living and different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Many languages are spoken in Australia both verbal and nonverbal. Each language should be respected as a valid form of communication. Some people are able to speak more than one language; others can only speak in a first language. Some people may communicate using sign language; they may also demonstrate particular communication styles and non-verbal social customs. People may not be able to express themselves in the same language as you but this does not mean that they are not intelligent or are not able to express opinions etc. continued... 7

6 ... continued Religion Factor Life experiences, personal history and experiences of trauma Families granted political asylum Example Religion is often a dominating aspect of family life that has a strong influence on the norms, beliefs, values and customs that determine family culture. Many individuals and communities frame their desires and imaginings in religious or spiritual terms and your respect for their beliefs is essential for you to provide quality outcomes for children and families. All people you make contact with are affected by their life experiences, many of which they will not share with you. Traumatic experiences can affect the outlook of an individual and the way they interact with others, yet this is not always easy to identify. In some cases, trauma can be easily noticed; for example, a person may have burn scars. There are other forms of trauma that may not be as obvious, such as an experience of war, the death of a loved one or a serious illness or accident. When you consider trauma as an influence on the cultural development of an individual or family, clearly many factors are unknown to you. People who have been granted political asylum in Australia have been recognised by the Australian government as being in danger in their home country due to their race, nationality, religion, political opinions or social group. When establishing background information from such families, questions about their cultural background or family history may be confronting. The family may become guarded and uncomfortable talking about their past. Be aware that some people who have been granted political asylum may: be separated from others in their family, perhaps for long periods of time have experienced the death of a loved one have experienced abuse or torture harm themselves or may have witnessed others harming themselves have had members of their family tortured and they may or may not have witnessed this have health issues that have occurred due to a range of possible situations they have experienced suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience fear based on a range of situations that may be logical or illogical to you experience ridicule or judgment by others living in Australia. Children you care for who have been granted asylum may have difficulties developmentally or emotionally. These can be increased if a parent is unable to cope or suffers emotional or other scarring. In many situations you may require specialist assistance to support a family or child who is a political asylum seeker. continued... 8

7 Children use observation to learn desirable behaviour. Therefore, it is essential that workers model appropriate culturally sensitive behaviour to help create a friendly, safe, respectful and effective learning environment. Modelling is an effective way to teach children how to: empathise with others show affection help and share respect others opinions and needs follow cultural customs. You can also model appropriate ways to deal with conflict by using assertive language rather than physical aggression, humiliation or embarrassing the other person. And, by focusing positively and openly on similarities and differences, diversity becomes an interesting and even exciting experience as shown in the following example. Example Jack, a child, says, Look at the funny hat Avi wears. Jonah, a carer, responds by saying, I think it s interesting Jack, lets ask Avi why he wears it. Avi tells Jack that he wears the hat called a yarmulke as part of his Jewish faith. Then Jonah, Jack and Avi talk about their differences and similarities. Avi has some questions about some of the things Jack wears and wondered why he often says, cool. They discover that their favourite food, game and sporting team are all the same. Children often feel comfortable with diversity and see it as a positive rather than a negative aspect when you encourage open exploration. Be alert to opportunities that may arise for discussion, and have children explore issues and questions as they come up. In the curriculum that you deliver, ensure you provide limits for children and explain the implications of unacceptable behaviour. Remember to have age appropriate explanations and also to attempt to recognise why negative behaviour occurs between children, so you can avoid these situations or at least be prepared to deal with them. As children can recognise differences between each other, they should also learn to show respect to others and why this is important. Practice task 8 Have you even needed to encourage a child to be culturally sensitive, or explain why a child looks, acts or dresses differently to other children? If so, explain how you approached the discussion. 28

8 Assessment activity 2 Embracing cultural diversity The following table maps the assessment activity for this chapter against the element and performance criteria of Element 2 in HLTHIR403B Work effectively with culturally diverse clients and co-workers. The activity has been designed for all learners to complete. Part Element Performance criteria Whole activity 2 All Write down, or tell your trainer, your answers to the following questions. 1. List the cultural backgrounds that are obvious in your service include carers also. Be sure to consider race, language, values, beliefs, customs, religion, life experiences, family structure, gender and gender relationships, age and ability. 2. List some cultural backgrounds or differences that do not seem represented in your service. 3. a) Choose one of the backgrounds or differences that are not represented in your service. Which did you choose? b) How might you encourage the children to develop an understanding and acceptance of this background or difference? c) List some ways you could include this in your anti-bias program. Be sure to avoid themed activities. 4. Implement at least one of your ideas and explain the response of the children. 5. Describe three ways you can show respect for cultural diversity in your communication and interactions with others. 6. Why is it important to develop workplace and professional relationships based on the acceptance of cultural diversity? Record your employability skills When you have completed the assessment activity, make sure you record the employability skills you have developed in the table at the end of the workbook. Keep copies of material you have prepared as further evidence of your skills. 34

9 Final assessment: HLTHIR403B Work effectively with culturally diverse clients and co-workers Final assessment HLTHIR403B Work effectively with culturally diverse clients and co-workers To be assessed as competent in HLTHIR403B Work effectively with culturally diverse clients and co-workers, you must provide evidence of the specified essential knowledge and skills. Details of the essential knowledge and skills can be found in the Before you begin section of this workbook. Assessment mapping The following table maps this final assessment activity against the elements and performance criteria of HLTHIR403B Work effectively with culturally diverse clients and co-workers. Part Element Performance criteria A All All B All All C All All Detailed mapping of this workbook against the methods of assessment, the elements, the performance criteria and essential skills and knowledge is available in the Aspire Trainer s and assessor s guide for this unit. The following activity forms part of your assessment of competence. You may also need to provide various workplace documents or third-party reports. Your trainer will give you guidance in this area. The following activity has been designed for all learners to complete. Part A: Essential skills Your trainer needs to observe you demonstrating the following essential skills in your workplace or in a simulated environment. 59

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