THE WORLD WAR I ERA ( ) Central Powers Allies

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1 THE WORLD WAR I ERA ( ) Militarism Mobilization Central Powers Allies Stalemate Propaganda Section 1 - The Road To War: A. Causes of World War I 1. June 28, World War I is touched off by the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. - He was heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary He visited Bosnia, a new province. - Serbian nationalists who thought Bosnia should be a part of Serbia plotted to have him killed as a statement (The Black Hand) 2. However, tensions had been mounting for years because of: - Imperialism A great land grab in the 1800s (Africa, Asia, and the Pacific) - Militarism Building up a nations armed forces - Nationalism Pride in one s own country - A complicated system of alliances For protection in case of attack 3. The two sides in the conflict are the: Central Powers: 1. Germany 2. Austria-Hungary 3. Ottoman Empire Allied Powers (Entente Cordiale Entente): 1. Russia (dropped out in 1917) 2. France 3. Great Britain 4. United States-replaced Russia in 1917 July 23 Austria-Hungary demands Serbia cease support of Bosnia July 28 Austria-Hungary declare war July 29 Russia (Serbia s protector) begins mobilization Germany, Austria-Hungary s ally demands Russia stop France, Russia s ally gets involved August 1 Germany declares war on Russia Germany was prepared with a First-strike strategy The Schlieffen Plan a quick sweep

2 through France to knock them out then turn to Russia. They got as far as 30 miles from Paris Stalemate: A series of trenches were dug as protection from machine gun fire New technology changed warfare forever: - The Machine Gun (450 rounds per minute) - Rapid fire artillery - Hand grenades - Biological Agents Mustard Gas At the end of 1914 the Ottoman Empire joins in with Germany and Austria-Hungary Spring 1915 Italy joins the Allies American Response: At this time more than 92 million Americans were immigrants or children of immigrants they still felt a connection with Europe. Most traced their roots to Great Britain. Propaganda from Britain targeted Germany It was effective in America. August 4, 1914 Wilson proclaims America neutral

3 Section 2 - The United States Declares War: U-Boat Sussex Pledge Zimmermann Note Autocrat Russian Revolution A. German Submarine Warfare: 1. The Germans conduct submarine warfare and sink a British passenger ship, the Lusitania, killing 128 Americans. 2. President Wilson threatens to cut diplomatic ties with Germany. 3. American neutrality begins to weaken. 4. British intelligence intercepts the Zimmermann Note. Zimmermann Note-Germany tries to convince Mexico to attack the United States. 5. Wilson and Mexico do not believe in the validity of the note. 6. Note adds to American desire to enter the war. B. Russian Revolution: 1. Russia is suffering enormous casualties in the war and troop morale was low. 2. In 1917 a republic replaces the autocracy in Russia in a revolution. 3. The change in government makes an alliance with the United States possible. 4. The United States enters the war on April 6, 1917.

4 Section 3 - Americans on the European Front: Selective Service Act American Expeditionary Force (AEF) Convoy Zeppelin Armistice Genocide A. Preparing for War 1. Congress passes the Selective Service Act authorizing a draft, and American troops are a needed relief force to the Allied troops. - Reservist and Guardsmen made up the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) - Training for war included rifle handling, placement of gas masks, trench digging, etc 2. A Convoy System is devised to counter U-Boat attackes 3. In another Russian revolution (1917), a socialist government overthrows the Republican government. - The new Russian leader signs a peace treaty with Germany. 4. With Russia s exit from the war, German troops are able to break through French lines and march on Paris. 5. American Soldiers join other allied troops and launch a successful counterattack and the Central Powers begin to crumble. 6. Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire make separate peace treaties with the allies, and Germany declares an armistice on November 11, Losses in the war were innumerable. In addition, an influenza epidemic sweeps through Europe and the United States, killing tens of thousands of people, while the Ottoman forces in Armenia commit genocide.

5 Section 4 - Americans on the Home Front Liberty Bond Price Controls Rationing Daylight Savings Time Sedition Vigilante A. Financing the war and Managing the Economy: 1. During the war, the United States sets up new agencies to control materials supply and prices. B. Enforcing Loyalty: 2. News and information also come under federal control. 3. Congress passes the Espionage Act and the Sedition Act, with violates the freedom of speech but is as necessary to the war effort. 4. Vigilantes sometimes attack political radicals. C. Changing People s Lives: 1. The war causes some social changes with more lasting effects. 2. By restricting the number of immigrants, jobs open for women and African Americans. 3. Hundreds of African Americans living in the South move to northern factories in the Great Migration.

6 Section 5 - Global Peacemaker Fourteen Points Self-Determination Spoils League of Nations Reparations Versailles Treaty A. The Paris Peace Conference: 1. After the war Pressident Wilson helps craft a document called the Fourteen Points as a basis for a peace treaty. 2. One of the points establishes the League of Nations. Wilsons own Congress rejects the idea of the league. B. The Peace Treaty: 1. The Treaty of Versailles is signed on May 7, It redraws the borders of the nations in Europe and outlines reparations by Germany to the Allied nations. 3. At first, the Germans refuse to sign the treaty, claiming it violates the Fourteen Points, but when threatened with French invasion they sign. C. Reactions at Home: 1. Wilson returns to the United States to great acclaim, but Congress refuses to accept the treaty. 2. The Treaty of Versailles is never accepted by the United States. 3. Instead, the United States signs seprate treaties with Germany, Austria, and Hungary. D. Postwar Gloom: 1. The economic decline in Europe after the war launches the United States into a position of world power. 2. But in the United States has problems at home. 3. With the return of American troops, jobs are scarce, forcing women to resign from their jobs, while African Americans face discrimination in housing and employment. 4. A postwar gloom spreads over the United States.

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