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1 Your ES Teacher: Date: ( M W Th ) Astronomy CIRCLE ONE Answer Sheet Page 7 Page 9 Page 10 Name Spring School 2015 #3) #5) #29) Page 8 #36) #37) #38) #39) #40) #45) #46) #47) #52) #66) Tide height: Time: #67) Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 #84) #1) #3) #5) #29) #85) Diameter: Luminosity: #2) #4) #27) #28) Page 14 #43) #72) #74) #75) #76) #73)

2 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 #1) #51) #36) #5) #2) #3) #6) #7) #37) #38) #4) #39) #52) #74) Page 18 #53) #78) Page 19 #79) Page 20 #75) #77) #80) #81) #82) Relative surface temperature: Relative luminosity: 2

3 Earth Science Astronomy Regents Practice Questions June 2014 August 2014 January 2015 Note: The numerical code that appears at the end of each question (bold, italicized and in parentheses) represents that question s origin. For example the code (ES #03) represents question #03 from the June 2014 Regents exam. 3

4 Skills, Procedures, & Trivia Review Astronomy 1. Revolution - when one body orbits around another body, Earth Revolves ~ 1 /day 2. Constellation - grouping of stars (3-10) which form a pattern 3. Heliocentric Model - Sun Centered, correct model, planet revolve around sun in elliptical orbits 4. Proof of Rotation - Foucault Pendulum and Coriolis Effect (Geocentric Model could not explain) 5. Increase Rate of Rotation increase the Coriolis Effect 6. Revolution causes different constellation to be visible at different times of the year 7. Moon Phases are caused by the Revolution of the moon around Earth 8. One Revolution of the moon takes 27 days days from Full moon to Full moon 9. When the moon is between the earth and sun this is a New Moon 10. Solar Eclipses can occur during a new moon, it gets dark during the middle of the day 11. Lunar Eclipses can occur during the full moon phase (earth's shadow on the moon) 12. Eclipses don't happen every month because the moon's orbit is inclined 13. When an object is close it looks bigger (has a large angular diameter) {faràsmall} 14. Tides are caused by the moons gravitational pull on the earth (also the sun's but not as much) 15. When the Earth, Moon, and Sun are in a line --> Extra Tides (spring tide) 16. When the Moon and Sun are working against each other we get small tides (neap tides) 17. Two high tides and two low tides per day (cyclic change) 18. If a satellite is close to a star, orbital velocity is greatest {far à slow} 19. Satellite is closest, high gravitation force, high 20. Kinetic Energy, low Potential Energy, large apparent diameter 21. Planets sweep out equal area's in equal amounts of time 22. As distance from a star increases, rate of revolution decreases by inverse square 23. Eccentricity is a measure of how flattened the orbit is (highest =1, line) (lowest=0, circle) 24. Satellites are kept in elliptical orbits by inertia and gravity 25. The earth's orbit is extremely round, almost perfect, but it is slightly elliptical, see ESRT chart 26. Inner four planets are rocky, outer 4 planets are gas giants, Pluto is just an iceball out there 27. Venus is the hottest planet due to runaway greenhouse effect 28. Earth is the only one with liquid water on the surface 29. Asteroid- big rock in space, most are between Mars and Jupiter 30. Meteor - shooting star, rock burning up in our atmosphere due to friction - No atmosphere, No burning up 31. Comet - Dirty Snowball, highly elliptical orbit 32. Sun is a regular star, burns by converting Hydrogen into Helium (Nuclear Fusion) 33. Use H-R diagram on stars in ESRT (temperature decreases to the right on x-axis) 34. Increasing Size -- planet, star, solar system, galaxy, universe 35. Galaxy - collection of billions of stars (solar systems) 36. Big Bang - universe expanding from initial explosion 37. Prove of Big Bang is that Galaxies are moving away from us, the further the faster and seen in Spectroscope as a RED SHIFT 39. Age of universe is approximately billion years old, solar system is only 4.6 billion 40. Light year- distance light travels in one year 41. Know our position in our Milky Way Galaxy NOTES 4

5 Foucault Pendulum and Coriolis Effect Deep Space Astronomy Both are evidence that Earth spins (at 15 o /hr). Nearly every year, there s a question where Earth rotation is the answer. Every once in a while, instead of using the words Foucault or Coriolis, these phenomenon are either explained or shown as a diagram. However, the answer is almost always the same thing. Both are evidence of Earth s rotation. ESRTs Page 15 The only other pages of the ESRTs that have anything to do with astronomy are PAGE 1 that has the formula for eccentricity of an ellipse and PAGE 8 that has the age of Earth and our solar system. Two vocabulary words that sometimes come into play in this section are terrestrial (meaning the first 4 planets; Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars) and Jovian (which refer to the four gas giants; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and are separated by the asteroid belt, located about half way between Mars and Jupiter. Celestial Size, Position and Age (and Fusion) The Universe is the largest thing and the oldest at 13.7 billion years old. The Milky Way Galaxy (a spiral galaxy) is the next largest thing at approximately 10 billion years old. Our solar system and Earth are both about 4.6 billion years old. Earth s Moon is a little younger (and smaller) than Earth. In case you haven t recognized the pattern, the older a celestial object is, typically the larger that it is. You also need to know that fusion is what powers the Sun. Everything else about Celestial Size, Position and Age can easily be learned by doing practice questions and looking up the correct answers. Earth/Moon Revolution/Rotation When viewed from above Earth s north pole, nearly everything in our solar system revolves and rotates counterclockwise. These motions are responsible for observable phenomenon hear on Earth. Most astronomical motions occur over and over again to the degree that you can predict things, like eclipses, hundreds of years into the future. These events are considered to be cyclic and predictable. An easy way to zero in on what celestial motion is responsible for which Earth-based observation is to ask yourself, How long does it take to complete one cycle? For example, it takes one year to cycle through one complete set of seasons. It should make sense that the celestial motion, which also takes one year to complete (Earth s revolution), is responsible for the seasons. The seasonal changes in constellations are also a result of Earth s revolution. The daily motion of Earth s rotation is responsible for daily phenomenon such as tides, sunrise/sunset, moonrise/moonset, and the nightly motions of stars. The moon phases are due to the Moon s revolution. It is also important to know that the people on Earth only see one side of the Moon because the Moon just happens to rotate at the same rate as its revolution (27.3 days; see page 15 of the ESRTs) and it wasn t until Apollo 8 that the first human saw the back side of the Moon with their own eyes. Finally, although it takes the moon 27.3 days to revolve, it takes 29.5 days for the moon to cycle through all of its phases. 5

6 Moon Phases/Eclipses/Tides & Gravity Except for phases of the Moon questions, all answers to questions that deal with the Sun-Earth-Moon system require a linear alignment. The diagram to the right is an illustration of spring tide. However, the Moon is also in the position where a new moon and solar eclipse can occur. Had the Moon been on the opposite side of Earth, it would still be a spring tide. However, it would also be a full moon and a lunar eclipse in this alternate position. These are the most interesting phases of the Moon and the most frequently asked about questions. Therefore, when in doubt, choose a linear alignment. When it comes to the phases of the Moon, any one of the eight standard positions of the Moon are fair game. To answer these types of questions, you must put yourself into the shoes of an Earth observer. I like to draw little stick figures directly below the eight Moon positions and ask myself, Which side and how much of the Moon is lit up according to the perspective of the stick figure? Kepler s First and Second Laws of Planetary Motion Similar to the Sun-Earth-Moon positions, these types of questions are all about alignment. Every answer to every question needs to be measured from OR drawn on the major axis. According to Kepler s 1 st law of motion, all orbits are ellipses with two focus points. If given the location of one focus, students should be able to accurately estimate the location of the second focus because every ellipse has reflectional and 180 o rotational symmetry and both foci are located on the major axis. Students should also be able to measure and calculate the eccentricity of an ellipse. According to Kepler s 2 nd law of motion, the closer a planet is to a star, the greater the force of gravity, and the faster a planet moves. If you look on page 15 of the ESRTs, you will find that Mercury has a period of revolution of approximately 88 days and the periods of revolution increase with increasing distance from the Sun. This law of motion also accounts for variation in orbital velocity for any object that has an elliptical orbit. Because all orbits are ellipses, there are times when a planet is closest to its star (perihelion) and other times when a planet is farthest from its star (aphelion). Both of these positions lie on either end of the major axis. Our Expanding Universe and Development What do the following terms have in common? The Big Bang Expanding Universe Galaxies moving away from us (and each other) Red Shift Microwave Background Radiation Answer: If one of these terms is a question, then the answer is one of the other terms. To make a long story short, red shift is (the first recognized) observable evidence that all galaxies are moving away from each other, which means that the Universe is currently expanding, but if you rewind the clock 13.7 billions years, it appears that everything in the Universe started at the same point in both time and space and has been exploding (expanding) outward ever since, hence the term Big Bang. As far as our solar system is concerned, it is a widely accepted theory that all solar systems begin as a massive solar nebula. Under the influence of its own internal gravity, the nebula (which is made of mostly gas and some small solids) contracts, concentrating most of the gas near its center (eventually creating a sun) and the revolving solids congeal to form the planets. Evidence that planets are continuing to grow today is in the form of impact craters. Earth gets hit more times than it lets on because our atmosphere burns up most of the small stuff and plate tectonics and weather & erosion eliminate evidence of some of the bigger stuff. 6

7 DEEP SPACE ASTRONOMY ES 09 Regents June Which evidence best supports the theory that the universe began with a massive explosion? (ES #03) (1) cosmic background radiation in space (2) parallelism of planetary axes (3) radioactive dating of Earth s bedrock (4) life cycle of stars 5 Which statement best describes Earth s approximate rates of rotation and revolution? (1) Earth s rotation rate is 15 /hour and its revolution rate is 1 /day. (2) Earth s rotation rate is 1 /hour and its revolution rate is 15 /day. (3) Earth s rotation rate is 24 /hour and its revolution rate is 360 /day. (4) Earth s rotation rate is 360 /hour and its revolution rate is 24 /day. (ES #05) 29 The diagram below represents positions of Earth in its orbit around the Sun and twelve constellations that can be seen in the midnight sky by an observer in New York State at different times of the year. The approximate locations of the constellations in relation to Earth s orbit are shown. Which date is correctly paired with two constellations that can be seen in the sky at midnight? (ES #29) (1) May 21: Scorpius and Taurus (2) August 21: Libra and Virgo (3) November 21: Gemini and Capricorn (4) February 21: Leo and Cancer 7

8 Base your answers to questions 36 through 40 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents the orbital paths of the four Jovian planets and Halley s comet around the Sun. Halley s comet has a revolution period of 76 years. In 1986, Halley s comet was at perihelion, its closest point to the Sun. Letters A, B, C, and D represent locations of Halley s comet in its orbit. Location D represents Halley s comet at aphelion, its farthest point from the Sun. The comet s tail is shown at perihelion and at locations B and C. 36 Based on the pattern shown above, which diagram best represents the correct position of the comet s tail at location A relative to the Sun? (ES #36) 37 Compared to the orbit of the Jovian planets, the orbit of Halley s comet is (ES #37) (1) less elliptical, with a shorter distance between its foci (2) less elliptical, with a greater distance between its foci (3) more elliptical, with a shorter distance between its foci (4) more elliptical, with a greater distance between its foci 38 Compared to the velocity of Jupiter in its orbit, the velocity of Halley s comet is (1) always less (2) always greater (3) always the same (4) sometimes less and sometimes greater (ES #38) 8

9 39 This diagram of our solar system represents a (ES #39) (1) geocentric model with the Sun near the center (2) geocentric model with Earth near the center (3) heliocentric model with the Sun near the center (4) heliocentric model with Earth near the center 40 Which sequence lists the Jovian planets in order of increasing mass? (ES #40) (1) Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus (2) Uranus, Neptune, Saturn, Jupiter (3) Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune (4) Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter Base your answers to questions 45 through 47 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents eight numbered positions of the Moon in its orbit around Earth. 45 Which phase of the Moon will be observed in New York State when the Moon is at position 8? (ES #45) 46 Which two motions cause the Moon to show a complete cycle of phases each month when viewed from New York State? (ES #46) (1) the Moon s rotation and Earth s rotation (2) the Moon s revolution and Earth s rotation (3) the Moon s rotation and the Sun s rotation (4) the Moon s revolution and the Sun s rotation 47 A solar eclipse might be observed from Earth when the Moon is at which position? (ES #47) (1) 1 (2) 5 (3) 3 (4) 7 9

10 Base your answers to questions 51 through 53 on the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth science. Coral Reefs and Ocean Currents The location of shallow-water coral reefs is controlled largely by warm-water temperatures, which originate in tropical regions and are then widely spread by ocean currents. Major surface ocean currents flow in circular patterns called gyres. Ocean current gyres flow in a clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere, and flow in a counterclockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere. This pattern of circulation generally moves warm water from equatorial regions into the shallow waters along eastern continental coasts. This extends the range of coral reef growth approximately 5 of latitude beyond both the tropic of Cancer and the tropic of Capricorn. 51 Identify the surface ocean current that prevents the formation of coral reefs in the shallow waters along the western coast of South America. [1] (ES #51) current 52 Which Earth motion causes the Coriolis effect that results in the curving of the planetary winds and surface ocean currents? [1] (ES #52) 53 Identify the two prevailing planetary wind belts that provide the greatest force in pushing the surface ocean currents of the North Pacific Ocean gyre. [1] (ES #53) winds and winds Base your answers to questions 66 and 67 on the graph to the right and on your knowledge of Earth science. The graph shows the changes in ocean tide height at a New York State location during 1 day. 66 Determine the tide height and time of day for the lowest tide shown on the graph. Include a.m. or p.m. in your answer for the time of day. [1] (ES #66) Tide height: m Time: 67 Explain why the Moon has a greater influence on Earth tides than the Sun. [1] (ES #67) 10

11 Base your answers to questions 84 and 85 on the flowchart below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The flowchart shows the evolution of stars. 84 Identify the force responsible for the contraction of a nebula (a gas cloud of molecules) to form a protostar. [1] (ES #84) 85 Describe how the diameter and luminosity of a main sequence star change as the star becomes either a giant or a supergiant. [1] (ES #85) Diameter: Luminosity: ES 09 Regents August Which evidence best supports the theory that the universe was created by an explosion called the Big Bang? (ES #01) (1) impact craters found on Earth (2) cosmic background radiation (3) the different compositions of terrestrial and Jovian planets (4) the blue shift of light from distant galaxies 2 Which star is more massive than our Sun, but has a lower surface temperature? (ES #02) (1) 40 Eridani B (2) Sirius (3) Aldebaran (4) Barnard s Star 3 Which color of visible light has the shortest wavelength? (ES #03) (1) violet (2) green (3) yellow (4) red 4 The table to the right shows the times of ocean high tides and low tides on a certain date at a New York State location. At approximately what time on the following day did the next high tide occur at this location? (ES #04) (1) 4:40 a.m. (2) 5:40 a.m. (3) 4:40 p.m. (4) 5:40 p.m. 11

12 5 The best evidence of Earth s rotation is provided by the (ES #05) (1) shape of Earth s orbit (2) shape of the Milky Way galaxy (3) changes in the total yearly duration of insolation at a location on Earth (4) apparent changes in the direction of swing of a Foucault pendulum Base your answers to questions 27 and 28 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents the Moon at different positions, labeled A, B, C, and D, in its orbit around Earth. 27 At which two Moon positions would an observer on Earth most likely experience the highest high tides and the lowest low tides? (ES #27) (1) A and B (2) B and C (3) C and A (4) D and B 28 During which Moon phase could an observer on Earth see a lunar eclipse occur? (ES #28) 12

13 29 The graph below shows the varying amount of gravitational attraction between the Sun and an asteroid in our solar system. Letters A, B, C, and D indicate four positions in the asteroid s orbit. Which diagram best represents the positions of the asteroid in its orbit around the Sun? [Note: The diagrams are not drawn to scale.] (ES #29) 13

14 43 Which planet has an average density most similar to the average density of the Moon? (ES #43) (1) Mercury (2) Mars (3) Jupiter (4) Neptune Base your answers to questions 72 through 76 on the side-view model of the solar system in your answer booklet and on your knowledge of Earth science. The planets are shown in their relative order of distance from the Sun. Letter A indicates one of the planets. 72 The center of the asteroid belt is approximately 503 million kilometers from the Sun. In your answer booklet, draw an X on the model between two planets to indicate the center of the asteroid belt. [1] (ES #72) 73 State the period of rotation at the equator of planet A. Label your answer with the correct units. [1] (ES #73) 74 How many million years ago did Earth and the solar system form? [1] (ES #74) million years ago 75 Calculate how many times larger the equatorial diameter of the Sun is than the equatorial diameter of Venus. [1] (ES #75) times larger 76 Identify the process that occurs within the Sun that converts mass into large amounts of energy. [1] (ES #76) 14

15 ES 09 Regents January The theory that the universe is expanding is supported by data from the (ES #01) (1) nuclear decay of radioactive materials (2) nuclear fusion of radioactive materials (3) blue shift of light from distant galaxies (4) red shift of light from distant galaxies 2 The photograph to the right shows a feature of the universe as seen through a telescope. This feature is best identified as (ES #02) (1) a galaxy (2) a comet (3) an asteroid (4) a star 3 Fourteen billion years represents the approximate age of (ES #03) (1) Earth (2) Earth s Moon (3) our solar system (4) the universe 4 Which terms describe the motion of most objects in our solar system? (ES #04) (1) noncyclic and unpredictable (2) noncyclic and predictable (3) cyclic and unpredictable (4) cyclic and predictable 5 Which planet has completed less than one orbit of the Sun in the last 100 years? (ES #05) (1) Mars (2) Mercury (3) Neptune (4) Uranus 6 Compared to the size and density of Earth, the Moon has a (ES #06) (1) smaller diameter and lower density (2) smaller diameter and higher density (3) larger diameter and lower density (4) larger diameter and higher density 7 In the Northern Hemisphere, planetary winds are deflected to the right due to the (ES #07) (1) Doppler effect (2) Coriolis effect (3) tilt of Earth s axis (4) uneven heating of Earth s surface 15

16 Base your answers to questions 36 through 40 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents Earth s revolution around the Sun. Points A, B, C, and D represent Earth s positions in its orbit on the first day of each of the four seasons. The major axis and the foci (the center of the Sun and the other focus) of Earth s orbit are shown. 36 Approximately how many days (d) does it take Earth to travel from position A to position C? (ES #36) (1) 91 d (2) 182 d (3) 274 d (4) 365 d 37 Since Earth has an elliptical orbit, the (ES #37) (1) distance between the Sun and Earth varies (2) distance between the Sun and the other focus varies (3) length of Earth s major axis varies (4) length of Earth s period of revolution varies 38 At positions A, B, C, and D, the north end of Earth s axis of rotation is pointing toward (ES #38) (1) Betelgeuse (2) Polaris (3) the center of the Milky Way (4) the center of our solar system 39 The constellation Orion is visible at night in New York State when Earth is at position A, but not at position C because Earth s (ES #39) (1) nighttime is shorter when Earth is at position A (2) period of rotation is shorter than its period of revolution (3) distance to Orion is too great for the constellation to be seen (4) nighttime side is facing toward a different portion of space 16

17 40 At which two positions will an observer in New York State experience approximately 12 hours of daylight during one rotation of Earth? (ES #40) (1) A and B (2) A and C (3) B and C (4) B and D Base your answers to questions 51 through 53 on the graph below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The graph shows the average daily heights above or below sea level of high and low tides from April 15 to May 15, for a New York State location. Five Moon phases are indicated at the dates on which they occurred. 51 On the diagram to the right, place an X on the Moon s orbit to indicate the Moon s position on April 15. [1] (ES #51) 52 On the diagram to the right, circle the two numbers on Earth s surface that best represent the locations of high tide when the Moon is in the position shown on the diagram. [1] (ES #52) 53 Infer the date when the next first-quarter Moon phase occurred. [1] (ES #53) 17

18 Base your answers to questions 74 through 78 on the passage and data table below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The data table shows the apparent hourly change in the direction of a pendulum s swing, in degrees per hour ( /h), for six different Northern Hemisphere latitudes. Foucault s Pendulum In 1851, Jean-Bernard-Léon Foucault attached a heavy iron ball to a steel wire hanging from the high ceiling of a church in Paris to demonstrate an apparent motion caused by Earth s rotation. This pendulum could swing freely back and forth. A spike on the bottom of Foucault s pendulum produced straight lines in sand spread on the floor. The position of each new line appeared to gradually shift in a clockwise direction. Eventually, the pendulum returned to its original path, completing a 360 pattern in approximately 32 hours. At other northern latitudes, a Foucault pendulum will complete a 360 pattern of swing in different amounts of time. In the Northern Hemisphere, the number of degrees that a pendulum appears to change its clockwise direction of swing each hour varies with latitude. 74 On the grid to the right, plot the apparent rate of change in a Foucault pendulum s direction of swing for each of the latitudes given in the data table. Connect the plots with a line. [1] (ES #74) 75 Based on the data table, state the relationship between latitude and the apparent rate of change in a Foucault pendulum s direction of swing. [1] (ES #75) 76 Based on the data table, state the approximate apparent rate of change in the direction of a pendulum s swing, in degrees per hour, at Riverhead, New York. [1] (ES #76) 77 Identify one location on Earth where the apparent direction of a pendulum s swing would complete a 360 circular pattern in 24 hours. [1] (ES #77) 18

19 78 The diagram below represents a swinging pendulum located in Earth s Northern Hemisphere. The pendulum knocked over two pegs during its first swing. The diagram below represents a top view of the same pegs. Circle the next two pegs that would fall as the pendulum appears to change its direction of swing in the Northern Hemisphere. [1] (ES #78) 19

20 Base your answers to questions 79 through 82 on the Characteristics of Stars graph below and on your knowledge of Earth science. 79 The star Canopus has a surface temperature of 7400 K and a luminosity (relative to the Sun) of Use an X to plot the position of Canopus on the graph below, based on its surface temperature and luminosity. [1] (ES #79) 80 Identify two stars from the Characteristics of Stars graph that are at the same life-cycle stage as the Sun. [1] (ES #80) 81 Describe one characteristic of the star Spica that causes it to have a greater luminosity than Barnard s Star. [1] (ES #81) 82 Describe how the relative surface temperature and the relative luminosity of Aldebaran would change if it collapses and becomes a white dwarf like Procyon B. [1] (ES #82) Relative Surface Temperature: Relative Luminosity: 20

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