Elements of report/paper writing. Penny J Davies Department of Mathematics University of Strathclyde, Glasgow

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Elements of report/paper writing. Penny J Davies Department of Mathematics University of Strathclyde, Glasgow"

Transcription

1 0 Elements of report writing Mar 4, 2009 Elements of report/paper writing Penny J Davies Department of Mathematics University of Strathclyde, Glasgow aas96109/

2 1 Elements of report writing Mar 4, 2009 Ask yourself some questions WHY are you writing? So as many people as possible can see my fantastic results. I m doing a PhD and have to produce a thesis. I ve got to produce an annual PhD progress report. Because my supervisor told me to. I want to write a lot of papers to get a good job/promotion/well-known. To publicise what I do to non-specialists (PUS). For WHOM are you writing? As many people as possible in my research area. My examiners (external + internal + maybe supervisor). A general non-specialist audience. Keep the WHY and the FOR WHOM in mind as you write.

3 2 Elements of report writing Mar 4, 2009 Resources Your department or supervisor may have produced useful material. University staff development courses. Nicholas J Higham Handbook of Writing for the Mathematical Sciences (SIAM, 1998) and follow link to books. Comprehensive and readable guide. Also contains info on writing and giving a talk; preparing a poster; the publishing process; writing English as a foreign language... Every mathematician should own a copy! It s the main source for the material in this talk. Lynne Truss Eats Shoots and Leaves (the zero tolerance approach to punctuation).

4 3 Elements of report writing Mar 4, 2009 Title It should be: accurate; short; snappy. Claim: On average, the title has 500 times more readers than the paper. Examples: Buckling and barrelling instabilities in finite elasticity A simple derivation of necessary and sufficient conditions for the strong ellipticity of isotropic hyperelastic materials in plane strain (Both accurate; second is neither short nor snappy.)

5 4 Elements of report writing Mar 4, 2009 Abstract Summarizes contents of the paper: accurate and informative. Abstracts are often given in Web of Science or MathSciNet. Many more people will read the abstract than the paper. It should let someone to decide whether to read the paper (or not). The shorter the better, but it must be self-contained. You should claim some some new results in the abstract. Write it from scratch after you have finished the paper.

6 5 Elements of report writing Mar 4, 2009 Introduction Define the problem (+ context). Summarise your results. Outline your plan of attack + techniques used. Say how the paper is organised aids navigation. First sentence very important entice the undecided into reading. Hint: try writing the introduction and then deleting the first one or two sentences.

7 6 Elements of report writing Mar 4, 2009 The main body Split it into logical units (sections, chapters). Use a style appropriate for your specialism: Lemma Theorem Proof; Describe physics derive model; Describe numerical algorithm give results. Theorem like things: Theorem: a main result. Lemma: (usually) a lesser result. Corollary: direct consequence of a Theorem/Lemma. Proposition: (someone else s result?) they all must be true. Conjecture: thought to be true, but not proved (or disproved) Proof: give the key ideas and techniques; emphasise the structure; make the argument as clear as possible.

8 7 Elements of report writing Mar 4, 2009 Conclusions section Only include if appropriate. If it is appropriate then there should be one. The Conclusions section is not the Introduction written in the past tense! It is a place to: describe the implications of your results; mention further work; outline open problems and future directions.

9 8 Elements of report writing Mar 4, 2009 Appendix Contains essential information that doesn t really fit in the main body. e.g. computer listings; detailed numerical results; detailed analysis or technical proofs that could be distracting; something tangential to the rest of the paper.

10 9 Elements of report writing Mar 4, 2009 Citations and Reference list The two main citation styles are by number: As shown in [5]; name and year: As shown by Jones (1961) this is called the Harvard system. Appropriate software (e.g. L A TEX) can make dealing with citations and creating reference lists much less tedious. Make sure that the references are accurate. Make sure that you have cited all the references. Most mathematics journals want references to be listed in alphabetical order of author. Many science/engineering journals use citation order. The precise format of the reference list varies between journals.

11 10 Elements of report writing Mar 4, 2009 Plagiarism Plagiarism is the act of presenting borrowed words or ideas as your own. It is a major academic sin (Higham, 1998). Self plagiarism is no less a sin. Simply changing a few words may not prevent it from being plagiarism. Always acknowledge the source of ideas, and either paraphrase words or give them exactly in quotes. If you are not sure, then ask.

12 11 Elements of report writing Mar 4, 2009 The art of good writing Writing is difficult! Good writing takes a lot of time, effort, patience, and hard work. It is hard to produce something that is easy to read. It is (relatively) easy to produce something confused, confusing, and littered with long words and jargon. Clear writing needs clear thinking. Be prepared to rewrite (over and over and over again). Read good writing (novels as well as maths). Ask for (and be prepared to accept) constructive criticism.

13 12 Elements of report writing Mar 4, 2009 Some common mistakes It s or Its? In a technical paper it should almost always be its: it s its = it is or it has = belonging to it It s mine. It s been raining. The cat was hungry because its bowl was empty. Lead or Led? lead (pron. ledd ) = a metal led = past tense of to lead We are led to try... Loose or Lose? My trousers are very loose. (adjective) Use it or lose it. (verb)

14 13 Elements of report writing Mar 4, 2009 And finally make sure you say what you mean. A woman, without her man, is nothing. A woman: without her, man is nothing. (Taken from Eats Shoots and Leaves.)

Guide to Prospectus Writing

Guide to Prospectus Writing Guide to Prospectus Writing Dean Wheeler 2009 This brief guide is provided to aid my graduate students in writing the M.S. or Ph.D. prospectus required by the BYU Chemical Engineering Department. It supplements

More information

Writing Essays. SAS 25 W11 Karen Kostan, Margaret Swisher

Writing Essays. SAS 25 W11 Karen Kostan, Margaret Swisher Writing Essays A GOOD ESSAY CONTAINS: 1. An introductory paragraph 2. A clear thesis statement 3. A body consisting of supporting paragraphs 4. A concluding paragraph Step 1: Review Assignment Read the

More information

Writing Thesis Defense Papers

Writing Thesis Defense Papers Writing Thesis Defense Papers The point of these papers is for you to explain and defend a thesis of your own critically analyzing the reasoning offered in support of a claim made by one of the philosophers

More information

How to write a good (maths) Ph.D. thesis

How to write a good (maths) Ph.D. thesis How to write a good (maths) Ph.D. thesis Melina A Freitag Department of Mathematical Sciences University of Bath Postgraduate Away Day 3rd February 2012 1 of 30 The purpose of a thesis University regulations

More information

How to write a Part III Essay: From Outline to Essay

How to write a Part III Essay: From Outline to Essay Fundamentals How to write a Part III Essay: From to Essay Julia Goedecke Graduate Education Officer, DPMMS 3 February 2016, Wednesday Part III talks Julia Goedecke (DPMMS) From to Essay 03/02/2016 1 /

More information

Library, Teaching and Learning. Writing Essays. and other assignments. 2013 Lincoln University

Library, Teaching and Learning. Writing Essays. and other assignments. 2013 Lincoln University Library, Teaching and Learning Writing Essays and other assignments 2013 Lincoln University Writing at University During your degree at Lincoln University you will complete essays, reports, and other kinds

More information

CHECKLIST FOR THE DEGREE PROJECT REPORT

CHECKLIST FOR THE DEGREE PROJECT REPORT Kerstin Frenckner, kfrenck@csc.kth.se Copyright CSC 25 mars 2009 CHECKLIST FOR THE DEGREE PROJECT REPORT This checklist has been written to help you check that your report matches the demands that are

More information

Some Hints on Mathematical Style

Some Hints on Mathematical Style Some Hints on Mathematical Style Professor David (D.M.) Goss Emeritus Professor, Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, USA Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Number Theory [September 2015] Some

More information

A Brief Introduction to Mathematical Writing

A Brief Introduction to Mathematical Writing A Brief Introduction to Mathematical Writing William J. Turner August 26, 2009 1 Introduction Mathematics is not just about computation. It is about ideas, knowledge, learning, understanding, and perception.

More information

Revising and Editing Your Essay 1

Revising and Editing Your Essay 1 Revising and Editing Your Essay 1 Revising and editing are two distinct processes. Revising is intentionally looking at ways of improving your essay. Editing is correcting the mechanics of your essay like

More information

HOW TO REFERENCE A GUIDE FOR STUDENTS. Mandy Shaw (2004) Division of Criminology Nottingham Trent University

HOW TO REFERENCE A GUIDE FOR STUDENTS. Mandy Shaw (2004) Division of Criminology Nottingham Trent University HOW TO REFERENCE A GUIDE FOR STUDENTS Mandy Shaw (2004) Division of Criminology Nottingham Trent University www.internetjournalofcriminology.com CONTENTS PAGE What is referencing? 3 Why is it important

More information

CHAPTER 3. Methods of Proofs. 1. Logical Arguments and Formal Proofs

CHAPTER 3. Methods of Proofs. 1. Logical Arguments and Formal Proofs CHAPTER 3 Methods of Proofs 1. Logical Arguments and Formal Proofs 1.1. Basic Terminology. An axiom is a statement that is given to be true. A rule of inference is a logical rule that is used to deduce

More information

EDITING AND PROOFREADING. Read the following statements and identify if they are true (T) or false (F).

EDITING AND PROOFREADING. Read the following statements and identify if they are true (T) or false (F). EDITING AND PROOFREADING Use this sheet to help you: recognise what is involved in editing and proofreading develop effective editing and proofreading techniques 5 minute self test Read the following statements

More information

How to Write a Great Research Paper

How to Write a Great Research Paper How to Write a Great Research Paper Jon Turner Computer Science & Engineering Washington University www.arl.wustl.edu/~jst Why Do We Write Research Papers? Why do research?» to contribute to human knowledge

More information

Writing a Research Paper. a. It is a written document primarily used in academic settings.

Writing a Research Paper. a. It is a written document primarily used in academic settings. Online Writing Center, Darton State College 1 Writing a Research Paper What is a research paper? a. It is a written document primarily used in academic settings. b. It is a document that is used to present

More information

Outline. Written Communication Conveying Scientific Information Effectively. Objective of (Scientific) Writing

Outline. Written Communication Conveying Scientific Information Effectively. Objective of (Scientific) Writing Written Communication Conveying Scientific Information Effectively Marie Davidian davidian@stat.ncsu.edu http://www.stat.ncsu.edu/ davidian. Outline Objectives of (scientific) writing Important issues

More information

Writing and presenting degree projects in Mathematical statistics

Writing and presenting degree projects in Mathematical statistics Writing and presenting degree projects in Mathematical statistics Tom Britton, tom.britton@math.su.se Stockholm University October, 2010 General remarks Unlike mathematics there is no exact right or wrong

More information

Report Writing Guidelines and Checklist for Revising

Report Writing Guidelines and Checklist for Revising Writing Support Services, Student Success Centre ucalgary.ca/ssc/writing-support Report Writing Guidelines and Checklist for Revising The guidelines presented here should give you an idea of general conventions

More information

Focus on Essay Writing

Focus on Essay Writing Focus on Essay Writing Essay writing is a process and a product. You need to focus on the process in order to achieve a high quality product. What is an essay? The word essay originally meant to test or

More information

Writing a Research Paper in Mathematics

Writing a Research Paper in Mathematics Writing a Research Paper in Mathematics Department of Mathematical Sciences University of Bath Postgraduate Away Day 13th May 2010 Sins of authors of mathematical papers I do not claim that I am particularly

More information

How to write. Written communication, critical assessment, and avoiding plagiarism. Tim Kovacs and Peter Flach

How to write. Written communication, critical assessment, and avoiding plagiarism. Tim Kovacs and Peter Flach How to write Written communication, critical assessment, and avoiding plagiarism Tim Kovacs and Peter Flach Writing a literature review Start writing early keep notes while reading papers Present a coherent

More information

Writing a Literature Review in Higher Degree Research. Gillian Colclough & Lindy Kimmins Learning & Teaching Support

Writing a Literature Review in Higher Degree Research. Gillian Colclough & Lindy Kimmins Learning & Teaching Support Writing a Literature Review in Higher Degree Research Gillian Colclough & Lindy Kimmins Learning & Teaching Support This presentation: Aims of a literature review Thoughts about a good literature review

More information

Rules and Tips for Writing Mathematics Discrete Math

Rules and Tips for Writing Mathematics Discrete Math Rules and Tips for Writing Mathematics Discrete Math Adapted from: Writing in Mathematics by Annalisa Crannell Why Should You Have To Write Papers In A Math Class? For most of your life so far, the only

More information

Welcome to Analysis 1

Welcome to Analysis 1 Welcome to Analysis 1 Each week you will get one workbook with assignments to complete. Typically you will be able to get most of it done in class and will finish it off by yourselves. In week one there

More information

Style Guide For Writing Mathematical Proofs

Style Guide For Writing Mathematical Proofs Style Guide For Writing Mathematical Proofs Adapted by Lindsey Shorser from materials by Adrian Butscher and Charles Shepherd A solution to a math problem is an argument. Therefore, it should be phrased

More information

Academic integrity, plagiarism and referencing

Academic integrity, plagiarism and referencing Academic integrity, plagiarism and referencing As a Chancellor State College student, it is an expectation that you use integrity in writing when creating your own work. This means you need to use academic

More information

Understanding Plagiarism And Referencing. Learning Enhancement Team

Understanding Plagiarism And Referencing. Learning Enhancement Team Understanding Plagiarism And Referencing Learning Enhancement Team LET@mdx.ac.uk Variety is the Spice of Life! Different Schools.Different Rules Can you use I in an academic text? Should an essay have

More information

Scientific Writing. Scientific Communication Resources

Scientific Writing. Scientific Communication Resources Scientific Writing Scientific Communication Resources ACS Style Guide Janet Dodd (2 nd or 3 rd edition) ACS Online Reference Style Guidelines http://pubs.acs.org/books/references.shtml ACS Scientific Writing

More information

Writing a Successful Paper: Using APA Style. Your Name Here. Arizona State University

Writing a Successful Paper: Using APA Style. Your Name Here. Arizona State University Writing 1 Running head: USING APA STYLE Writing a Successful Paper: Using APA Style Your Name Here Arizona State University Writing 2 Abstract The second page usually contains your abstract, which is a

More information

Formal, Analytical Essay Writing. Review: Literary Analysis Format; Plagiarism (page # s refer to Writers Inc.)

Formal, Analytical Essay Writing. Review: Literary Analysis Format; Plagiarism (page # s refer to Writers Inc.) Formal, Analytical Essay Writing Review: Literary Analysis Format; Plagiarism (page # s refer to Writers Inc.) What is an Literary Analysis Essay? (pg 245-252) An essay is essentially an argument, based

More information

SCIENCE PROJECT PAGE 1

SCIENCE PROJECT PAGE 1 SCIENCE PROJECT PAGE 1 Introduction YES!!! It s that Science Fair time of year. No amount of groaning is going to make it go away. Just imagine the inquiry and organizational skills you ll learn and practice.

More information

A BRIEF ALTHOUGH NOT AS BRIEF AS I D HOPED GUIDE TO WRITING PHILOSOPHY PAPERS

A BRIEF ALTHOUGH NOT AS BRIEF AS I D HOPED GUIDE TO WRITING PHILOSOPHY PAPERS A BRIEF ALTHOUGH NOT AS BRIEF AS I D HOPED GUIDE TO WRITING PHILOSOPHY PAPERS Introduction: Philosophical writing is a different sort of beast than that required in other disciplines. The style is on the

More information

Steps to Proving a Theorem

Steps to Proving a Theorem Steps to Proving a Theorem Step 1: Understand Goal What am I looking for? What should the last sentence in my proof say? What are some equivalent ways to state what I want? Are there any complicated definitions

More information

Guidelines on Seminar Presentations

Guidelines on Seminar Presentations Guidelines on Seminar Presentations Your main goal in presenting this seminar is to communicate your topic to an audience of mixed backgrounds and interests. This should not be a technical paper such as

More information

Planning and Writing Essays

Planning and Writing Essays Planning and Writing Essays Many of your coursework assignments will take the form of an essay. This leaflet will give you an overview of the basic stages of planning and writing an academic essay but

More information

WRITING PROOFS. Christopher Heil Georgia Institute of Technology

WRITING PROOFS. Christopher Heil Georgia Institute of Technology WRITING PROOFS Christopher Heil Georgia Institute of Technology A theorem is just a statement of fact A proof of the theorem is a logical explanation of why the theorem is true Many theorems have this

More information

Writing the MLA Research Paper

Writing the MLA Research Paper Writing the MLA Research Paper Philosophy 1. Name Research = re-search, i.e., search and search again for information 2. Purpose a. To inform b. To persuade c. To persuade and to inform 3. Benefits a.

More information

How to Write a Research Paper in Computer Science

How to Write a Research Paper in Computer Science How to Write a Research Paper in Computer Science International Center for Computational Logic Technische Universität Dresden Germany Sources, Literature and Links I: The Structure of a Research Paper

More information

Writing Your Research Paper

Writing Your Research Paper Writing Your Research Paper ENG 112 Professor Katherine Delhagen *adapted from Empire State College Purpose of Research Paper Through the process of writing a research paper, you learn more about the topic

More information

Guide to Writing and Speaking

Guide to Writing and Speaking The University of New South Wales School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications Guide to Writing and Speaking Prepared by The Learning Centre, UNSW 2009 Copyright Conditions This is a publicly

More information

Writing Political Theory Papers

Writing Political Theory Papers Writing Political Theory Papers Political theory is a little bit different than political science. Here are some important differences. 1) It s more like philosophy than social science: it is more concerned

More information

Solving epsilon-delta problems

Solving epsilon-delta problems Solving epsilon-delta problems Math 1A, 313,315 DIS September 29, 2014 There will probably be at least one epsilon-delta problem on the midterm and the final. These kind of problems ask you to show 1 that

More information

Presentation and Seminar Guide

Presentation and Seminar Guide Presentation and Seminar Guide Chair of Microeconomics, University of Paderborn Prof. Dr. Claus-Jochen Haake Version: 12. August 2015 Presentation and Seminar Guide 1 1 Introduction The aim of this guide

More information

Academic Support Services Supplemental Learning Materials - Writing

Academic Support Services Supplemental Learning Materials - Writing Academic Support Services Supplemental Learning Materials - Writing Citing other people s work Editing and proofreading Fragments Grammar and punctuation Hooks Modes of writing Paraphrasing Plagiarism

More information

It is time to prove some theorems. There are various strategies for doing

It is time to prove some theorems. There are various strategies for doing CHAPTER 4 Direct Proof It is time to prove some theorems. There are various strategies for doing this; we now examine the most straightforward approach, a technique called direct proof. As we begin, it

More information

Course Notes for Math 320: Fundamentals of Mathematics Chapter 3: Induction.

Course Notes for Math 320: Fundamentals of Mathematics Chapter 3: Induction. Course Notes for Math 320: Fundamentals of Mathematics Chapter 3: Induction. February 21, 2006 1 Proof by Induction Definition 1.1. A subset S of the natural numbers is said to be inductive if n S we have

More information

GOOD WRITING: MANAGEMENT. Before you read the Helpsheet, spend five minutes considering the following questions:

GOOD WRITING: MANAGEMENT. Before you read the Helpsheet, spend five minutes considering the following questions: Helpsheet Giblin Eunson Library GOOD RITING: MANAGEMENT Use this sheet to help you: plan for and develop good writing 5 minute self test Before you read the Helpsheet, spend five minutes considering the

More information

WRITING EFFECTIVE REPORTS AND ESSAYS

WRITING EFFECTIVE REPORTS AND ESSAYS WRITING EFFECTIVE REPORTS AND ESSAYS A. What are Reports? Writing Effective Reports Reports are documents which both give a reader information and ask the reader to do something with that information.

More information

Appalachian State University Master of Public Administration Program Writing Guide

Appalachian State University Master of Public Administration Program Writing Guide Appalachian State University Master of Public Administration Program Writing Guide Introduction Students should use the following guidelines to complete written assignments in the Appalachian State University

More information

**Beyond our textbook, supplemental readings and handouts will be distributed in class and posted online. * * * Course Requirements

**Beyond our textbook, supplemental readings and handouts will be distributed in class and posted online. * * * Course Requirements ENG 259: Technical Writing Section 0914 (11574): TU 10:30 AM 12:45 PM, TH 10:30 AM 11:30 AM Spring I 2013 Richard Dragan, Ph.D. Office: M- 111G Office Hrs.: M 12:00 pm 1:00 pm, TU 1:15 pm 3:15 pm, (& by

More information

CHAPTER 3 Numbers and Numeral Systems

CHAPTER 3 Numbers and Numeral Systems CHAPTER 3 Numbers and Numeral Systems Numbers play an important role in almost all areas of mathematics, not least in calculus. Virtually all calculus books contain a thorough description of the natural,

More information

Induction. Margaret M. Fleck. 10 October These notes cover mathematical induction and recursive definition

Induction. Margaret M. Fleck. 10 October These notes cover mathematical induction and recursive definition Induction Margaret M. Fleck 10 October 011 These notes cover mathematical induction and recursive definition 1 Introduction to induction At the start of the term, we saw the following formula for computing

More information

Basic Spelling Rules: Learn the four basic spelling rules and techniques for studying hard-to-spell words. Practice spelling from dictation.

Basic Spelling Rules: Learn the four basic spelling rules and techniques for studying hard-to-spell words. Practice spelling from dictation. CLAD Grammar & Writing Workshops Adjective Clauses This workshop includes: review of the rules for choice of adjective pronouns oral practice sentence combining practice practice correcting errors in adjective

More information

Writing essays. What is an essay?

Writing essays. What is an essay? Writing essays What is an essay? Why write an essay? How to research, plan and write an essay Language and style Presentation of your work An essay-writing checklist For further information and the full

More information

Presentations language determiners pairwork Student A once only Any (= no determiner)

Presentations language determiners pairwork Student A once only Any (= no determiner) Presentations language determiners pairwork Student A Choose one of the sections below and read out one of the example sentences with a gap or noise instead of the determiner (a, an, the, etc). Your partner

More information

Senior Field Paper Strategies APA Style. Dr. Mack Gipson, Jr., Tutorial and Enrichment Center

Senior Field Paper Strategies APA Style. Dr. Mack Gipson, Jr., Tutorial and Enrichment Center Dr. Mack Gipson, Jr., Tutorial and Enrichment Center Gipson Building Phone: 706-821-8345 Monday Thursday 9 a.m. 8 p.m. Friday 9 a.m. 5 p.m. Senior Field Paper Strategies APA Style Carole Overton, Director

More information

The Writing Process Packet

The Writing Process Packet Name: Period: Ms. Kawalek, English 11 The Writing Process Packet Keep this packet for the rest of the school year. PLEASE DO NOT LOSE IT! You must complete all prewriting and editing steps prior to submitting

More information

Discrete Mathematics

Discrete Mathematics Slides for Part IA CST 2014/15 Discrete Mathematics Prof Marcelo Fiore Marcelo.Fiore@cl.cam.ac.uk What are we up to? Learn to read and write, and also work with, mathematical

More information

How to write in plain English

How to write in plain English How to write in plain English Copyright Plain English Campaign owns the copyright to this guide. You are welcome to print out any of our guides or save them to disk for your own use. You may not photocopy

More information

Basics of Reflective Essay Writing

Basics of Reflective Essay Writing Basics of Reflective Essay Writing Writing the Reflective Essays The three parts of this document reviews a year s worth of writing skills. Read everything very carefully and make sure to email me with

More information

Victory Bible Colleges International. Essay Writing Tips

Victory Bible Colleges International. Essay Writing Tips Victory Bible Colleges International Essay Writing Tips 1 Essay Writing Tips Table of Contents Ten Steps for Writing An Essay Read the Essay Question... 3 Construct the Initial Plan... 5 Read and Research...

More information

HOW TO WRITE MATHEMATICAL PAPERS

HOW TO WRITE MATHEMATICAL PAPERS HOW TO WRITE MATHEMATICAL PAPERS BRUCE C. BERNDT 1. THE TITLE The title of your paper should be informative. A title such as On a conjecture of Daisy Dud conveys no information, unless the reader knows

More information

Steps in the essay writing process

Steps in the essay writing process WRITING AN ESSAY Writing an essay is an opportunity for you to develop new ideas and apply concepts and theories from your course. You ll develop a thesis (or position) and use reasoning and evidence to

More information

7 critical reading strategies and activities to do with students to encourage and develop critical reading ability

7 critical reading strategies and activities to do with students to encourage and develop critical reading ability 7 critical reading strategies and activities to do with students to encourage and develop critical reading ability This text has been adapted from and extends on a text written by Salisbury University

More information

A Guide to Report Writing

A Guide to Report Writing A Guide to Report Writing September 2012 CONTENTS Page 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2 PREPARATION 2 2.1 Introduction... 2 2.2 Purpose... 2 2.3 Planning... 2 2.4 Research... 2 3 CONTENTS OF A REPORT 3 3.1 Introduction...

More information

Study Guides. Contents. 1. Some notes on note-taking. 2. Preparing an essay. 3. Writing an essay. 4. Mind maps. 5. Preparing an exegesis

Study Guides. Contents. 1. Some notes on note-taking. 2. Preparing an essay. 3. Writing an essay. 4. Mind maps. 5. Preparing an exegesis Study Guides Contents 1. Some notes on note-taking 2. Preparing an essay 3. Writing an essay 4. Mind maps 5. Preparing an exegesis 6. Writing an exegesis 7. Studying for exams 8. Writing a primary document

More information

WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER FOR A GRADUATE SEMINAR IN POLITICAL SCIENCE Ashley Leeds Rice University

WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER FOR A GRADUATE SEMINAR IN POLITICAL SCIENCE Ashley Leeds Rice University WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER FOR A GRADUATE SEMINAR IN POLITICAL SCIENCE Ashley Leeds Rice University Here are some basic tips to help you in writing your research paper. The guide is divided into six sections

More information

The College Standard

The College Standard The College Standard Writing College Papers: Identifying Standards and Critical Thinking Challenges Building Blocks Grammar Vocabulary Questions The Goals of Academic Writing Thesis Argument Research Plagiarism

More information

some ideas on essays and essay writing

some ideas on essays and essay writing Disability and Dyslexia Service: Study Skills for Students some ideas on essays and essay writing why this document might be helpful for students: Before beginning work on an essay, it is vital to know

More information

Recounts retell past events. They aim to inform or entertain the reader.

Recounts retell past events. They aim to inform or entertain the reader. What is recount Recounts retell past events. They aim to inform or entertain the reader. English Features of recount writing: Recounts normally start by setting the scene, e.g., what?, where?, when?, how?

More information

Guide to Writing the AP English Language Synthesis Essay. Wednesday, December 5, 12

Guide to Writing the AP English Language Synthesis Essay. Wednesday, December 5, 12 Guide to Writing the AP English Language Synthesis Essay In many ways, the synthesis essay is similar to the persuasion essay. In the persuasion essay, you make a claim, then support it with data stored

More information

Chapter 3. Cartesian Products and Relations. 3.1 Cartesian Products

Chapter 3. Cartesian Products and Relations. 3.1 Cartesian Products Chapter 3 Cartesian Products and Relations The material in this chapter is the first real encounter with abstraction. Relations are very general thing they are a special type of subset. After introducing

More information

Inference Rules and Proof Methods

Inference Rules and Proof Methods Inference Rules and Proof Methods Winter 2010 Introduction Rules of Inference and Formal Proofs Proofs in mathematics are valid arguments that establish the truth of mathematical statements. An argument

More information

Section 3 Sequences and Limits

Section 3 Sequences and Limits Section 3 Sequences and Limits Definition A sequence of real numbers is an infinite ordered list a, a 2, a 3, a 4,... where, for each n N, a n is a real number. We call a n the n-th term of the sequence.

More information

TEN SIMPLE RULES FOR MATHEMATICAL WRITING

TEN SIMPLE RULES FOR MATHEMATICAL WRITING 1!! TEN SIMPLE RULES FOR MATHEMATICAL WRITING! Dimitri Bertsekas! M.I.T.!! APRIL 2002! 2! ON WRITING! Easy reading is damn hard writing (Hawthorne)! Word-smithing is a much greater percentage of what I

More information

Clicker Question. Theorems/Proofs and Computational Problems/Algorithms MC215: MATHEMATICAL REASONING AND DISCRETE STRUCTURES

Clicker Question. Theorems/Proofs and Computational Problems/Algorithms MC215: MATHEMATICAL REASONING AND DISCRETE STRUCTURES MC215: MATHEMATICAL REASONING AND DISCRETE STRUCTURES Tuesday, 1/21/14 General course Information Sets Reading: [J] 1.1 Optional: [H] 1.1-1.7 Exercises: Do before next class; not to hand in [J] pp. 12-14:

More information

CS 341 Homework 9 Languages That Are and Are Not Regular

CS 341 Homework 9 Languages That Are and Are Not Regular CS 341 Homework 9 Languages That Are and Are Not Regular 1. Show that the following are not regular. (a) L = {ww R : w {a, b}*} (b) L = {ww : w {a, b}*} (c) L = {ww' : w {a, b}*}, where w' stands for w

More information

School of Medical Sciences Introductory Program

School of Medical Sciences Introductory Program School of Medical Sciences Introductory Program Thesis Writing David Allen Physiology Acknowledgement based on notes originally prepared by Brett Hambly The thesis should be a substantial, original contribution

More information

APA Style and Formatting Explained

APA Style and Formatting Explained APA Style and Formatting Explained January 31, 2012 1 Table of Contents Overview... 2 In-text Citations... 3 Citing a Paraphrase Examples... 4 Citing Quotations Examples... 5 The Reference List General

More information

Requirements for Preparing Your Work Term Report

Requirements for Preparing Your Work Term Report Requirements for Preparing Your Work Term Report Work term reports are expected to be technical and analytical in nature and usually address substantial subjects such as: the feasibility of a design or

More information

Guideline to Writing a Master s Thesis in Statistics

Guideline to Writing a Master s Thesis in Statistics Guideline to Writing a Master s Thesis in Statistics Björn Andersson, Shaobo Jin and Fan Yang-Wallentin Department of Statistics, Uppsala University May 5, 2014 Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 The Structure

More information

Essay Writing Workshop

Essay Writing Workshop what a basic essay/written response is. the steps of writing an essay. what an essay consists of. helpful transition words. why it is important to support your thoughts. why you should proofread your essays.

More information

Essay Writing BJECTIVES ONTENTS. By the end of this section you should be able to; Interpret essay questions successfully. Plan personal objectives

Essay Writing BJECTIVES ONTENTS. By the end of this section you should be able to; Interpret essay questions successfully. Plan personal objectives Essay Writing By the end of this section you should be able to; Interpret essay questions successfully O BJECTIVES Plan personal objectives Actively search for information Construct a logical essay plan

More information

The Harvard style. Reference with confidence. (2012 Edition)

The Harvard style. Reference with confidence. (2012 Edition) Reference with confidence: The Harvard style 1 Reference with confidence The Harvard style (2012 Edition) As used in: Archaeology Biochemistry (as well as Vancouver) Biology (as well as Vancouver) Economics

More information

Paraphrasing and Summarising

Paraphrasing and Summarising Paraphrasing This section will help you to get on top of paraphrasing by examining what, why and how to paraphrase. What is paraphrasing? Paraphrasing is not producing a direct copy of another persons

More information

PASSING SCORES. Example: W 37 +R 41+ M 45 = 123

PASSING SCORES. Example: W 37 +R 41+ M 45 = 123 CBEST WRITING TIME MANAGEMENT You will be given a test booklet with all three sections Writing, Reading and Math. You may take all three sections at one sitting, or you can spend four hours on just one

More information

BUSINESS REPORTS. The Writing Centre Department of English

BUSINESS REPORTS. The Writing Centre Department of English Part 1 At some point during your academic or professional career, you may be required to write a report. Reports serve several functions. They may be used to communicate information within an organization

More information

Writing Academic Essays at University. Philip Seaton, Hokkaido University

Writing Academic Essays at University. Philip Seaton, Hokkaido University Writing Academic Essays at University Philip Seaton, Hokkaido University Writing Academic Essays at University Page 2/ What is Research? Video 1 In this video series, I will be introducing you to the basics

More information

Prime Numbers and Divisibility

Prime Numbers and Divisibility 2.1 Prime Numbers and Divisibility 2.1 OBJECTIVES 1. Find the factors of a number 2. Determine whether a number is prime, composite, or neither 3. Determine whether a number is divisible by 2, 3, or 5

More information

What is Expository Writing? It is a piece of informational text, that explains something to the reader.

What is Expository Writing? It is a piece of informational text, that explains something to the reader. ELEMENTS OF What is Expository Writing? It is a piece of informational text, that explains something to the reader. The PURPOSE of Expository? We use expository writing to explain provide information define

More information

Lecture 3. Mathematical Induction

Lecture 3. Mathematical Induction Lecture 3 Mathematical Induction Induction is a fundamental reasoning process in which general conclusion is based on particular cases It contrasts with deduction, the reasoning process in which conclusion

More information

MAT2400 Analysis I. A brief introduction to proofs, sets, and functions

MAT2400 Analysis I. A brief introduction to proofs, sets, and functions MAT2400 Analysis I A brief introduction to proofs, sets, and functions In Analysis I there is a lot of manipulations with sets and functions. It is probably also the first course where you have to take

More information

WRITING A CRITICAL ARTICLE REVIEW

WRITING A CRITICAL ARTICLE REVIEW WRITING A CRITICAL ARTICLE REVIEW A critical article review briefly describes the content of an article and, more importantly, provides an in-depth analysis and evaluation of its ideas and purpose. The

More information

Bates College Department of Biology PEER REVIEW FORM

Bates College Department of Biology PEER REVIEW FORM Bates College Department of Biology PEER REVIEW FORM Reviewer s Bates ID#: Authors Bates ID# s: Guidelines: This peer review is to be done anonymously. Your task is to help the author to write a better,

More information

Writing a Master Thesis in Electric Power Systems

Writing a Master Thesis in Electric Power Systems Electric Power Systems Lab EG201X DEGREE PROJECT IN ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS 27 September 2011 Writing a Master Thesis in Electric Power Systems One of the most important parts of the Degree Project course

More information

13 Infinite Sets. 13.1 Injections, Surjections, and Bijections. mcs-ftl 2010/9/8 0:40 page 379 #385

13 Infinite Sets. 13.1 Injections, Surjections, and Bijections. mcs-ftl 2010/9/8 0:40 page 379 #385 mcs-ftl 2010/9/8 0:40 page 379 #385 13 Infinite Sets So you might be wondering how much is there to say about an infinite set other than, well, it has an infinite number of elements. Of course, an infinite

More information

Avoiding Apostrophe Catastrophes

Avoiding Apostrophe Catastrophes Avoiding Apostrophe Catastrophes Interestingly, apostrophes were introduced to the English language in the 16 th century (1500 s). Apostrophe in Greek means turning away, therefore omission. Originally,

More information

FORMAL LANGUAGES, AUTOMATA AND COMPUTATION

FORMAL LANGUAGES, AUTOMATA AND COMPUTATION FORMAL LANGUAGES, AUTOMATA AND COMPUTATION REDUCIBILITY ( LECTURE 16) SLIDES FOR 15-453 SPRING 2011 1 / 20 THE LANDSCAPE OF THE CHOMSKY HIERARCHY ( LECTURE 16) SLIDES FOR 15-453 SPRING 2011 2 / 20 REDUCIBILITY

More information

Examination Technique

Examination Technique Examination Technique This presentation shows you how to approach your GCSE examination in Humanities: what to expect, what the examiner wants from you, what you need to do, and how to make sure you get

More information

Running head: WRITING AN APA PAPER 1. Writing a Paper in APA Style. Lisa Blackwell Wan. Tarleton State University

Running head: WRITING AN APA PAPER 1. Writing a Paper in APA Style. Lisa Blackwell Wan. Tarleton State University Running head: WRITING AN APA PAPER 1 Commented [BMLJ1]: Pagination begins on this page, the title page. Commented [BMLJ2]: Use Times New Roman font, 12 pica, with double-spacing throughout your paper.

More information