FORM, FUNCTION & MOVEMENT READINGS: CHAPTER 40 ( ) CHAPTER 49 ( )

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1 Winter 08 1 of 8 FORM, FUNCTION & MOVEMENT READINGS: CHAPTER 40 ( ) CHAPTER 49 ( ) STRUCTURE VERSUS FUNCTION The structure of an object greatly influences its A square wheel is not The correlations between form and function is Mutations may alter the A new form may have a If the new function is favourable, The structure of tissues or organs correlates with their function in the organism ANATOMY VERSUS PHYSIOLOGY is the basic of an organism The leg bone s connected to the hip bone The hip bone s connected to the red thing is the study of animal Digestion & absorption Action potentials of organs and organ systems Again the two fields are intimately related Anatomy affects physiology The of the kidney allows for and TISSUES Recall that all animals are and most contain groups cells that are as tissues Except for the sponges Tissues start out as the three in the developing embryo Diploblastic versus triploblastic animals layer layer tube These are

2 Winter 08 2 of 8 ADULT TISSUES In animals, these 3 germ layers develop into 1. ( sing.) sheets of cells and Multiple functions depending on location 2. tissue extensive extracellular material 2 components are & an Tissue and other tissues Structural tissue 3. tissue specialized for contraction Locomotion muscle Circulation muscle Secretion etc. muscle 4. tissue carry nerve impulses ( ) Control of many bodily function Locomotion Cognition Coordination Digestion Gland secretion ORGANIZATION OF TISSUES Tissue A which work together to perform a specific function Enterocytes Organ A which collaborate to perform a specific function Epithelium Smooth muscle Nerves Connective tissue =

3 Winter 08 3 of 8 ORGANIZATIONS OF ORGANS Groups of organs that perform a common function are Mouth Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Liver Pancreas Large intestine Rectum Anus = EPITHELIA Epithelial cells sit upon a protein meshwork the Polarized cells the upper and lower surfaces (upper) surface is exposed (lower) surface attached to the basement membrane Epithelial cells usually have specialized between them Allowing for cell-cell and STRUCTURE OF EPITHELIA 1. flat or scale-like 2. cube-shaped 3. tall & thin A. a single layer of cells B. multiple cell layers Protection Physical barrier FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIA Control the movement of substances Diffusion Active transport Secreting substances

4 Winter 08 4 of 8 STRUCTURE VERSUS FUNCTION Lungs & gills Blood vessels All have epithelia Large surface area and thin to The intestine has a epithelium Designed for absorption and protection A lot of potentially harmful things in our guts If one cell is damaged, only a Several specialized cells to perform different jobs Goblet cells secrete Enterocytes have a for digestion & absorption Lymphocytes patrol for possible infections The skin epidermis is a epithelium Multiple layers for Squamous cells to Epidermal derivatives include: Reptilian Avian Mammalian HOW DO ANIMALS MOVE? Sophisticated movements involved in locomotion require two things: to contract A skeleton for the muscles to TYPES OF SKELETONS All organisms need a skeleton as a form of support Endoskeletons The animals rigid support is

5 Winter 08 5 of 8 Exoskeletons A hardened provides support and a site for muscle attachment Hydrostatic skeletons Many use their as support TYPES OF VERTEBRATE MUSCLES muscle Voluntary striated muscles Each cell is a muscle fibre containing The contractile elements Also common among muscle Involuntary, striated, muscles Also contain myofibrils Found in the vertebrate muscle, unstriated muscles No myofibrils, diffuse contractile proteins Similar to muscles found in the (except they are voluntary) MYOFIBRILS Myofibrils are the of skeletal (and cardiac) muscles In the individual Composed of repeating units called Highly organized bundles of thick ( ) and thin ( ) SLIDING FILAMENT MODEL Interactions between the myosin heads and actin filaments allows for contraction 1. Myosin head 2. Splits it into ADP and P i Uses the energy to

6 Winter 08 6 of 8 3. Actin 4. Release of ADP + P i causes another shape change Myosin head moves, the actin filament with it 1000s of actomyosin cross-bridges are working at a time Pulling the actin filaments towards the As this occurs, the sarcomeres Therefore the muscle body gets shorter = LOCOMOTION For coordinated motion, muscles have to: Attach to a Work in muscle pairs Flexors and extensors Each muscle works in MOVEMENT muscles work against a skeleton muscles contraction bends the joint ( ) muscles contraction straightens the joint ( ) When the flexor contracts, the extensor Hence INSECT FLIGHT The muscles used for insect flight are, like for other motions, antagonistic One pair causes the wings to, the other pair causes them to Muscle attachment usually follows one of two patterns muscles muscles Use of a system in both

7 Winter 08 7 of 8 DIRECT FLIGHT MUSCLES Wings must be jointed like a seesaw ( ) At least one muscle must attach directly to the wing itself Contraction of the direct muscle the wing down Contraction of the muscle pulls the dorsal body plate (the ) down the wing up INDIRECT FLIGHT MUSCLES In indirect flight, attach to the wings Both muscles the body shape muscles flatten the body Depressing the notum muscles arch the notum Arches the notum HYDROSTATIC MOVEMENT Working against a hydrostatic skeleton with Just a ( ) Nematode movement Nematodes have only This means contraction can only If they contracted at the If only one side contracts, the worm will A series of coordinated unilateral contractions causes Where is the antagonistic muscle pair? Annelids have both & muscles working against a hydrostatic skeleton Contraction of the circular muscles leads to Segment pushes

8 Winter 08 8 of 8 Contraction of the longitudinal muscles leads to Segment SWIMMING Most aquatic larvae use either Juveniles & adults need other ways to swim can be seen in some groups Cnidarian medusae at their fringe Water is forced through the The squid have mastered Reaching speeds of up to 40 km/h Water is brought into the Also useful for and waste removal through the siphon Contraction of body muscles Direction can be controlled too Some peculiar swimming styles can be observed The swimming Very ungraceful but effective The swimming A clapping motion creates a CRAWLING Turbellarians crawl on a using ventral Almost like swimming on a thin film of water/mucus Molluscs use by their muscular foot Waves can be and the animal forward waves the animal forward LIST OF FIGURES KGES

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