Chapter 3 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

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1 Name: Class: _ Date: _ ID: A Chapter 3 Assessment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which state of matter has a definite volume but a variable shape? a. solid c. gas b. liquid d. vapor 2. In which state(s) of matter can materials take the shape of their containers? a. solid and liquid c. liquid and gas b. solid and gas d. liquid only 3. Which statement is true about the atoms in helium gas? a. They travel in circular paths. c. They are not closely packed. b. They have strong attractions to one another. d. They are arranged in an orderly pattern. 4. If the speed of an object increases, it s kinectic energy a. decreases. c. stays the same. b. increases. d. is unpredictable. 5. The SI unit of pressure is the a. pascal. c. square meter. b. newton. d. psi. 6. Increasing which variable would decrease the pressure of a contained gas? a. temperature c. boiling point b. number of particles d. volume 7. Boyle s law relates pressure and a. temperature. c. volume. b. number of particles. d. mass. 8. Which of the following changes is exothermic? a. evaporation c. boiling b. freezing d. sublimation 9. The phase change that is the reverse of vaporization is a. freezing. c. condensation. b. melting. d. evaporation. 10. Which of these phase changes does NOT involve changing a liquid into a gas? a. sublimation c. evaporation b. vaporization d. boiling Short Response 11. Provide an example of each of the three states of matter that exist at room temperature. 1

2 Name: ID: A 12. Compare and contrast liquid water and ice in terms of how definite their shapes and volumes are. 13. What three assumptions about particles in a gas are made by the kinetic theory? 14. Using the kinetic theory, explain why a liquid has a definite volume but a gas does not. 15. How do the way that atoms are arranged in liquid mercury and solid copper affect the movement of mercury and copper atoms? 16. Using the kinetic theory, explain what causes gas pressure. 17. What three factors affect the pressure of a gas in a closed container? 18. If a piston moves downward in a cylinder, what happens to the volume and pressure of the gas in the cylinder? The temperature remains constant. 19. What happens to the speed of the particles inside an air-filled balloon if the temperature of the balloon increases? 20. Using the kinetic theory, explain why the pressure of a gas increases when it s temperature increases. 21. How are the pressure and volume of a gas related? 22. How does an endothermic phase change differ from an exothermic phase change? 23. Compare the vapor pressure of water at 10 C with it s vapor pressure at 50 C. 24. Explain why water has a different boiling point at an elevation of 3000 meters than it does at sea level. Problem Solver 25. If you take a helium balloon from inside a warm house to outside on a snowy day, what will happen to the balloon? Could you classify this change as a phase change? Explain your answer. 2

3 Name: ID: A 26. Compare the melting and freezing of water in terms of (a) the temperature at which these processes take place and (b) how energy is involved in these processes. 27. Which graph represents what happens to the pressure in a tire as air is added to the tire? Assume the temperature of the gas is constant. 28. Which graph represents what happens to the pressure in an aerosol can if the can is heated? 29. Which graph represents temperature versus time during a phase change? 3

4 ID: A Chapter 3 Assessment Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: B 2. ANS: C 3. ANS: C 4. ANS: B 5. ANS: A 6. ANS: D 7. ANS: C 8. ANS: B 9. ANS: C 10. ANS: A SHORT ANSWER 11. ANS: Examples might include solid copper, liquid water, and the helium inside a balloon as a gas. 12. ANS: Both liquid water and ice have a definite volume. Ice has a definite shape, but liquid water does not. 13. ANS: The particles are in constant, random motion. The mortion of one particle is unaffected by the motion of other particles unless the particles collide. Under ordinary conditions, forces of attraction between particles can be ignored. 14. ANS: The attractions between the particles in a liquid are strong enough to keep the particles close together. Without any significant attractions between particles in a gas, the particles are free to expand into any volume that is available. 15. ANS: The atoms in copper vibrate around fixed positions. The atoms in mercury can flow past one another. 16. ANS: Gas pressure is caused by collisions of atoms with their containers. 1

5 ID: A 17. ANS: Temperature, volume, and the number of particles. 18. ANS: The volume decreases and the pressure increases. 19. ANS: The particles in the air move faster, on average, when the temperature increasses because they have more kinetic energy. 20. ANS: When the temperature of a gas increases, the particles have greater kinetic energy, on average, and move faster. Thus, atoms hit the walls of the container more often and with greater force, causing the pressure to increase. 21. ANS: The volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. 22. ANS: During an endothermic phase change, energy is absorbed by the system. During an exothermic phase, energy is released by the system. 23. ANS: The vapor pressure of water is greater at 50 C than it is at 10 C. 24. ANS: Water boils when its vapor pressure becomes equal to atmospheric pressure. At 3000m, the atmosperic pressure is lower than it is at sea level. This, vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure at a lower temperature, and water boils at a lower temperature. PROBLEM 25. ANS: A balloon that is flexible will shrink. This observed change is not a phase change because helium is a gas before and after the change. 2

6 ID: A 26. ANS: (a) Water melts and freezes at the same temperature. (b) Melting is an endothermic process. Freezing is an exothermic process. 27. ANS: Graph A 28. ANS: Graph A 29. ANS: Graph C 3

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