Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) as Reinforcement for Concrete Beam

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1 Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) as Reinforcement for Concrete Beam Norazman Mohamad Nor 1, Mohd Hanif Ahmad Boestamam, Mohammed Alias Yusof 3 1,3 Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Malaysian Army, 5034 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract Damaged or old structures sometime need to be repaired or reinforced to enhance its structural life and performances. There are many ways to strengthen structures. This research investigates the potential of using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) as reinforcement to concrete beam. In this study, use of CFRP as reinforcement was explored. The CFRP reinforcement is applied in strip form, which is more economical compared to wrapping or forming it into bar shape, because it easier and uses less fiber to achieve similar performance. s of CFRP reinforced concrete beam were tested to failure in four point bending test. The results obtained are compared with performance of steel reinforced concrete. From the research, we can conclude that the CFRP reinforced concrete beam give the required resistance and strength as designed, with behavior similar to those reinforced with steel bars. Keywords Carbon fiber, CFRP, concrete reinforcement, structural repair, and strengthening. I. INTRODUCTION Reinforced Concrete is one of the common building materials in the world. Many structures, such as buildings, bridges, and highways, use reinforced concrete as its main construction materials. Concrete lacks tensile strength, thus, steel is the common tensile reinforcement use in reinforced concrete. Even though steel performance in reinforce concrete is superb, it does have some set back. Steel tent to deteriorate, rapidly, especially when expose to extreme coastal weather and sea water. This research is to investigate an alternative non-metal reinforcement for concrete structure, namely using Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP). CFRP, currently, is being used for structural repair for damage structure due to aging or exposure to extreme condition. In this study, the purpose of using CFRP is to enhance the tensile strength of reinforced concrete, replacing steel, totally. The main advantage of using CFRP as reinforcement is to avoid rusting and corrosion of reinforcement. The main objective of this study is to design beam reinforced with CFRP. Then to study the performance and behaviour of CFRP reinforced concrete compared with steel reinforced concrete. This study involved design and experimental works on CFRP reinforced concrete, compared to traditional steel reinforced concrete. Steel is the most widely used reinforcement in concrete. Use of steel reinforcement is to increase the tensile and shear strength of concrete. The position and arrangement of steel bars are an important strengthening factor in reinforced concrete. The development of reinforcement technology is becoming more advanced as engineers are not just using steel reinforced concrete in their design. In recent years, Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) has been proposed as one of the main material in reinforced concrete. The benefits of using FRP in reinforced concrete depends on some factor such as shape, length, cross section, fibre content and bond characteristics of FRP. [1] CFRP can be produced with higher strength and higher modulus of elasticity than steel, hence improving the flexural, shear strength, and deflection of structural member. Furthermore, the corrosion resistance characteristic gives more advantage on using FRP in reinforced concrete where it can be used for structures exposed to corrosive condition. The usage of FRP as reinforcement is very new and restricted to rehabilitation work on buildings. The main reason is because the lack of experience in handling this material and cost of using it. [] Padmarajaiah and Ramaswamy [3], shows the effect of adding fibres increased the compressive strength of concrete. In their research, adding up to 1.5% of fibres in volume, increased the compressive strength up to 15% from normal strength. This shows that the volume of fibres in concrete affect the compressive strength and strain of the concrete. Figure 1 shows the stress-strain curve for different portion of FRC (Fibre Reinforced Concrete) to indicate ductility and toughness of the mix.

2 TABLE I SPLITTING TENSILE STRENGTH FOR CARBON FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE. [5] Figure 1: Effects of Fibres Content on Compressive Stress-Strain Curve of FRC. [3] Khaled Soudki et al,[4], investigate the load deflection of fibrous concrete and compared with plain concrete. In their research, carbon fibre was added into concrete mix design with difference percentage of fibre volume. It can be seen that different amount of fibres gave different deflections to the concrete. Figure shows that fibre added concrete mix samples performed significantly better than their control samples. Figure : Load-Deflection Curves for Strengthened and Unstrengthened Beams. [4] Other research done by Wasan and Akar Abdulrazaq, [5], highlighted that the addition of carbon fibres causes a significant increase in splitting tensile strength relative to normal plain concrete. From the research, it can be seen that the percentage of splitting tensile strength increase by about 45% of normal strength with 0.5% fibre volume fraction. Table I shows the tensile strength test result for carbon fibre reinforced concrete relative to volume of fibre fraction and age of specimen. 7 Gadve et al, [], investigated about rehabilitation of steel reinforcement using CFRP. In that study, CFRP used as an anode while the steel reinforcing bar used as cathode. The result shows that the reinforcing bar is still in good condition after the sample were immersed in salt water for a particular period. This proposed technique has been very effective in avoiding the corrosion of steel. II. METHODOLOGY In this research, the main material to be used as the concrete reinforcement is CFRP. Six types of CFRP strip samples with zero degree orientation were fabricated and tested using tensile strength test according to ASTM D 38. The process is required to determine the mechanical properties of the CFRP strip. The next step is preparation of the concrete samples. There are three types of concrete samples fabricated. Eight samples of CFRP reinforced concrete with and without cover were prepared. Another four samples of conventional steel reinforced concrete were prepared as control samples. Cubes are prepared for each mix to ensure the concrete grade. Table II shows the type of samples used for this research. Type 1 3 TABLE II TYPES OF SAMPLES [7] Control (Conventional Steel Reinforced Concrete) CFRP Reinforced Concrete (CFRP Strip with Cover) CFRP Reinforced Concrete (CFRP Strip without Cover) Quantity Beam Cube For the samples Type, the technique of the reinforcement was similar to the steel reinforcement which has cover of 5 mm. The only different is the CFRP strips are rectangular in shape, unlike the round steel bars, as shown on Figure 3 and Figure 4. The CFRP were prefabricated with epoxy before used as reinforcement for the concrete. For samples Type 3, the technique of concrete reinforcement was different from the previous samples.

3 There were no concrete cover for the reinforcement and the CFRP was put in the concrete using wet lay-up process. The size of CFRP for Type 1 and Type samples is 450 mm (length) x 0 mm (width) x 4.5 mm (thick). With 5 mm cover Cross-Section Figure 3: Steel Reinforced Concrete Beam, Type 1 Cross-Section Plan View Plan View With and without 5 mm cover Figure 4: CFRP Reinforced Concrete Beam, Type and 3 For tensile test on CFRP strips, six types of CFRP samples were prepared with different, O o only, for each type of sample. s preparation is done through wet hand lay-up. The result of this test is shown in Table IV and graphically presented on Figure 5. Figure 5 could be used to estimate the strength and modulus of CFRP strip produced similarly, base on sample thickness. Provided same materials being used. Type of 1 layer TABLE IV PROPERTIES OF CFRP STRIP [7] Cross Sectional Area (mm²) Maximum Load (kn) Tensile Strength at Break Modulus of A B A B A B A B A B A B III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION The steel bars used for this research is 1 mm mild steel round bars. The tensile test results for the steel bar are shown in Table III. Average ultimate strength for the steel bar is at 371 MPa. TABLE III PROPERTIES OF THE STEEL REINFORCEMENT BAR [7] Ultimate Tensile Strength Modulus of (kn/mm²) Mean Figure 5: CFRP Thickness verses Tensile Strength and Modulus of Four point bending test were conducted on all the beam samples. Figure shows the experimental results obtained. The experimental results are compared to calculated strength based on stress diagram, as tabulated on Table V. 8

4 Flexural Strength International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Steel Reinforced Concrete CFRP Reinforced Concrete (With Cover) CFRP Reinforced Concrete (Without Cover) Referring to Figure 7, crack line was observed close to the center of the beam where maximum bending moment developed. The crack is due to yielding of the steel reinforcement in the tension zone. Figure 8 shows the failure pattern of sample Type. Crack line was observed closer to the center of the beam where maximum bending moment developed. The crack is due to the strain in the CFRP reinforcement in the tension zone. 0 Type of Figure : Flexural Strength of Beams [7] The tested strength for Type 1 and Type samples seems to be slightly lower than the calculated values, probably due to imperfection in sample preparations. While for Type 3 samples, the tested strength is too low compared to the calculated value, due to de-bonding of CFRP from the concrete surface. Type TABLE 5 FLEXURAL STRENGTH: CALCULATED AND TESTED Calculated Flexural Strength Average Maximum Applied Load (kn) Tested Flexural Strength Average 1 - Steel CFRP with cover CFRP 7. w/out (de-bond) cover 1 This study also investigated the failure pattern of CFRP reinforced concrete beam compared to the conventional steel reinforced concrete beam. Figure 8: Failure Pattern of Type [7] It was observed that the failure pattern of samples Type were similar to the samples Type 1. Eventhough CFRP do not yield the same way steel does. Figure 7: Failure Pattern of Type 1 [7] 9 Figure 9: Failure Pattern of Type 3 [7] Flexural strength test on samples Type 3 show that it can support higher load than Type. This is expected as without cover the sample will developed higher resistance to bending, due to the longer lever arm, z. However, experimental result does not reach the value as per the calculated strength expected. This is due to the CFRP debonded from the concrete surface. This can be observed on Figure 9. Even though this type of sample has the highest flexural strength, the failure pattern is the worst.

5 The sample was totally split into pieces. The failure of this sample is mainly because the concrete and CFRP experienced de-bonding, where the CFRP snap off the concrete surface at the failure load. Acknowledgement Special gratitude to the Faculty of Engineering, National Defence University of Malaysia for supporting this research. IV. CONCLUSION The objective of this research which is to investigate the performance and behaviour of CFRP reinforced concrete beams under flexural compared to the steel reinforced concrete beams has been achieved. As expected, sample Type 3 can support the highest load, even though the CFRP reinforcement slips off. However, its failure pattern is point for concern, where it just snaps suddenly and such failure behaviour is not good for structures. s Type shows the crack pattern similar to Type 1. Therefore, this type of sample, reinforced with CFRP with cover, can be considered to be utilised where ever steel reinforcement were not preferred. However, the question of durability is still need to be ventured. Overall, from this study some conclusions can be made: 1. The use of CFRP as reinforcement for concrete can perform intended function to strengthen the concrete in tension zone.. CFRP reinforced concrete is good at supporting and resisting flexural loading. 3. The bond between concrete and CFRP played the main role in strengthening the concrete. Thus, CFRP with cover prevent de-bonding and better for structures. 4. The performance and behaviour of CFRP reinforced concrete beam is comparable to the conventional steel reinforced concrete beam. Based on the analysed result, some recommendations were made for further study: 1. To design the CFRP reinforced concrete beam with tension and compression reinforcement. In this study, the beam only design with tension reinforcement.. To study the durability of CFRP reinforced concrete due to extreme condition such as exposed to concrete s alkaline environment, coastal environment, or submerge in sea-water. 3. To determine suitable safety factors for CFRP use in reinforced concrete. REFERENCES [1 ] Önal M. Mustafa Reinforcement of Beam by Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer in Concrete Buildings. Scientific Research and Essay, Vol. 4, No. 10, pp [ ] Ng See King & Ku Mohd Sani Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer System for External Strengthening of Concrete Bridge Girder. ASPEC 000, Kuala Lumpur. [3 ] Padmarajaiah and Ramaswamy. 00. Comparative Study on Flexural Response of Full and Partial Depth Fiber Reinforced Concrete. Journal of Material in Civil Engineering, Vol. 14, No., pp [4 ] Khaled Soudki, Ehab El-Salawaky and Brent Craig Behavior of CFRP Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams in Corrosive Environment. Journal of Composites for Construction, ASCE, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp [5 ] Wasan I. Khalil and Akar Abdulrazaq Mechanical Properties of High Performance Carbon Fiber Concrete. Engineering and Technology Journal, Vol. 9, No. 5, pp [ ] Gadve, S and Mukherjee, A Active Protection of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Wrapped Reinforced Concrete Structures Against Corrosion. Proquest Science Journals, Vol. 7, No., pp [7 ] MohdHanif Ahmad Boestamam. 01. Performance of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beam. Bachelor Thesis. Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia. [8 ] Johnson & Colin Fiber Reinforced Concrete. Progress in Concrete Technology CANMET, Energy, Mines and Resources, Canada, pp [9 ] Noghabai Beams of Fiberous Concrete in Shear and Bending. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 1, No., pp [10 ] Romualdi, and Baston Mechanics of Crack Arrest in Concrete with Closely Spaced Reinforcement. Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE, Vol. 89, pp [11 ] Substech Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites. Retrieved in November 009, [1 ] Swamy R.N Natural Fiber Reinforced Cement and Concrete. Journal of Materials and Structures, Vol 8, No. 45, pp

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