World History Final Review 2014

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1 Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment Galileo Galilei- contradicted traditional beliefs Isaac Newton- Gravity/Scientific Revolution Johannes Kepler- Universe in elliptical circles Montesquieu- philosopher/age of Enlightenment Voltaire philosopher/age of Enlightenment Rousseau philosopher/age of Enlightenment Divine Right- God gives me the right to rule 1. Explain what the Scientific Revolution was and some new theories/inventions that developed as a result of it. Scientists questioned traditional beliefs. 2. Explain the central beliefs of the Enlightenment.- improve society through the use of reason. Political Revolutions Magna Carta limit power to monarch English Bill of Rights limit power to monarch Checks and balances- Judicial, Executive, Legislative Robespierre- Leader French Revolution Napoleon- Leader during the French Revolution Berlin Conference- Imperialism in Africa, no Africans attended. Imperialism- strong nation takes over a weak nation Labor Union- help workers with rights White Man s Burden- poem about imperialism to civilize them 3. What Enlightenment thinker influenced Thomas Jefferson in his writing of the Declaration of Independence? Beccaria 4. List some ways the American colonists showed their disapproval of the British government before the outbreak of the American Revolution. Riots, protesting, 5. Compare/Contrast the American and French revolutions- want independence/ lots of death during the French Revolution 6. Compare/Contrast the Haitian and Latin American revolutions. Influenced by North American and European influences.

2 7. Describe the 3 estates in France and note which estate paid the majority of French taxes. 1 st - Clergy, 2 nd - Nobles, 3 rd - Everyone Else 8. What were some of the underlying causes of the French Revolution? Taxes, power of nobles 9. What were some of the underlying causes of the Latin American Revolutions? Want Independence Industrial Revolution/Imperialism Urbanization- cities are slums bad pollution Berlin Conference- Labor Union- better working conditions White Man s Burden- Imperialism 10. Explain Charles Darwin s theory of evolution and how that was used to justify racism. Survival of the fittest- Imperialism / White race will advance 11. How did the population change because of the Industrial Revolution? Population increase 12. List some environmental effects of the Industrial Revolution.- pollution, slums, bad food 13. What were the effects of imperialism in Africa? Slavery, treated badly and racism 14. Explain the difference between communism and Laissez-faire capitalism- Communism-govt controls everything Laissez-faire capitalism- Business rules! 15. What was the effect of Imperialism on Africa environmentally?- Natural resources were exploited

3 WWI/Russian Revolution League of Nations- goal promote peace Vladimir Lenin- Leader of Soviet Union/ Peace Land and Bread Balkan Peninsula- Powder Keg WWI begins Triple Entene 5 year plans- Heavy industry Stalin Czar Nicholas II- Last Tsar of Russia and executed Trench warfare- ditches Triple Alliance- ADD COMMUNISM- PUT INTERESTS OF THE STATE BEFORE INDIVIDUAL GAIN 16. List some of the causes of WWI. Assassination Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Balkans powder Keg. 17. Why was it dangerous for all the Western European countries to be building up their weapons and their militaries? Lead to Totalitarian government 18. What aspects of the Treaty of Versailles would have angered Germans? Pay reparations, will lead to WWII 19. List some characteristics of a totalitarian government. Use censorship, secret police and repression 20. What group in Russian society where in support of communism? Peasants, lower class Interwar Years/WWII Adolf Hitler- leader of Germany Appeasement- give into aggression to keep peace Final Solution- Holocaust Auschwitz- Concentration Camp Poland Genocide- destroy a race Military Expansion-expand territory using the military

4 21. Explain how the Great Depression and the rise of the Nazi party in Germany are related.- Nazi s exploited economic hardships to gain popular support 22. List some common characteristics of a fascist government. Use violence, censorship, nationalism, blind loyalty 23. What event marks the beginning of the Great Depression? Stock market Crash What is similar about Germany, Italy, and Japan s actions leading up to WWII? They successfully invaded other nations 25. What are the causes of WWII? Global economic depression 26. What event marks the beginning of WWII? What event marks the end of WWII? Germany attacks Poland and Japan attacks China.. US using atomic bomb 27. Explain Truman s reasons for using the atomic bomb.- shorten the war, save American lives Cold War-Present Iron Curtain-imaginary line/divided West and East Europe/communism Vietnam War- Ho Chi Minh commie leader Cuban Missile Crisis- Berlin Blockade- Stalin blockades West Berlin NATO- defend West Europe from Soviets Korean War- divided by 38 th parallel Ho Chi Minh- used communist principles Fidel Castro- used communist principles United Nations-promote democratic govt Mahatma Gandhi- practice humanitarianism Apartheid- Segregation in South Africa One-Child Policy- reduce population growth rate Nelson Mandela- protested against apartheid Globalization- higher life expectancy

5 28. Compare/Contrast Stalin s 5 year Plans and Mao Zedong s Great leap forward.- increase agricultural and industrial production 29. Explain why the British chose to partition India into two separate countries known as India and Pakistan.- Religion (India- Hindus Pakistan-Muslims) 30. What is the purpose of the United Nations?- Global Peacekeeping 31. Explain some of the causes of the Arab-Israeli Conflict.- (Jewish State is Created, Six-Day War, Withdrawal from West Bank) 32. Describe the process of de-colonization in South Africa- End European influence in Africa.

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