CHAPTER 3 FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CHAPTER 3 FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE"

Transcription

1 29 CHAPTER 3 FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE 3.1 GENERAL The fresh and hardened properties such as workability, density, compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of fly ash based Geopolymer Concrete (GPC) is presented in this chapter. This chapter describes the mix design and manufacturing process of geopolymer concrete. Fly ash collected from two different sources was used in making of the geopolymer concrete. The effect of concentration of alkaline liquids on the strength of geopolymer concrete is presented. The effect of curing conditions on the mechanical properties of geopolymer concrete is also discussed in this chapter. 3.2 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME Parameters of Study investigation: The following parameters were considered in this experimental (a) (b) Source of fly ash: Fly ash collected from Mettur and Tuticorin thermal power stations of TamilNadu, India Concentration of sodium hydroxide used for preparation of geopolymer concrete: 8 Molarity (8 M), 12 Molarity (12 M) and 16 Molarity (16 M)

2 30 (c) (d) Curing temperature: Ambient curing at room temperature and heat curing at 60 o C for 24 hours in hot air oven Age of concrete at the time of testing: 7 days and 28 days Materials Used Fly ash : Class F dry fly ash conforming to IS obtained from Mettur and Tuticorin thermal power stations of Tamilnadu from southern part of India was made use of in the casting of the specimens. Table 3.1 gives the chemical composition of fly ashes used in this experimental investigation Table 3.1 Chemical composition of fly ash Oxides Mettur Fly ash Tuticorin Fly ash SiO % 63.24% Al 2 O % 17.35% Fe 2 O % 2.63% Requirements as per IS SiO 2 >35% Total - >70% CaO 3.33% 2.05% - Na 2 O 0.34% 0.24% K 2 O 0.22% 0.32% <1.5% MgO 1.12% 0.96% <5% LOI 1.56% 0.95% <12% Fine aggregate: Locally available river sand having a fineness modulus of 2.75, specific gravity of 2.81 and conforming to grading zone-iii as per Indian Standards IS: was used. Bulk density of the fine aggregate is 1693 kg/m 3. Details of sieve analysis of sand are given in Appendix1.

3 31 Coarse aggregate: Crushed granite coarse aggregates of maximum size 19 mm, fineness modulus of 6.64 and a specific gravity of 2.73 were used. Bulk density of the coarse aggregate is 1527 kg/m 3. Details of sieve analysis of coarse aggregate are given in Appendix 1. Sodium hydroxide: Sodium hydroxide solids in the form of flakes as shown in Figure 3.1, with 97% purity manufactured by Merck Specialties Private Limited, Mumbai was used in the preparation of alkaline activator. Figure 3.1 Sodium hydroxide flakes Sodium silicate: Sodium silicate in the form of solution as shown in Figure 3.2, supplied by Salfa Industries, Madurai was used in the preparation of alkaline activator. The chemical composition of Sodium silicate solution supplied by the manufacturer is as follows: 14.7% of Na 2 O, 29.4% of SiO 2 and 55.9% of water by mass.

4 32 Figure 3.2 Sodium silicate solution Super plasticizer: To achieve workability of fresh geopolymer Concrete, sulphonated napthalene polymer based super plasticizer Conplast SP 430 was used in all the mixtures. Conplast SP 430 is available in the form of a brown liquid that is instantly dispersible in water and is manufactured by Fosroc Chemicals (India) private limited, Bangalore. Water: Distilled water was used for the preparation of sodium hydroxide solution and for extra water added to achieve workability Preparation of Alkaline Activator Solution A combination of sodium hydroxide solution and sodium silicate solution was used as alkaline activators for geopolymerisation. To prepare sodium hydroxide solution of 8 molarity (8 M), 320 g (8 x 40 i.e, molarity x molecular weight) of sodium hydroxide flakes were dissolved in distilled water and made up to one litre. The mass of NaOH solid mass in a solution will vary depending on the concentration of the solution expressed in terms of molarity, M. The mass of solid NaOH was measured as 255 g/kg in the 8 M NaOH solution, g/kg in the 12 M NaOH solution and g/kg in the 16 M NaOH solution.this shows that water was the major component in the

5 33 sodium hydroxide solution and NaOH solids was only a fraction of the mass of NaOH solution Mix Design of Geopolymer Concrete In the design of geopolymer concrete mix, coarse and fine aggregates together were taken as 77% of entire mixture by mass. This value is similar to that used in OPC concrete in which it will be in the range of 75% to 80% of the entire mixture by mass. Fine aggregate was taken as 30% by mass of the total aggregates. From the past literatures it is clear that the average density of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is similar to that of OPC concrete (2400 kg/m 3 ). Knowing the density of concrete, the combined mass of alkaline liquid and fly ash can be derived. By assuming the ratio of alkaline liquid to fly ash as 0.4, mass of fly ash and mass of alkaline liquid was found out. To obtain mass of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions, the ratio of sodium silicate solution to sodium hydroxide solution was kept as 2.5. Extra water (other than the water used for the preparation of alkaline solutions) and super plasticizer Conplast SP430 based on sulphonated napthalene polymers were added to the mix in a proportion of 10% and 3% by mass of fly ash respectively to achieve workable concrete. The mix design calculations are given in Appendix 2. The mix proportion is given in Table 3.2. Table 3.2 Details of mix proportion of geopolymer concrete Fly ash kg/m 3 Fine aggregate kg/m 3 Coarse aggregate kg/m 3 NaOH solution kg/m 3 Na 2 SiO 3 solution kg/m 3 Extra water kg/m 3 SP kg/m

6 Preparation of Geopolymer Concrete Specimens The prepared solution of sodium hydroxide was mixed with sodium silicate solution one day before mixing the concrete to get the desired alkalinity in the alkaline activator solution. Initially fine aggregates, fly ash and coarse aggregates were dry mixed in a horizontal pan mixer for three minutes. After dry mixing, alkaline activator solution was added to the dry mix and wet mixing was done for 4 minutes. Finally extra water along with super plasticizer was added to get workable geopolymer concrete. Totally 72 cubes (150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm) for compressive strength, 72 cylinders (150 mm diameter and 300 mm height) for split tensile strength and 36 prisms (100 mm x 100 mm x 500 mm) for flexural strength were cast. Standard cast iron moulds were used for casting the test specimens. Before casting, machine oil was smeared on the inner surfaces of moulds. Geopolymer concrete was mixed using a horizontal pan mixer machine and was poured into the moulds in layers. Each layer of concrete was compacted using a table vibrator Curing of Geopolymer Concrete Specimens After casting the specimens, they were kept in moulds for a rest period of four days and then they were demoulded, since the geopolymer concrete did not harden immediately at room temperature as in conventional concrete. The term rest period indicates the time taken from the completion of casting of test specimens to the start of curing at an elevated temperature. Geopolymer concrete specimens took a minimum of 3 days for complete setting without leaving a nail impression on the hardened surface. All the specimens were given an uniform rest period of four days and at the end of the rest period, thirty six cubes, thirty six cylinders and eighteen prisms were kept under ambient conditions for curing at room temperature. Remaining

7 35 thirty six cubes, thirty six cylinders and eighteen prisms were heat cured at 60oC in hot air oven for 24 hours as shown in Figure 3.3. Figure 3.3 Specimens under heat curing Designation of Specimens Specimens have been given descriptive names, composed of four terms. Each of these terms gives information about some aspect of the specimens which is described as follows: The first term describes the source of fly ash used for casting the specimens. Fm refers to fly ash collected from Mettur thermal power station and F t refers to fly ash collected from Tuticorin thermal power station. The second term which has a number in the suffix refers to the molarity of sodium hydroxide solution used for the preparation of alkaline activators. M 8 refers to 8 M NaOH solution, M 12 refers to 12 M NaOH solution and M16 16 M NaOH solution. The third term refers to the curing condition of the specimen. C a refers to the specimens that were cured at ambient conditions at room temperature and C h refers to the specimens that were cured at 60 o C in hot air oven. The fourth term refers to the age of concrete at the time of testing. A7 refers to tests conducted at

8 36 7 days age of concrete and A 28 refers to tests conducted at 28 days age of concrete Instrumentation and Testing Procedure All the freshly prepared geopolymer concrete mixes were tested for workability by using the standard slump cone apparatus. The slump cone was filled with freshly mixed geopolymer concrete and was compacted with a tamping bar in four layers. The top of the slump cone was leveled off, then the cone was lifted vertically up and the slump of the sample was immediately measured. The compressive and flexural strengths were evaluated as per the test procedure given in Indian Standards IS.516. For the evaluation of compressive strength, all the cube specimens were subjected to compressive load in a digital compression testing machine with a loading capacity of 2000 kn. Before subjected to the test, weight of each specimen was recorded and density of each specimen was calculated by dividing the weight of the specimen by its volume. Specimens were placed in the machine in such a manner that the load shall be applied to opposite sides of the cubes as cast, that is, not to the top and bottom. Test set up is shown in Figure 3.4.The load was applied without shock and increased continuously at a rate of approximately 14 N/mm 2 /min until the resistance of the specimen to the increasing load breaks down and no greater load can be sustained. The maximum load applied to the specimen was recorded. The compressive strength of the specimen was calculated using Equation (3.1) f c P A (3.1) where f c is the compressive strength, P is the maximum load applied to the specimen and A is the cross-sectional area of the specimen.

9 37 Figure 3.4 Test set-up for compressive strength Split tensile strength was evaluated as per the test procedure given in Indian Standards IS In order to evaluate the splitting tensile strength of geopolymer concrete, all the cylinder specimens were subjected to split tensile strength test in a 2000 kn digital compression testing machine. Specimens were placed in the machine in a horizontal manner in between the two parallel steel strips one at top and another at the bottom such that the load shall be applied along the 300 mm length as shown in Figure 3.5. The load was applied without shock and increased continuously at a nominal rate within the range of 1.2 N/(mm2/min) to 2.4 N/(mm2/min) until the specimen failed. The maximum load applied to the specimen was recorded and the split tensile strength of the specimen was calculated using Equation (3.2) ft 2P DL (3.2) where ft is the split tensile strength, P is the maximum load applied to the specimen, D is the diameter of the specimen and L is the length of the specimen.

10 38 Figure 3.5 Test set-up for split tensile strength Flexural strength of geopolymer concrete was determined using prism specimens by subjecting them to two point bending in Universal Testing Machine having a capacity of 1000 kn. Specimens were placed in the machine in such a manner that the load shall be applied to the uppermost surface as cast in the mould along two lines spaced at 13.3 cm apart as shown in Figure 3.6. The load was applied without shock and increased continuously at a rate of 1800 N/min until the specimen failed. The maximum load applied to the specimen was recorded and the flexural strength of the specimen was calculated using Equation (3.3) fr Pl bd 2 (3.3) where fr is the flexural strength, P is the maximum load applied to the specimen, l is the supported length of the specimen, b is the width of the specimen and d is the depth of the specimen.

11 39 Figure 3.6 Test set-up for flexural strength 3.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Workability Workability of freshly prepared geopolymer concrete mixes was measured in terms of its slump using the conventional slump cone apparatus. All the mixtures were generally cohesive and shiny in appearance due to the presence of sodium silicate. Even though the measured slump values are more than 150mm, all the mixtures were generally stiff and the workability was poor. Geopolymer concrete prepared by using fly ash from Tuticorin thermal power station has better workability than the geopolymer concrete prepared from Mettur fly ash. Workability of geopolymer concrete decreases as the concentration of NaOH in the alkaline activator solution increases irrespective of the source of fly ash as shown in Figure 3.7. This may be due to the reason that increasing the concentration of NaOH increases the total solid content in the mixture thereby reducing the water content.

12 MFA TFA Figure 3.7 Effect of concentration of NaOH on workability Density Density of geopolymer concrete for all the mixes is given in Table 3.3. Average density values of geopolymer concrete range from 2337 to 2405 kg/m 3 and 2316 kg/m 3 to 2397 kg/m 3 for Mettur fly ash and Tuticorin fly ash, respectively as shown in Figure 3.8. Variation of density is not much significant with respect to the source of fly ash, the concentration of NaOH solution, the type of curing and the age of concrete. The density of geopolymer concrete was found approximately equivalent to that of conventional concrete.

13 41 Table 3.3 Density of geopolymer concrete Spec. Avg. Weight in kg Avg. Density kg/m 3 F m M 8 C a A F m M 8 C h A F m M 8 C a A F m M 8 C h A F m M 12 C a A F m M 12 C h A F m M 12 C a A F m M 12 C h A F m M 16 C a A F m M 16 C h A F m M 16 C a A F m M 16 C h A F t M 8 C a A F t M 8 C h A F t M 8 C a A F t M 8 C h A F t M 12 C a A F t M 12 C h A F t M 12 C a A F t M 12 C h A F t M 16 C a A F t M 16 C h A F t M 16 C a A F t M 16 C h A

14 42 MFA, AC MFA, HC TFA, AC TFA, HC Specimen number Figure 3.8 Ranges of density of geopolymer concrete Compressive Strength The effect of various factors such as the source of fly ash, the concentration of NaOH solution in terms of molarity, the curing temperature namely room temperature curing and heat curing at 60 o C and the age of concrete at the time of testing, on the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete has been investigated and presented. Test results of compressive strength are presented in Table 3.4. The effect of source of fly ash on the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete is discussed in terms of compressive strength index. The compressive strength index is the ratio between the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Mettur fly ash and the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete prepared from Tuticorin fly ash for the same concentration of NaOH, identical curing temperature and at the same age of concrete. It was observed that, in case of ambient curing at room temperature, the compressive strength index is greater than one for all the three molarities of NaOH solution both at 7 days and 28 days age of concrete as shown in Figure 3.9. This indicates that the compressive strength of geopolymer

15 43 concrete prepared by using Mettur fly ash is higher than that of geopolymer concrete prepared from Tuticorin fly ash in ambient curing at room temperature. But in heat curing, compressive strength indices for most of the cases is less than one which indicates that the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Tuticorin flyash is greater than that of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Mettur fly ash in heat curing as shown in Figure Table 3.4 Compressive strength of geopolymer concrete Spec. Avg. Ultimate load in kn Avg. Compressive Strength MPa F m M 8 C a A F m M 8 C h A F m M 8 C a A F m M 8 C h A F m M 12 C a A F m M 12 C h A F m M 12 C a A F m M 12 C h A F m M 16 C a A F m M 16 C h A F m M 16 C a A F m M 16 C h A F t M 8 C a A F t M 8 C h A F t M 8 C a A F t M 8 C h A F t M 12 C a A F t M 12 C h A F t M 12 C a A F t M 12 C h A F t M 16 C a A F t M 16 C h A F t M 16 C a A F t M 16 C h A

16 days 28 days Concentration of NaOH Solution Figure 3.9 Compressive strength index - ambient curing days 28 days Concentration of NaOH Solution Figure 3.10 Compressive strength index - heat curing The effect of concentration of NaOH solution on the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Mettur fly ash is presented in Figure From the test results, it was found that for all the cases, compressive strength of geopolymer concrete increases as the concentration of NaOH solution increases. Under heat curing conditions, increasing the concentration of NaOH from 8 M to 12 M resulted in an enhancement of compressive strength by about 33% and 48% for 7 days and 28 days respectively. When the concentration of NaOH solution is further increased

17 45 from 12 M to 16 M, the compressive strength also increases by about 2% for both 7 days and 28 days. Similarly under ambient curing conditions, increasing the concentration of NaOH from 8 M to 12 M resulted in an improvement of compressive strength by about 43% and 25% for 7 days and 28 days respectively. When the concentration of NaOH solution is further increased from 12M to 16M, the compressive strength also increases by 10% and 16% for 7 days and 28 days respectively Concentration of NaOH Solution AC, 7days HC, 7 days AC, 28 days HC, 28 days Figure 3.11 Effect of concentration of NaOH -Mettur fly ash For geopolymer concrete prepared by using Tuticorin fly ash, the effect of concentration of NaOH solution on the compressive strength is presented in Figure From the test results, it can be seen that the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete increases as the concentration of NaOH solution increases for all the cases. Under heat curing conditions, increasing the concentration of NaOH solution from 8 M to 12 M resulted in the compressive strength enhancement of 55% and 26% for 7 days and 28 days respectively. When the concentration of NaOH solution is further increased from 12 M to 16 M, the compressive strength also increases by about 12% and 19% for 7 days and 28 days respectively. Similarly under ambient curing conditions, increasing the concentration of NaOH from 8 M to

18 46 12 M resulted in an improvement of compressive strength by about 17% and 2% for 7 days and 28 days respectively. When the concentration of NaOH solution is further increased from 12 M to 16 M, the compressive strength also increases by 26% and 11% for 7 days and 28 days respectively AC, 7days HC, 7 days AC, 28 days HC, 28 days Concentration of NaOH Solution Figure 3.12 Effect of concentration of NaOH - Tuticorin fly ash Due to heat curing, the compressive strength is improved for both the sources of fly ash at all concentrations of NaOH solution in 7 days and 28 days. The gain in compressive strength due to heat curing for geopolymer concrete prepared by using Mettur fly ash and Tuticorin fly ash is presented in Figure 3.13 and Figure 3.14 respectively. For geopolymer concrete prepared by using Mettur fly ash, at 7 days age of concrete, the gain in compressive strength due to heat curing is about 191%, 171% and 151% for 8 M, 12 M and 16 M concentrations of NaOH solution respectively. Similarly at 28 days, the gain in compressive strength is about 8%, 28% and 14% for 8 M, 12 M and 16 M concentrations of NaOH solution respectively. In case of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Tuticorin fly ash, at 7 days age of concrete, the gain in compressive strength due to heat curing is about 278%, 403% and 348% for 8 M, 12 M and 16 M concentration of NaOH solution respectively. Similarly at 28 days, the gain in compressive strength is about 18%, 46% and

19 47 57% for 8 M, 12 M and 16 M concentration of NaOH solution respectively. From the test results it was observed that heat curing resulted in an enhancement of compressive strength at early ages only and the increase in compressive strength is not much significant after 7 days Concentration of NaOH Solution 7 days 28 days Figure 3.13 Effect of heat curing - Mettur fly ash Concentration of NaOH Solution 7 days 28 days Figure 3.14 Effect of heat curing - Tuticorin fly ash From the test results it was observed that, as the age of the concrete increases from 7 days to 28 days, the compressive strength also increases for all the specimens. But the rate of increase in compressive strength with age of

20 48 concrete is more significant in case of ambient curing at room temperature when compared with heat curing at 60 o C Split Tensile Strength The effect of various factors such as the source of fly ash, the concentration of NaOH solution, the curing temperature and the age of concrete on the split tensile strength of geopolymer concrete has been investigated and presented. Test results of split tensile strength are presented in Table 3.5. The effect of source of fly ash on the split tensile strength of geopolymer concrete is discussed in terms of split tensile strength index. Split tensile strength index is the ratio between the split tensile strength of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Mettur fly ash and the split tensile strength of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Tuticorin fly ash for the same concentration of NaOH, identical curing temperature and at the same age of concrete. It was observed that, in case of ambient curing at room temperature, the split tensile strength index is greater than one for all the three molarities of NaOH solution both at 7 days and 28 days as shown in Figure This indicates that the split tensile strength of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Mettur fly ash is higher than that of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Tuticorin fly ash in ambient curing at room temperature. Similarly in heat curing, split tensile strength indices for most of the cases is greater than one which indicates that the split tensile strength of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Mettur fly ash is higher than that of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Tuticorin fly ash as shown in Figure 3.16.

21 49 Table 3.5 Split tensile strength of geopolymer concrete Spec. Avg. Ultimate load in kn Avg. Split tensile Strength MPa F m M 8 C a A F m M 8 C h A F m M 8 C a A F m M 8 C h A F m M 12 C a A F m M 12 C h A F m M 12 C a A F m M 12 C h A F m M 16 C a A F m M 16 C h A F m M 16 C a A F m M 16 C h A F t M 8 C a A F t M 8 C h A F t M 8 C a A F t M 8 C h A F t M 12 C a A F t M 12 C h A F t M 12 C a A F t M 12 C h A F t M 16 C a A F t M 16 C h A F t M 16 C a A F t M 16 C h A

22 days 28 days Concentration of NaOH Solution Figure 3.15 Split tensile strength index - ambient curing days 28 days Concentration of NaOH Figure 3.16 Split tensile strength index - heat curing The effect of concentration of NaOH solution on the split tensile strength of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Mettur fly ash is presented in Figure From the test results, it was found that split tensile strength of geopolymer concrete increases as the concentration of NaOH solution increases for all the cases. Under heat curing conditions, increasing the concentration of NaOH solution from 8 M to 12 M resulted in an enhancement of split tensile strength by about 21% and 7% for 7 days and 28 days respectively. When the concentration of NaOH solution is further

23 51 increased from 12 M to 16 M, the split tensile strength also increases by about 34% and 14% for 7 days and 28 days respectively. Similarly under ambient curing conditions, increasing the concentration of NaOH from 8 M to 12 M resulted in an enhancement of split tensile strength by about 32% and 21% for 7 days and 28 days respectively. When the concentration of NaOH solution is further increased from 12 M to 16 M, the split tensile strength also increases by 30% and 18% for 7 days and 28 days respectively AC, 7days HC, 7 days AC, 28 days HC, 28 days Concentration of NaOH Solution Figure 3.17 Effect of concentration of NaOH - Mettur fly ash The effect of concentration of NaOH solution on the split tensile strength of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Tuticorin fly ash is presented in Figure From the test results, it was found that split tensile strength of geopolymer concrete increases as the concentration of NaOH solution increases for all the cases. Under heat curing conditions, increasing the concentration of NaOH from 8 M to 12 M resulted in an enhancement of split tensile strength by about 37% and 54% for 7 days and 28 days respectively. When the concentration of NaOH solution is further increased from 12 M to 16 M, the split tensile strength also increases by about 38% and 69% for 7 days and 28 days respectively. Similarly under ambient curing conditions, increasing the concentration of NaOH solution from 8 M to 12 M

24 52 resulted in an improvement of split tensile strength by about 78% and 15% for 7 days and 28 days respectively. When the concentration of NaOH solution is further increased from 12 M to 16 M, the split tensile strength also increases by 62% and 27% for 7 days and 28 days respectively AC, 7days HC, 7 days AC, 28 days HC, 28 days Concentration of NaOH Solution Figure 3.18 Effect of concentration of NaOH - Tuticorin fly ash Due to heat curing, the split tensile strength is improved for both the sources of fly ash, at all the concentrations of NaOH solution in 7 days and 28 days. The gain in split tensile strength due to heat curing for geopolymer concrete prepared by using Mettur fly ash and Tuticorin fly ash is presented in Figure 3.19 and Figure 3.20 respectively. For geopolymer concrete prepared by using Mettur fly ash, at the age of 7 days, the gain in split tensile strength due to heat curing is about 344%, 305% and 317% for 8 M, 12 M and 16 M concentrations of NaOH solution respectively. Similarly at 28 days, the gain in split tensile strength is about 29%, 14% and 11% for 8 M, 12 M and 16 M concentrations of NaOH solution respectively. In case of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Tuticorin fly ash, at 7 days, the gain in split tensile strength due to heat curing is about 536%, 390% and 317% for 8 M, 12 M and 16 M concentrations of NaOH solution respectively. Similarly at the age of 28 days, the gain in split tensile strength is about 15%, 55% and

25 53 106% for 8 M, 12 M and 16 M concentrations of NaOH solution respectively. From the test results it was observed that heat curing resulted in an enhancement of split tensile strength at early ages only. The effect of heat curing on the increase in split tensile strength is not much significant after 7 days as evidenced from the test results days 28 days Concentration of NaOH Solution Figure 3.19 Effect of heat curing - Mettur fly ash Concentration of NaOH Solution 7 days 28 days Figure 3.20 Effect of heat curing - Tuticorin fly ash From the test results it was also noted that, as the age of the concrete increases from 7 days to 28 days, the split tensile strength also

26 54 increases for all the specimens. But the rate of increase in split tensile strength with age of concrete is more significant in case of ambient curing at room temperature in comparison with heat curing at 60 o C Flexural Strength The effect of various factors such as the source of fly ash, the concentration of NaOH solution and the curing temperature on the flexural strength of geopolymer concrete has been investigated and presented. Test results of flexural strength are presented in Table 3.6. Table 3.6 Flexural strength of geopolymer concrete Spec. Avg. Ultimate load in kn Avg. Flexural Strength MPa F m M 8 C a A F m M 8 C h A F m M 12 C a A F m M 12 C h A F m M 16 C a A F m M 16 C h A F t M 8 C a A F t M 8 C h A F t M 12 C a A F t M 12 C h A F t M 16 C a A F t M 16 C h A The effect of source of fly ash on the flexural strength of geopolymer concrete is discussed in terms of flexural strength index. Flexural strength index is the ratio between the flexural strength of geopolymer

27 55 concrete prepared by using Mettur fly ash and the flexural strength of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Tuticorin fly ash for the same concentration of NaOH, identical curing temperature and at 28 days age of concrete. It was observed that, the flexural strength index is greater than one for all the three molarities of NaOH solution both in ambient curing and heat curing as shown in Figure This indicates that the flexural strength of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Mettur fly ash is greater than that of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Tuticorin fly ash Concentration of NaOH Solution AC HC Figure 3.21 Flexural strength index The effect of concentration of NaOH solution on the flexural strength of geopolymer concrete is presented in Figure From the test results, it was found that flexural strength of geopolymer concrete increases as the concentration of NaOH solution increases for all the cases. For geopolymer concrete prepared by using Mettur fly ash, increasing the concentration of NaOH solution from 8 M to 12 M resulted in an improvement of flexural strength by about 16% under heat curing conditions. The flexural strength also increases by about 42% when the concentration of NaOH solution is further increased from 12 M to 16 M. Similarly under ambient curing conditions, increasing the concentration of NaOH from 8 M to

28 56 12 M resulted in an enhancement of flexural strength by 25%. When the concentration of NaOH solution is further increased from 12 M to 16 M, the flexural strength gets increased by 20%. In case of geopolymer concrete prepared by using Tuticorin fly ash, increasing the concentration of NaOH from 8 M to 12 M resulted in an improvement of flexural strength by about 26% when cured at 60 o C. The flexural strength also increases by about 40% when the concentration of NaOH solution is further increased from 12 M to 16 M. Similarly under ambient curing conditions, increasing the concentration of NaOH from 8 M to 12 M resulted in an enhancement of flexural strength by 43%. When the concentration of NaOH solution is further increased from 12 M to 16 M, the flexural strength gets increased by 27% Concentration of NaOH Solution MFA, AC MFA, HC TFA, AC TFA, HC Figure 3.22 Effect of concentration of NaOH on flexural strength The flexural strength is improved due to heat curing for both sources of fly ash at all concentrations of NaOH solution. The gain in flexural strength due to heat curing is presented in Figure For Mettur fly ash geopolymer concrete, the gain in flexural strength due to heat curing is about 17%, 8% and 28% for 8 M, 12 M and 16 M concentrations of NaOH solution respectively. In case of Tuticorin fly ash geopolymer concrete, the gain in

29 57 flexural strength due to heat curing is about 26%, 11% and 21% for 8 M, 12 M and 16 M concentrations of NaOH solution respectively MFA TFA Concentration of NaOH Solution Figure 3.23 Gain in flexural strength due to heat curing 3.4 CONCLUSIONS Based on the results obtained in this investigation, the following conclusions are drawn: Geopolymer concrete prepared by using fly ash obtained from Tuticorin thermal power station has better workability than the geopolymer concrete prepared from Mettur based fly ash. Irrespective of the source of fly ash, workability of geopolymer concrete decreases as the concentration of sodium hydroxide in the alkaline activator solution increases. The average density values of geopolymer concrete ranges from 2316 kg/m 3 to 2405 kg/m 3 which was found approximately closer to that of ordinary Portland cement concrete. Variation of density is not much significant with respect to the source of fly ash, the concentration of NaOH solution, the type of curing and the age of concrete.

30 58 Compressive strength of Mettur fly ash geopolymer concrete is higher than that of Tuticorin fly ash based geopolymer concrete in ambient curing at room temperature. Compressive strength of geopolymer concrete increases as the concentration of NaOH solution increases. This is applicable for all the curing temperatures, age of concrete and sources of fly ash. Rate of increase in compressive strength and split tensile strength with respect to the age of concrete is more significant in case of ambient curing at room temperature in comparison with heat curing at 60 o C.Heat curing resulted in an enhancement of compressive strength and split tensile strength at early ages only. The effect of heat curing on the increase in compressive strength and split tensile strength is not much significant after 7 days. For the same concentrations of NaOH, identical curing temperature and the age of concrete, split tensile strength and flexural strength is higher in case of mettur fly ash based geopolymer concrete. Geopolymer concrete did not harden immediately at room temperature as in conventional concrete. Geopolymer concrete specimens took a minimum of 3 days for complete setting without leaving a nail impression on the hardened surface. These two observations are considered as drawbacks of this concrete to be used for practical applications.

Strength and Workability Characteristics of Concrete by Using Different Super Plasticizers

Strength and Workability Characteristics of Concrete by Using Different Super Plasticizers International Journal of Materials Engineering 12, 2(1): 7-11 DOI: 1.923/j.ijme.11.2 Strength and Workability Characteristics of Concrete by Using Different Super Plasticizers Venu Malagavelli *, Neelakanteswara

More information

STRENGTH PROPERTIES ON FLY ASH BASED GEO POLYMER CONCRETE WITH ADMIXTURES

STRENGTH PROPERTIES ON FLY ASH BASED GEO POLYMER CONCRETE WITH ADMIXTURES International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 347 353, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_035 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON BEHAVIOUR OF NANO CONCRETE

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON BEHAVIOUR OF NANO CONCRETE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 315 320, Article ID: IJCIET_07_02_027 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=2

More information

Performance Evaluation of Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Beam

Performance Evaluation of Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Beam Compressive (MPa) Setting Time Fineness International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 04 113 Performance Evaluation of Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Beam M. M. Rahman, M. H. Rashid,

More information

Effect of basalt aggregates and plasticizer on the compressive strength of concrete

Effect of basalt aggregates and plasticizer on the compressive strength of concrete International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 4 (4) (2015) 520-525 www.sciencepubco.com/index.php/ijet Science Publishing Corporation doi: 10.14419/ijet.v4i4.4932 Research Paper Effect of basalt aggregates

More information

A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT WITH SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH, RICE HUSK ASH & STONE DUST

A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT WITH SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH, RICE HUSK ASH & STONE DUST International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 163 172, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_016 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

Application of Foundry Sand In Civil Construction

Application of Foundry Sand In Civil Construction IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) ISSN: 2278-1684, PP: 38-42 www.iosrjournals.org Application of Foundry Sand In Civil Construction Mr. I.M. Attar 1 Prof. A.K. Gupta 2 (Student

More information

STRENGTH OF CONCRETE INCORPORATING AGGREGATES RECYCLED FROM DEMOLITION WASTE

STRENGTH OF CONCRETE INCORPORATING AGGREGATES RECYCLED FROM DEMOLITION WASTE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE INCORPORATING AGGREGATES RECYCLED FROM DEMOLITION WASTE R. Kumutha and K. Vijai Department of Civil Engineering, Sethu Institute of Technology, Pulloor, Kariapatti, India E-Mail: kumuthar@yahoo.co.in,

More information

Analysis of M35 and M40 grades of concrete by ACI and USBR methods of mix design on replacing fine aggregates with stone dust

Analysis of M35 and M40 grades of concrete by ACI and USBR methods of mix design on replacing fine aggregates with stone dust Analysis of M35 and M40 s of concrete by and methods of mix design on replacing fine aggregates with stone dust Satwinder Singh 1, Dr. Hemant Sood 2 1 M. E. Scholar, Civil Engineering, NITTTR, Chandigarh,

More information

EFFECT S OF ALKALINE SOLUTION ON GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE Mr. M. S. Girawale M.E. student P.D.V.V.P.C.O.E., Ahmednagar.

EFFECT S OF ALKALINE SOLUTION ON GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE Mr. M. S. Girawale M.E. student P.D.V.V.P.C.O.E., Ahmednagar. International Journal Engineering Research and General Science Volume 3, Issue 4, July-August, 2015 EFFECT S OF ALKALINE SOLUTION ON GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE Mr. M. S. Girawale M.E. student P.D.V.V.P.C.O.E.,

More information

Optimization of Mix Proportion of High Performance Mortar for Structural Applications

Optimization of Mix Proportion of High Performance Mortar for Structural Applications American J. of Engineering and Applied Sciences 3 (4): 643-649, 2010 ISSN 1941-7020 2010 Science Publications Optimization of Mix Proportion of High Performance Mortar for Structural Applications Cheah

More information

AN EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ECO-FRIENDLY CONCRETE USING WATER GLASS AND LYE LIQUID AS ALKALINE SOLUTION

AN EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ECO-FRIENDLY CONCRETE USING WATER GLASS AND LYE LIQUID AS ALKALINE SOLUTION AN EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ECO-FRIENDLY CONCRETE USING WATER GLASS AND LYE LIQUID AS ALKALINE SOLUTION (zero cement concrete using red mud) SHANTHARAM.Y,ASHICKA BANU.M,

More information

EFFECT OF NANO-SILICA ON CONCRETE CONTAINING METAKAOLIN

EFFECT OF NANO-SILICA ON CONCRETE CONTAINING METAKAOLIN International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 104-112, Article ID: IJCIET_07_01_009 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=1

More information

A Study on the Flexural and Split Tensile Strengths of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete at High Temperatures

A Study on the Flexural and Split Tensile Strengths of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete at High Temperatures A Study on the Flexural and Split Tensile Strengths of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete at High Temperatures 1 P. Jyotsna Devi, 2 Dr. K. Srinivasa Rao 1,2 Dept. of Civil Engg, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam,

More information

Effect of composition of fly ash on compressive strength of fly ash based geopolymer mortar

Effect of composition of fly ash on compressive strength of fly ash based geopolymer mortar Southern Cross University epublications@scu 23rd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials 14 Effect of composition of fly ash on compressive strength of fly ash based geopolymer

More information

RESISTANCE OF FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMER MORTARS IN SULFURIC ACID

RESISTANCE OF FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMER MORTARS IN SULFURIC ACID RESISTANCE OF FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMER MORTARS IN SULFURIC ACID Suresh Thokchom 1, Partha Ghosh 2 and Somnath Ghosh 1 1 Department of Civil Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India 2 Department

More information

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF EFFECT OF SODIUM SILICATE (NA 2 SIO 3 ) ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF EFFECT OF SODIUM SILICATE (NA 2 SIO 3 ) ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET Volume 6, Issue 12, Dec 2015, pp. 39-47, Article ID: IJCIET_06_12_004 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=12

More information

Lab 1 Concrete Proportioning, Mixing, and Testing

Lab 1 Concrete Proportioning, Mixing, and Testing Lab 1 Concrete Proportioning, Mixing, and Testing Supplemental Lab manual Objectives Concepts Background Experimental Procedure Report Requirements Discussion Prepared By Mutlu Ozer Objectives Students

More information

Energy Absorbing Concrete for Impact Loading

Energy Absorbing Concrete for Impact Loading Energy Absorbing Concrete for Impact Loading R. Sri Ravindrarajah * and M. C. Lyte ** *Senior Lecturer, **Former Student, Centre for Built Infrastructure Research University of Technology, Sydney, P O

More information

How To Make Concrete At Site? M 25 Example

How To Make Concrete At Site? M 25 Example How To Make Concrete At Site? M 25 Example By Er. Kaushal Kishore, Materials Engineer, Roorkee PORTLAND CEMENT: Joseph Aspdin, a mason at Leeds prepared a cement in 1824 by heating a mixture of finelydivided

More information

Rapid Chloride Permeability Test on Self-Compacting High Performance Green Concrete

Rapid Chloride Permeability Test on Self-Compacting High Performance Green Concrete Rapid Chloride Permeability Test on Self-Compacting High Performance Green Concrete M. Shahul Hameed 1, V.Saraswathi 2,A.S.S. Sekar 3 1 Faculty and Researh Scholar, Dept. of Civil Engg., Raja College of

More information

Chapter 8 Design of Concrete Mixes

Chapter 8 Design of Concrete Mixes Chapter 8 Design of Concrete Mixes 1 The basic procedure for mix design is applicable to concrete for most purposes including pavements. Concrete mixes should meet; Workability (slump/vebe) Compressive

More information

Evaluation of M35 and M40 grades of concrete by ACI, DOE, USBR and BIS methods of mix design

Evaluation of M35 and M40 grades of concrete by ACI, DOE, USBR and BIS methods of mix design Evaluation of M35 and M40 grades of concrete by ACI, DOE, USBR and BIS methods of mix design Sharandeep Singh 1, Dr.Hemant Sood 2 1 M. E. Scholar, CIVIL Engineering, NITTTR, Chandigarh, India 2Professor

More information

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE IN FLYASH WITH CONVENTIONAL CONCRETE

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE IN FLYASH WITH CONVENTIONAL CONCRETE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 4, July-August 2016, pp. 24 36, Article ID: IJCIET_07_04_003 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=4

More information

STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF GLASS FIBRE CONCRETE

STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF GLASS FIBRE CONCRETE STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF GLASS FIBRE CONCRETE Chandramouli K. 1, Srinivasa Rao P. 2, Pannirselvam N. 3, Seshadri Sekhar T. 4 and Sravana P. 2 1 Priyadrashini Institute of Technology for Women, Tenali, Guntur,

More information

SELF COMPACTION HIGH PERFORMANCE GREEN CONCRETE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

SELF COMPACTION HIGH PERFORMANCE GREEN CONCRETE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SELF COMPACTION HIGH PERFORMANCE GREEN CONCRETE 49 Jr. of Industrial Pollution Control 26 (1)(2010) pp 49-55 Enviromedia Printed in India. All rights reserved SELF COMPACTION HIGH PERFORMANCE GREEN CONCRETE

More information

ASIAN JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING (BUILDING AND HOUSING) VOL. 8, NO. 5 (2007) PAGES

ASIAN JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING (BUILDING AND HOUSING) VOL. 8, NO. 5 (2007) PAGES ASIAN JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING (BUILDING AND HOUSING) VOL. 8, NO. 5 (2007) PAGES 479-489 STEEL FIBERS AS REPLACEMENT OF WEB REINFORCEMENT FOR RCC DEEP BEAMS IN SHEAR S.K. Madan a, G. Rajesh Kumar b

More information

GUIDELINES FOR MANUFACTURING QUALITY FLY ASH BRICKS

GUIDELINES FOR MANUFACTURING QUALITY FLY ASH BRICKS GUIDELINES FOR MANUFACTURING QUALITY FLY ASH BRICKS Prepared By Fly Ash Resource Centre, State Pollution Control Board, Odisha, Bhubaneswar 1.0 INTRODUCTION Fly Ash generated from combustion of Coal in

More information

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM RETROFITTED WITH FERROCEMENT

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM RETROFITTED WITH FERROCEMENT Int. J. Struct. & Civil Engg. Res. 2013 Y V Ladi and P M Mohite, 2013 Research Paper EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM RETROFITTED WITH FERROCEMENT Y V Ladi 1 * and P M Mohite 2 *Corresponding

More information

1.5 Concrete (Part I)

1.5 Concrete (Part I) 1.5 Concrete (Part I) This section covers the following topics. Constituents of Concrete Properties of Hardened Concrete (Part I) 1.5.1 Constituents of Concrete Introduction Concrete is a composite material

More information

AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON STRENGTH PROPERETIES OF CONCRETE BY THE INFLUENCE OF FLYASH AND NANOSILICA AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT

AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON STRENGTH PROPERETIES OF CONCRETE BY THE INFLUENCE OF FLYASH AND NANOSILICA AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 306 315, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_030 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

NOTE: FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING CONTRACTOR MIX DESIGN, THE DESIGN PROCEDURES ARE SPECIFIED IN THE SPECIAL PROVISIONS OF THE CONTRACT.

NOTE: FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING CONTRACTOR MIX DESIGN, THE DESIGN PROCEDURES ARE SPECIFIED IN THE SPECIAL PROVISIONS OF THE CONTRACT. September 1, 2003 CONCRETE MANUAL 5-694.300 MIX DESIGN 5-694.300 NOTE: FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING CONTRACTOR MIX DESIGN, THE DESIGN PROCEDURES ARE SPECIFIED IN THE SPECIAL PROVISIONS OF THE CONTRACT. 5-694.301

More information

Experimental Study on Properties of No-fine Concrete

Experimental Study on Properties of No-fine Concrete Research Paper Volume 2 Issue 10 June 2015 International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research ISSN (Online): 2347-1697 Experimental Study on Properties of No-fine Paper ID IJIFR/ V2/ E10/ 055 Page

More information

Importance of quality assurance of materials for construction work

Importance of quality assurance of materials for construction work Importance of quality assurance of materials for construction work R.Savitha Building Materials Research and Testing Division, National Building Research Organization ABSTRACT: Quality assurance of building

More information

EXPERIMENT NO.1. : Vicat s apparatus, plunger

EXPERIMENT NO.1. : Vicat s apparatus, plunger EXPERIMENT NO.1 Name of experiment:to determine the percentage of water for normal consistency for a given sample of cement Apparatus : Vicat s apparatus with plunger of 10mm dia, measuring cylinder, weighing

More information

STUDY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ECO- FRIENDLY ECONOMIC CONCRETE

STUDY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ECO- FRIENDLY ECONOMIC CONCRETE STUDY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ECO- FRIENDLY ECONOMIC CONCRETE Y.Boopathi 1, Dr.K.Nirmal Kumar 2 1 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, N.S.N of College of Engineering and Technology,

More information

REINFORCED CONCRETE. Reinforced Concrete Design. A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition

REINFORCED CONCRETE. Reinforced Concrete Design. A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition CHAPTER REINFORCED CONCRETE Reinforced Concrete Design A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition CONCRETE Fifth Edition A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

More information

ACCELERATING ADMIXTURE RAPIDITE -ITS EFFECT ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

ACCELERATING ADMIXTURE RAPIDITE -ITS EFFECT ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET Volume 6, Issue 12, Dec 215, pp. 58-65, Article ID: IJCIET_6_12_6 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=12

More information

Flexural Strength of Concrete (The Modulus of Rupture Test)

Flexural Strength of Concrete (The Modulus of Rupture Test) Revised 09-06-3, WKS Datasheet No. 7.6a & 7.6b MOHAWK COLLEGE OF APPLIED ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION SCIENCES DEPARTMENT Flexural Strength of Concrete (The Modulus of Rupture Test) INTRODUCTION

More information

Performance Evaluation of Eco-friendly Green Concrete

Performance Evaluation of Eco-friendly Green Concrete Nature Environment and Pollution Technology An International Quarterly Scientific Journal ISSN: 0972-6268 Vol. 12 No. 3 pp. 443-448 2013 Original Research Paper Performance Evaluation of Eco-friendly Green

More information

Acid Resistance of Fly ash based Geopolymer mortars SureshThokchom 1, Dr.Partha Ghosh 2 and Dr. Somnath Ghosh 3 1

Acid Resistance of Fly ash based Geopolymer mortars SureshThokchom 1, Dr.Partha Ghosh 2 and Dr. Somnath Ghosh 3 1 Acid Resistance of Fly ash based Geopolymer mortars SureshThokchom 1, Dr.Partha Ghosh 2 and Dr. Somnath Ghosh 3 1 Department of Civil Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India Email: thok_s@rediffmail.com

More information

Comparison of strength and other factors of concrete by replacing normal aggregates with demolished material and plastic aggregate

Comparison of strength and other factors of concrete by replacing normal aggregates with demolished material and plastic aggregate 3rd International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, Engineering Trends, Communication, Optimization and Sciences Comparison of strength and other factors of concrete by replacing normal aggregates

More information

CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY

CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CHULALONGKORN UNIVERSITY Tested by... ID. No.... Date... Graded by... TEST No. C-2 PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATE Part A Specific Gravity and Absorption

More information

Experimental Study on Flexural Behavior of Sisal Fibre in Reinforced Concrete Beam

Experimental Study on Flexural Behavior of Sisal Fibre in Reinforced Concrete Beam Experimental Study on Flexural Behavior of Sisal Fibre in Reinforced Concrete Beam Athiappan. K 1, Vijaychandrakanth. S 2, 1- Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Dr.Sivanthi Aditanar

More information

Flexural Behavior of Concrete Beams using Recycled Fine Aggregate and Steel Fibres

Flexural Behavior of Concrete Beams using Recycled Fine Aggregate and Steel Fibres Flexural Behavior of Concrete Beams using Recycled Fine Aggregate and Steel Fibres M. Kaarthik, and K.Subrmanian Abstract----The feasibility of making concrete with silica fume with partial replacement

More information

GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE: TURN WASTE INTO ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CONCRETE

GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE: TURN WASTE INTO ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CONCRETE GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE: TURN WASTE INTO ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CONCRETE Djwantoro Hardjito, Steenie E. Wallah, Dody M.J. Sumajouw, B.V. Rangan *) Faculty of Engineering and Computing, Curtin University

More information

Study On The Mechanical Properties Of Concrete Using Scba And Coir Fibres Deepa K Venu 1, Prof. M. Rajalingam 2

Study On The Mechanical Properties Of Concrete Using Scba And Coir Fibres Deepa K Venu 1, Prof. M. Rajalingam 2 Study On The Mechanical Properties Of Concrete Using Scba And Coir Fibres Deepa K Venu 1, Prof. M. Rajalingam 2 1 P.G. Student, Department Of Civil Engineering, EASA College of Engineering and Technology

More information

SPECIAL APPLICATIONS CONCRETE-PERVIOUS CONCRETE, PLASTIC CONCRETE AND CONTROLLED LOW STRENGTH MATERIAL

SPECIAL APPLICATIONS CONCRETE-PERVIOUS CONCRETE, PLASTIC CONCRETE AND CONTROLLED LOW STRENGTH MATERIAL SPECIAL APPLICATIONS CONCRETE-PERVIOUS CONCRETE, PLASTIC CONCRETE AND CONTROLLED LOW STRENGTH MATERIAL ABSTRACT V V Arora, P N Ojha, Suresh Kumar & Komalpreet Kaur National Council for Cement and Building

More information

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SELF- COMPACTING CONCRETE CONTAINING INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SELF- COMPACTING CONCRETE CONTAINING INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SELF- COMPACTING CONCRETE CONTAINING INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS B.H.V. Pai Associate Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Mtech., Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, India M.

More information

Index Terms-Normal concrete; Waste plastic; Fibre; Mechanical and Durability properties.

Index Terms-Normal concrete; Waste plastic; Fibre; Mechanical and Durability properties. Evaluation of Strength and Durability of Waste Plastic Mix Concrete Prof. M. Kumaran 1, M. Nidhi 2, Bini P. R. 3 Professor 1, Department of Civil Engineering, Universal Engineering College, Vallivattom,

More information

EFFECTS OF ACIDIC CURING ON THE PROPERTIES OF UNTREATED AND TREATED POLYESTER FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE

EFFECTS OF ACIDIC CURING ON THE PROPERTIES OF UNTREATED AND TREATED POLYESTER FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 182 191, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_018 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

Properties of Green Concrete Mix by Concurrent use of Fly Ash and Quarry Dust

Properties of Green Concrete Mix by Concurrent use of Fly Ash and Quarry Dust IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN) e-issn: 225-321, p-issn: 2278-8719 Vol. 3, Issue 8 (August. 213), V3 PP 48-54 Properties of Green Concrete Mix by Concurrent use of Fly Ash and Quarry Dust A.Krishnamoorthi,

More information

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON STRENGTH AND DURABILITY PROPERTIES OF HYBRID FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON STRENGTH AND DURABILITY PROPERTIES OF HYBRID FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON STRENGTH AND DURABILITY PROPERTIES OF HYBRID FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE SUDHEER JIROBE 1, BRIJBHUSHAN.S 2, MANEETH P D 3 1 M.Tech. Student, Department of Construction technology,

More information

STUDY ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BY USING TREATED DOMESTIC WASTE WATER AS MIXING AND CURING OF CONCRETE

STUDY ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BY USING TREATED DOMESTIC WASTE WATER AS MIXING AND CURING OF CONCRETE STUDY ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BY USING TREATED DOMESTIC WASTE WATER AS MIXING AND CURING OF CONCRETE Vinut Kulkarni 1, Suresh G Patil 2, Shivasharanappa 3 1 M-tech IV Sem (Environmental Engineering)

More information

REFERENCE TO STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS CONCRETE AGGREGATE TESTS ON CONCRETE AGGREGATE CEMENT 4

REFERENCE TO STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS CONCRETE AGGREGATE TESTS ON CONCRETE AGGREGATE CEMENT 4 06005_Jan06_2014.pdf Page 1 of 14 INDEX Page 06005-1 REFERENCE TO STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS 2 06005-2 CONCRETE AGGREGATE 2 06005-3 TESTS ON CONCRETE AGGREGATE 3 06005-4 CEMENT 4 06005-5 PROVIDING CHEMICAL

More information

Evaluation of Initial Setting Time of Fresh Concrete

Evaluation of Initial Setting Time of Fresh Concrete Evaluation of Initial Setting Time of Fresh Concrete R R C Piyasena, P A T S Premerathne, B T D Perera, S M A Nanayakkara Abstract According to ASTM 403C, initial setting time of concrete is measured based

More information

GRADATION OF AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE BLOCK

GRADATION OF AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE BLOCK GRADATION OF AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE BLOCK Although numerous papers have been written concerning the proper gradation for concrete mixes, they have generally dealt with plastic mixes, and very little published

More information

Stone crusher dust as a fine aggregate in Concrete for paving blocks

Stone crusher dust as a fine aggregate in Concrete for paving blocks Stone crusher dust as a fine aggregate in Concrete for paving blocks Radhikesh P. Nanda 1, Amiya K. Das 2, Moharana.N.C 3 1 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Durgapur, Durgapur

More information

FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF HYBRID FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF HYBRID FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS Int. J. Struct. & Civil Engg. Res. 2013 M D Koli and H S Jadhav, 2013 Research Paper ISSN 2319 6009 www.ijscer.com Vol. 2, No. 3, August 2013 2013 IJSCER. All Rights Reserved FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF HYBRID

More information

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS OF GEO POLYMER CONCRETE

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS OF GEO POLYMER CONCRETE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 211-219, Article ID: IJCIET_07_01_018 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=1

More information

Influence of strong alkaline substances (sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate) in mixing water on strength and setting properties of concrete

Influence of strong alkaline substances (sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate) in mixing water on strength and setting properties of concrete Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences Vol. 13, April 2006, pp. 123-128 Influence of strong alkaline substances (sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate) in mixing water on strength and setting

More information

Dr. Prahallada M.C* and Dr. Prakash K.B**

Dr. Prahallada M.C* and Dr. Prakash K.B** Vol., Issue 4, pp.79-8 Strength and Workability Characteristics Waste Plastic Fibre Reinforced Concrete Produced From Recycled Aggregates Dr. Prahallada M.C* and Dr. Prakash K.B** * Pressor, Department

More information

Treatment of a surface or structure to resist the passage of water in the absence of hydrostatic pressure. presence of hydrostatic pressure.

Treatment of a surface or structure to resist the passage of water in the absence of hydrostatic pressure. presence of hydrostatic pressure. Recommend Approval: Team Leader Date Division Chief Date Approved: Director Date Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration Office of Materials Technology MARYLAND STANDARD METHOD

More information

Study on durability of high performance concrete with industrial wastes

Study on durability of high performance concrete with industrial wastes Peer-reviewed & Open access journal ISSN: 1804-1191 www.pieb.cz ATI - Applied Technologies & Innovations Volume 2 Issue 2 August 2010 pp. 19-28 Study on durability of high performance concrete with industrial

More information

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GREEN GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE USING FLY ASH

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GREEN GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE USING FLY ASH Gurlhosur et al. Vol. 11, No. I, August, 2015, pp 26-32. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GREEN GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE USING FLY ASH 1 Shri Krishna Gurlhosur*, 2 Abdul Samad M

More information

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON STRENGTH AND FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF SELF HEALING CONCRETE

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON STRENGTH AND FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF SELF HEALING CONCRETE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 398 406, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_041 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

Re-Use of Polyethylene Plastic Waste In Concrete

Re-Use of Polyethylene Plastic Waste In Concrete Re-Use of Polyethylene Plastic Waste In Concrete 1 M Mahesh, 2 B Venkat Narsimha Rao, 3 CH. Satya Sri 1 Assistant Professors, 2 Assistant Professors, 3 Assistant Professors Department of Civil Engineering,

More information

Ultra-High Strength Concrete Mixtures Using Local Materials

Ultra-High Strength Concrete Mixtures Using Local Materials UltraHigh Strength Concrete Mixtures Using Local Materials Srinivas Allena 1 and Craig M. Newtson 2 1 New Mexico State University, Civil Engineering Department, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 3CE, Las Cruces, NM

More information

Role of Alkaline Activator in Development of Eco-friendly Fly Ash Based Geo Polymer Concrete

Role of Alkaline Activator in Development of Eco-friendly Fly Ash Based Geo Polymer Concrete International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 3, No. 5, October 2012 Role of Alkaline Activator in Development of Eco-friendly Fly Ash Based Geo Polymer Concrete S. V. Joshi and

More information

MEYCO Underground Construction

MEYCO Underground Construction MEYCO Underground Construction Sprayed Concrete - Basics June 3 rd 2010 - Budapest, Hungary Lars Hage Technical Manager Sprayed Concrete MEYCO Global Underground Construction Introduction Sprayed concrete

More information

Experimental Investigation on Performance of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash Concrete in Acidic Environment

Experimental Investigation on Performance of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash Concrete in Acidic Environment www.cafetinnova.org Indexed in Scopus Compendex and Geobase Elsevier, Chemical Abstract Services-USA, Geo-Ref Information Services-USA, List B of Scientific Journals, Poland, Directory of Research Journals

More information

Green Concrete by using Industrial Waste Material- fly ash, quarry dust, marble powder

Green Concrete by using Industrial Waste Material- fly ash, quarry dust, marble powder Green Concrete by using Industrial Waste Material- fly ash, quarry dust, marble powder Santosh Kumbhar 1, Mahesh Patil 2, Dipak Patil 3 1,2,3 Students, Final year, Civil Engineering, SITCOE, Yadrav. Email:

More information

SCCT Annual Concrete Seminar 2013 Recent Developments and Applications in Concrete Technology. ASR Effect of Fine Recycled Glass in Concrete

SCCT Annual Concrete Seminar 2013 Recent Developments and Applications in Concrete Technology. ASR Effect of Fine Recycled Glass in Concrete SCCT Annual Concrete Seminar 2013 Recent Developments and Applications in Concrete Technology 18 April 2013 ASR Effect of Fine Recycled Glass in Concrete Dr Tommy Y Lo Associate Professor Civil and Architectural

More information

Durability of block work: the effect of varying water/cement ratio of mortar joint

Durability of block work: the effect of varying water/cement ratio of mortar joint Available online at www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com Advances in Applied Science Research, 2012, ():1848-185 Durability of block work: the effect of varying water/cement ratio of mortar joint Nwofor, T.C.

More information

Properties of Concrete with Blast-Furnace Slag Cement Made from Clinker with Adjusted Mineral Composition

Properties of Concrete with Blast-Furnace Slag Cement Made from Clinker with Adjusted Mineral Composition Properties of Concrete with Blast-Furnace Slag Cement Made from Clinker with Adjusted Mineral Composition Atsushi YATAGAI 1, Nobukazu NITO 1, Kiyoshi KOIBUCHI 1, Shingo MIYAZAWA 2,Takashi YOKOMURO 3 and

More information

SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF HIGH CALCIUM FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMER FOR CONCRETE APPLICATIONS

SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF HIGH CALCIUM FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMER FOR CONCRETE APPLICATIONS SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF HIGH CALCIUM FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMER FOR CONCRETE APPLICATIONS P. Kamhangrittirong*, Kasetsart University, Thailand P. Suwanvitaya, Kasetsart University, Thailand P. Suwanvitaya,

More information

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania PA Test Method No. 632 Department of Transportation October 2013 5 Pages LABORATORY TESTING SECTION. Method of Test for

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania PA Test Method No. 632 Department of Transportation October 2013 5 Pages LABORATORY TESTING SECTION. Method of Test for Commonwealth of Pennsylvania PA Test Method No. 632 Department of Transportation 5 Pages LABORATORY TESTING SECTION Method of Test for TIME OF SETTING OF CONCRETE MIXTURES BY PENETRATION RESISTANCE 1.

More information

Experimental Study on Waste Tyre Rubber Replaced Concrete - An Ecofriendly Construction Material

Experimental Study on Waste Tyre Rubber Replaced Concrete - An Ecofriendly Construction Material Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 8(6): 2966-297, 2012 ISSN 1819-544X This is a refereed journal and all articles are professionally screened and reviewed 2966 ORIGINAL ARTICLES Experimental Study

More information

Influence of fly ash and its mean particle size on certain engineering properties of cement composite mortars

Influence of fly ash and its mean particle size on certain engineering properties of cement composite mortars Cement and Concrete Research 35 (2005) 1128 1134 Influence of fly ash and its mean particle size on certain engineering properties of cement composite mortars Gengying Li a, *, Xiaozhong Wu b a Department

More information

CEL 774 IIT DELHI Construction practices. ( Lecture 1-3) Concrete: Production B. Bhattacharjee CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT IIT DELHI

CEL 774 IIT DELHI Construction practices. ( Lecture 1-3) Concrete: Production B. Bhattacharjee CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT IIT DELHI CEL 774 IIT DELHI Construction practices ( Lecture 1-3) Concrete: Production CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT IIT DELHI 1 General Outline Concrete Production. Production Process Batching. Mixing. 2 What is

More information

Concrete Engineering and Technology Prof. Sudhir Misra Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

Concrete Engineering and Technology Prof. Sudhir Misra Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Concrete Engineering and Technology Prof. Sudhir Misra Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Lecture - 6 Basic properties of concrete (Refer Slide Time: 00:21) And welcome

More information

Mechanical Properties of Rice Husk Ash Blended Cement Concretes made with OPC 53 Cement

Mechanical Properties of Rice Husk Ash Blended Cement Concretes made with OPC 53 Cement Mechanical Properties of Rice Husk Ash Blended Cement Concretes made with OPC 53 Cement Srinivas K. 1, Kishore Kumar M 2 M.Tech Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, Pydah College of Engineering, Visakhapatnam,

More information

THE EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON FLEXURAL CAPACITY CONCRETE BEAMS

THE EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON FLEXURAL CAPACITY CONCRETE BEAMS Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal Volume 10, No. 30, June 2016, pages 89 95 DOI: 10.12913/22998624/62630 Research Article THE EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON FLEXURAL CAPACITY CONCRETE BEAMS Amir

More information

City of Regina Standard Construction Specification SECTION 2500 SUPPLY OF PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE 1.0 GENERAL. 1.1 Scope

City of Regina Standard Construction Specification SECTION 2500 SUPPLY OF PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE 1.0 GENERAL. 1.1 Scope 1.0 GENERAL 1.1 Scope 2.0 PRODUCTS 1.1.1 These specifications cover the requirements for the supply of Portland Cement Concrete to be used for all concrete work unless otherwise specified. The constituent

More information

Performance Evaluation of Metallic Fibres on the Low and high Volume Class F Flyash based Cement Concrete

Performance Evaluation of Metallic Fibres on the Low and high Volume Class F Flyash based Cement Concrete Performance Evaluation of Metallic Fibres on the Low and high Volume Class F Flyash based Cement Concrete V. M. Sounthararajan and A. Sivakumar Structural Engineering Division, School of Mechanical and

More information

Use of Waste Plastic in the Production of Light Weight Concrete

Use of Waste Plastic in the Production of Light Weight Concrete Use of Waste Plastic in the Production of Light Weight Concrete M. Muzafar Ahmed P.G Student, Dept of Civil Engineering, Siddhartha Institute of Engineering & Technology, Puttur, A.P.India. ASTRACT: Concrete

More information

Effect of Vacuum Intrusion Compaction on the Mechanical Properties of Mortar

Effect of Vacuum Intrusion Compaction on the Mechanical Properties of Mortar MAT EC Web of Conferences 17, 010 03 (2014) DOI: 10.1051/ matecconf/ 2014170100 3 C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2014 Effect of Vacuum Intrusion Compaction on the Mechanical Properties

More information

The Material Properties of Cement Paste with Fly Ash Exposed to High Temperatures

The Material Properties of Cement Paste with Fly Ash Exposed to High Temperatures The Material Properties of Cement Paste with Fly Ash Exposed to High s PAVEL PADEVĚT, ROMANA LOVICHOVÁ Department of Mechanics Czech Technical University in Prague Thákurova 7, 166 29, Prague 6 CZECH REPUBLIC

More information

Geopolymer Concrete: Eco friendly

Geopolymer Concrete: Eco friendly Geopolymer Concrete: Eco friendly Shalika Sharma M.E.student, Department of Civil Engineering National Institute of Technical Teacher s Training and Research, Panjab University, India Dr Hemant Sood Prof

More information

The Effect of Mix Composition on the Water Absorption, Density and Compressive Strength of Rice Husk Based Geopolymers)

The Effect of Mix Composition on the Water Absorption, Density and Compressive Strength of Rice Husk Based Geopolymers) 20 5th International Conference on Environment Science and Engineering Volume 83 of IPCBEE (20) DOI: 10.7763/IPCBEE. 20. V83. The Effect of Mix Composition on the Water Absorption, Density and Compressive

More information

Vikrant S. Vairagade, Kavita S. Kene, Dr. N. V. Deshpande / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA)

Vikrant S. Vairagade, Kavita S. Kene, Dr. N. V. Deshpande / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) Investigation on Compressive and Tensile Behavior of Fibrillated Fibers Reinforced Concrete Vikrant S. Vairagade*, Kavita S. Kene*, Dr. N. V. Deshpande** * (Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering,

More information

MANUFACTURING FOAM BITUMEN IN A STANDARD DRUM MIXING ASPHALT PLANT

MANUFACTURING FOAM BITUMEN IN A STANDARD DRUM MIXING ASPHALT PLANT 7 TH CONFERENCE ON ASPHALT PAVEMENTS FOR SOUTHERN AFRICA MANUFACTURING FOAM BITUMEN IN A STANDARD DRUM MIXING ASPHALT PLANT DC Engelbrecht Director National Asphalt (Pty.) Ltd. PO Box 1657 Hillcrest 3650

More information

1.1 SECTION INCLUDES.1 Materials and installation for asphalt concrete pavement for car park areas, driveways to buildings, and walks or play areas.

1.1 SECTION INCLUDES.1 Materials and installation for asphalt concrete pavement for car park areas, driveways to buildings, and walks or play areas. Issued 2005/06/01 Section 02742 Asphalt Concrete Pavement for Building Sites Page 1 of 8 PART 1 GENERAL 1.1 SECTION INCLUDES.1 Materials and installation for asphalt concrete pavement for car park areas,

More information

Experimental assessment of concrete damage due to exposure to high temperature and efficacy of the repair system

Experimental assessment of concrete damage due to exposure to high temperature and efficacy of the repair system MATEC Web of Conferences 6, 06002 (2013) DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/20130606002 C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2013 Experimental assessment of concrete damage due to exposure to high temperature

More information

Study of durability of sprayed concrete

Study of durability of sprayed concrete Study of durability of sprayed concrete ADAM HUBÁČEK, RUDOLF HELA Department of Technology of Building Materials and Components Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering Veveří 95, 602

More information

STUDY OF STRENGTH OF CONCRETE WITH PALM OIL FUEL ASH AS CEMENT REPLACEMENT

STUDY OF STRENGTH OF CONCRETE WITH PALM OIL FUEL ASH AS CEMENT REPLACEMENT International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 3, May June 2016, pp. 337 341, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_033 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=3

More information

Designing effective sand and mortar mixes for Micro Concrete Roof Tiles (MCR)

Designing effective sand and mortar mixes for Micro Concrete Roof Tiles (MCR) Designing effective sand and mortar mixes for Micro Concrete Roof Tiles (MCR) Produced by Peter Dunckey Designing sand compositions for mcr tiles. To produce strong tiles, it is important to use clean

More information

Optimum Curing Cycles for Precast Concrete

Optimum Curing Cycles for Precast Concrete Optimum Curing Cycles for Precast Concrete Dr Norwood Harrison, Technical Support Manager, Humes Mr Tom Howie, Manager Engineered Structures, Humes Prepared for the Concrete Pipe Association of Australasia,

More information

Certification of Glass for Use in Concrete I Dr Belen Morales

Certification of Glass for Use in Concrete I Dr Belen Morales Certification of Glass for Use in Concrete I Dr Belen Morales Manager ConGlassCrete II Project Centre for Cement and Concrete University of Sheffield Two Main Areas of Work Waste Glass as Pozzolan Waste

More information

Study on Ready-Mix Concrete with Survey and Experiments in the Context of Bangladesh

Study on Ready-Mix Concrete with Survey and Experiments in the Context of Bangladesh Study on Ready-Mix Concrete with Survey and Experiments in the Context of Bangladesh A. S. M. Fahad Hossain 1. Dr. Md. Mahmudur Rahman 2. Abstract : The research study conducted here is focused on the

More information