Kinetic Theory. Bellringer. Kinetic Theory, continued. Visual Concept: Kinetic Molecular Theory. States of Matter, continued.

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1 Bellringer You are already familiar with the most common states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. For example you can see solid ice and liquid water. You cannot see water vapor, but you can feel it in the air on a humid summer day. How do you think the atoms and molecules are arranged in these different states? Examine the drawings shown below. Then answer the questions that follow. Kinetic Theory What makes up matter? According to the kinetic theory of matter, matter is made of atoms and molecules. These atoms and molecules act like tiny particles that are always in motion. Kinetic Theory, continued The following are observations of particles in motion: Visual Concept: Kinetic Molecular Theory The higher the temperature of the substance is, the faster the particles move. At the same temperature, more massive particles move slower than less massive ones. The kinetic theory helps to explain the differences between the three common states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. States of Matter What is the difference between a solid, a liquid, and a gas? You can classify matter as a solid, a liquid, or a gas by determining whether the shape and volume are definite or variable. States of Matter, continued Solids have a definite shape and volume. Liquids change shape, not volume. Gases change both shape and volume. fluid: a nonsolid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to move past each other, as in a gas or liquid Plasma is the most common state of matter. plasma: a state of matter that consists of free-moving ions and electrons

2 Three States of Matter Visual Concept: Solid, Liquid, and Gas Energy s Role What kind of energy do all particles of matter have? Because they are in motion, all particles of matter have kinetic energy. energy: the capacity to do work Energy s Role, continued Temperature is a measure of average kinetic energy. temperature: a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object Thermal energy depends on particle speed and number of particles. thermal energy: the total kinetic energy of a substance s atoms Kinetic Energy and States of Matter Changes of State

3 Energy and Changes of State, continued Some changes of state require energy. Changes of state that require energy are melting, evaporation, and sublimation. evaporation: the change of state from a liquid to a gas Energy and Changes of State, continued Energy is released in some changes of state. Changes of state that release energy are freezing and condensation. condensation: the change of state from a gas to a liquid sublimation: the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas Changes of State for Water Conservation of Mass and Energy What happens to mass and energy during physical and chemical changes? Mass and energy are both conserved. Neither mass nor energy can be created or destroyed. Conservation of Mass and Energy, continued Mass cannot be created or destroyed. Visual Concept: Law of Conservation of Mass In chemical changes, as well as in physical changes, the total mass of the substances undergoing the change stays the same before and after the change. This is the law of conservation of mass.

4 Conservation of Mass and Energy, continued Energy cannot be created or destroyed. Visual Concept: Law of Conservation of Energy Energy may be changed to another form during a physical or chemical change, but the total amount of energy present before and after the change is the same. This is the law of conservation of energy. Pressure How do fluids exert pressure? Fluids exert pressure evenly in all directions. pressure: the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface example: when you pump up a bicycle tire, air particles constantly push against each other and against the tire walls Pressure, continued Pressure can be calculated by dividing force by the area over which the force is exerted: Force F Pressure =, or P = Area A The SI unit for pressure is the pascal. pascal: the SI unit of pressure; equal to the force of 1 N exerted over an area of 1 m 2 (symbol, Pa) Visual Concept: Equation for Pressure Buoyant Force What force makes a rubber duck float in a bathtub? All fluids exert an upward buoyant force on matter. buoyant force: the upward force that keeps an object immersed in or floating on a fluid

5 Buoyant Force, continued Archimedes principle is used to find buoyant force. The buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid that the object displaces. Comparing Weight and Buoyant Force Buoyant Force, continued An object will float or sink based on its density. Density If an object is less dense than the fluid in which it is placed, it will float. If an object is more dense than the fluid in which it is placed, it will sink. Pascal s Principle What happens when pressure in a fluid changes? Pascal s principle states that a change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid will be transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid. In other words, if the pressure in a container is increased at any point, the pressure increases at all points by the same amount. Pascal s Principle, continued Hydraulic devices are based on Pascal s principle. Because the pressure is the same on both sides of the enclosed fluid, a small force on the smaller area (left) produces a The much plunger larger force on the larger area (right). travels through a larger distance on the side that has the smaller area. Mathematically, Pascal s principle is stated as P 1 = P 2.

6 Fluids in Motion What affects the speed of a fluid in motion? Fluids move faster through small areas than through larger areas, if the overall flow rate remains constant. Fluids also vary in the rate at which they flow. Fluids in Motion, continued Viscosity depends on particle attraction. viscosity: the resistance of a gas or liquid to flow Fluid pressure decreases as speed increases. This is known as Bernoulli s principle. Visual Concept: Viscosity Properties of Gases What are some properties of gases? Gases expand to fill their containers. They spread out easily and mix with one another. They have low densities and are compressible. Unlike solids and liquids, gases are mostly empty space. Also, gases exert pressure on their containers. Visual Concept: Properties of Gases Gas Laws How can you predict the effects of pressure, temperature, and volume changes on gases? The gas laws will help you understand and predict the behavior of gases in specific situations. gas laws: the laws that state the mathematical relationships between the volume, temperature, pressure, and quantity of a gas

7 Gas Laws Boyle s law relates the pressure of a gas to its volume. Visual Concept: Boyle s Law Boyle s law: For a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of a gas increases as the gas s pressure decreases. Likewise, the volume of a gas decreases as the gas s pressure increases. P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 Math Skills Boyle s Law The gas in a balloon has a volume of 7.5 L at 100 kpa. The balloon is released into the atmosphere, and the gas expands to a volume of 11 L. Assuming a constant temperature, what is the pressure on the balloon at the new volume? 1. List the given and unknown values. Given: V 1 = 7.5 L P 1 = 100 kpa V 2 = 11 L Unknown: P 2 Gas Laws, continued Gay-Lussac s law relates gas pressure to temperature. Gay-Lussac s law: The pressure of a gas increases as the temperature increases, if the volume of the gas does not change. The pressure decreases as the temperature decreases. Charles s law relates temperature to volume. Charles s law: For a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the gas s temperature increases. Likewise, the volume of the gas decreases as the gas s temperature decreases. Visual Concept: Charles s Law

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