Repeat visitations are a natural phenomenon for mature holiday destinations

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1 主 題 故 事 Cover Story 除 了 購 物, 還 有 甚 麼 可 以 使 他 們 回 來? Shopping aside, what else can make them return? 徐 惠 群 Cathy H C Hsu 香 港 般 的 旅 遊 目 的 地, 發 展 既 已 成 熟, 旅 像 客 重 遊 自 然 正 常 不 過 因 此, 這 些 旅 遊 目 的 地 若 要 維 持 競 爭 力, 要 務 就 是 力 保 旅 客 重 遊 以 身 處 旅 遊 目 的 地 時 的 行 為 而 言, 重 遊 旅 客 可 謂 自 成 一 類, 與 初 遊 旅 客 大 相 逕 庭, 這 點 已 廣 獲 認 同 研 究 重 遊 旅 客 的 行 為, 可 取 得 寶 貴 的 市 場 資 訊, 發 展 成 熟 的 旅 遊 目 的 地 可 藉 此 保 持 競 爭 優 勢 香 港 是 內 地 旅 客 的 重 要 外 遊 目 的 地 可 是, 由 於 中 國 公 民 出 國 旅 遊 目 的 地 國 家 名 單 上 的 國 家 日 益 增 加, 中 國 公 民 要 選 擇 出 外 度 假 的 目 的 地 的 話, 可 供 選 擇 的 地 點 也 變 得 多 了 起 來 Repeat visitations are a natural phenomenon for mature holiday destinations like Hong Kong; thus, securing repeat visitations is an important measure to sustain the competitiveness of those destinations. It is commonly agreed that repeat visitors are a distinct cohort in their behaviours in the destination compared to first-time visitors. Studying behaviours of repeat tourists would gain invaluable market information for a mature destination to maintain its competitive edge. Hong Kong is regarded as an important outbound tourist destination for mainland Chinese travellers. However, with more overseas tourist destinations being added to the Approved Destination Status list, Chinese citizens have many more outbound destination choices when selecting holiday destinations abroad. 研 究 詳 情 由 於 內 地 的 重 遊 旅 客 對 香 港 很 重 要, 我 們 設 計 的 研 究 旨 在 達 成 以 下 目 標 :(1) 調 查 各 項 關 於 旅 遊 動 機 的 因 素, 對 旅 客 的 重 遊 態 度 和 重 遊 意 圖 有 甚 麼 作 用 ;(2) 探 究 過 往 的 旅 遊 經 驗, 對 旅 客 的 重 遊 態 度 和 重 遊 意 圖 有 甚 麼 影 響 ;(3) 調 查 旅 客 已 察 覺 的 阻 礙, 對 重 遊 意 圖 有 甚 麼 作 用 ; 以 及 (4) 量 度 旅 客 的 重 遊 態 度, 在 多 大 程 度 上 會 影 響 關 鍵 要 素 ( 即 旅 遊 動 機 和 過 往 旅 遊 經 驗 ) 對 重 遊 意 圖 的 作 用 ( 見 圖 ) 這 裡 應 注 意 兩 點, 一 是 過 往 的 旅 遊 經 驗 由 以 前 旅 遊 的 次 數 和 以 前 旅 遊 時 的 滿 意 程 度 來 衡 量, 二 是 重 遊 態 度 和 重 遊 意 圖 的 區 別, 大 體 而 言, 態 度 關 乎 情 緒 狀 況, 而 意 圖 則 是 實 際 行 為 的 先 聲 這 項 研 究 由 組 織 焦 點 小 組 討 論 回 顧 已 有 的 研 究 結 果 著 手, 然 後 以 其 中 所 得 為 基 礎, 準 備 了 一 份 問 卷 經 過 多 次 小 規 模 試 驗 後, 再 把 問 卷 修 訂 Details of the study Given the importance of repeat Chinese visitors to Hong Kong, we devised a study aimed at (1) investigating the impacts of various travel motivation factors on tourist attitude towards revisiting a destination and on revisit inten- 圖 : 研 究 採 用 的 建 議 模 型 Figure: Proposed model for the study 旅 遊 動 機 Travel motivation 過 往 旅 遊 經 驗 Past travel experience 已 察 覺 的 阻 礙 Perceived constraint 表 示 假 設 的 作 用 Showing hypothesised effect 重 遊 態 度 Attitude towards revisit 重 遊 意 圖 Revisit intention 2 議 會 季 刊 二 零 一 零 年 第 三 期

2 Cover Story 主 題 故 事 潤 飾, 最 後 在 北 京 進 行 電 話 調 查 受 訪 者 需 要 回 答 二 零 零 零 年 後 有 沒 有 去 過 香 港 這 一 問 題, 藉 以 判 別 他 們 是 否 符 合 資 格 接 通 的 電 話 共 有 八 千 四 百 二 十 一 個, 其 中 七 千 六 百 二 十 一 個 ( 百 分 之 九 十 點 五 ) 接 電 話 的 人, 在 二 零 零 零 年 後 沒 有 去 過 香 港 在 八 百 個 合 資 格 的 受 訪 者 中, 五 百 零 一 人 ( 百 分 之 六 十 二 點 六 ) 完 成 了 有 效 的 訪 問 女 性 受 訪 者 ( 百 分 之 五 十 二 點 一 ) 稍 多 於 男 性 受 訪 者 ( 百 分 之 四 十 七 點 九 ) 大 多 數 受 訪 者 都 比 較 年 輕, 差 不 多 一 半 ( 百 分 之 四 十 六 點 九 ) 在 二 十 至 二 十 九 歲 的 年 齡 組 別, 其 餘 三 十 至 三 十 九 歲 的 組 別 有 百 分 之 二 十 七 點 一, 四 十 至 四 十 九 歲 佔 百 分 之 十 三, 五 十 歲 及 以 上 也 佔 百 分 之 十 三 在 婚 姻 狀 況 方 面, 受 訪 者 中 有 百 分 之 六 十 點 五 已 婚, 三 十 八 點 九 沒 有 結 過 婚 上 述 人 口 特 徵 與 內 地 旅 客 來 港 的 整 體 情 況 大 致 相 符 tion; (2) examining the influence of past travel experience on tourist attitude towards revisiting a destination and on revisit intention; (3) investigating the influence of perceived constraint on tourists intention of revisiting a destination; and (4) measuring the extent to which tourist attitude mediates the impact of determinant factors (i.e. travel motivation and past travel experience) on revisit intention (see Figure). It should be noted that past travel experience is measured by the number of past revisits and satisfaction with past visits, and that the distinction between attitude towards revisit and revisit intention is roughly that attitude is connected with the traveller s emotional state while revisit intention is a precursor to actual behaviour. The study began with focus group discussions and review of previous studies, on which a questionnaire was developed. After refining the questionnaire through various pilot studies, a telephone survey was conducted in Beijing. A screening question was included to identify eligible respondents who had visited Hong Kong after the year A total of 8,421 phone calls were successfully connected. Of those calls, 7,621 (90.5%) were answered by individuals who had not visited Hong Kong since Of the 800 eligible respondents, 501 (62.6%) successful interviews were completed. Female respondents (52.1%) slightly outnumbered their male counterparts (47.9%). Most respondents were relatively young. Almost half of the sample (46.9%) fell into the age category of 20-29; another 27.1%, 13.0% and 13.0%, respectively, was in the category of 30-39, 40-49, and 50 years and older. In terms of marital status, 60.5% of the respondents were married, while 38.9% had never been married. The demographic profile of the respondents basically reflected that of overall visitors to Hong Kong from mainland China. 表 一 : 滿 意 程 度 重 遊 態 度 重 遊 意 圖 Table 1: Satisfaction, attitude towards revisit and revisit intention 滿 意 程 度 Satisfaction ( 平 均 mean = 5.55) 你 對 過 往 遊 覽 香 港 的 經 驗 給 予 正 面 的 整 體 評 價 Your overall evaluation on the past experience of visiting Hong Kong is positive 你 對 過 往 遊 覽 香 港 的 經 驗 給 予 良 好 的 整 體 評 價 Your overall evaluation on the past experience of visiting Hong Kong is favourable 你 對 過 往 遊 覽 香 港 的 經 驗 感 到 滿 意 You are satisfied with your past experience of visiting Hong Kong 你 對 過 往 遊 覽 香 港 的 經 驗 感 到 愉 快 You are pleased with your past experience of visiting Hong Kong 重 遊 態 度 Attitude towards revisit ( 平 均 mean = 5.52) 重 遊 香 港 會 使 人 開 心 Revisiting Hong Kong would be enjoyable 重 遊 香 港 會 充 滿 樂 趣 Revisiting Hong Kong would be full of fun 重 遊 香 港 會 使 人 滿 意 Revisiting Hong Kong would be satisfactory 重 遊 香 港 會 很 值 得 Revisiting Hong Kong would be worthwhile 重 遊 意 圖 Revisit intention ( 平 均 mean = 5.25) 你 打 算 在 兩 年 內 重 遊 香 港 You intend to revisit Hong Kong in the next two years 你 計 劃 在 兩 年 內 重 遊 香 港 You plan to revisit Hong Kong in the next two years 你 很 想 在 兩 年 內 重 遊 香 港 You desire to revisit Hong Kong in the next two years 你 應 該 會 在 兩 年 內 重 遊 香 港 You probably will revisit Hong Kong in the next two years 1 = 很 不 同 意 strongly disagree,7 = 非 常 同 意 strongly agree The Voice of TIC No. 3 /

3 主 題 故 事 Cover Story 研 究 結 果 問 卷 包 含 了 多 種 類 別 的 問 題, 像 旅 遊 動 機 已 察 覺 的 阻 礙 滿 意 程 度 重 遊 態 度 重 遊 意 圖 與 滿 意 程 度 重 遊 態 度 重 遊 意 圖 三 方 面 有 關 的 項 目, 平 均 分 全 都 超 過 五 ( 最 高 為 七 ), 這 顯 示 受 訪 者 對 過 往 遊 覽 香 港 的 經 驗 大 致 感 到 滿 意, 對 於 日 後 重 遊 香 港 態 度 積 極, 而 且 有 重 遊 香 港 的 意 圖 ( 見 表 一 ) Findings Several kinds of questions were covered in the survey, including travel motivation, perceived constraint, satisfaction, attitude towards revisit and revisit intention. All satisfaction, attitude towards revisit and revisit intention items had mean values over 5.0 (7 being the highest), indicating that the respondents were generally satisfied with their past experience of visiting Hong Kong, held favourable attitudes towards revisiting Hong Kong in the future, and had positive intention to revisit Hong Kong (see Table 1). 表 二 : 動 機 Table 2: Motivation 新 鮮 感 Novelty ( 平 均 mean = 4.15) 遊 覽 多 數 人 都 認 為 值 得 一 遊 的 目 的 地 Visit a destination that most people think deserves to visit 滿 足 對 香 港 的 好 奇 心 Fulfil curiosity about Hong Kong 體 驗 不 同 文 化 Experience different cultures 感 受 宏 偉 壯 觀 的 高 樓 大 廈 Feel the magnificence of the city s skyscrapers 增 進 知 識 Knowledge ( 平 均 mean = 4.68) 和 香 港 人 溝 通 Interact with Hong Kong people 多 瞭 解 香 港 這 個 一 國 兩 制 的 例 子 Know more about Hong Kong as an example of one country, two systems 認 識 香 港 獨 特 的 殖 民 地 歷 史 Learn Hong Kong s unique colonial history 增 加 對 其 他 地 方 的 知 識 Increase your knowledge about other places 放 鬆 身 心 Relaxation ( 平 均 mean = 4.97) 和 家 人 共 享 天 倫 之 樂 Enjoy happy time with family 和 同 遊 的 朋 友 歡 度 時 光 Enjoy happy time with friends who travel together with you 鬆 弛 和 休 息 Relax and rest 暫 時 擺 脫 刻 板 的 生 活 Have some time for a break from routine life 購 物 Shopping ( 平 均 mean = 4.47) 購 買 世 界 名 牌 產 品 Buy world famous brand-name products 購 物 Go shopping 購 買 資 訊 科 技 及 電 子 通 訊 產 品 Buy IT and telecommunication products 1 = 很 不 同 意 strongly disagree,7 = 非 常 同 意 strongly agree 對 有 關 重 遊 動 機 的 數 據 再 加 分 析, 可 知 受 訪 者 基 本 上 以 四 個 因 素 來 衡 量 會 否 重 遊 香 港 : 新 鮮 感 增 進 知 識 放 鬆 身 心 購 物 ( 見 表 二 ) 通 過 進 一 步 分 析, 可 知 新 鮮 感 與 放 鬆 身 心 這 兩 項 關 於 動 機 的 因 素, 都 使 旅 客 對 重 遊 香 港 的 態 度 有 正 面 影 響 可 是, 增 進 知 識 與 購 物 卻 不 會 改 變 重 遊 態 度 在 四 項 關 於 動 機 的 因 素 中, 只 有 購 物 會 提 高 重 遊 意 圖, 這 顯 示 遊 覽 過 香 港 的 內 地 旅 客 如 果 購 物 動 機 強, 大 抵 重 遊 香 港 的 意 圖 也 會 較 高 Analysis of the revisit motivation data indicated that the respondents basically had four types of reasons to return to Hong Kong: Novelty, Knowledge, Relaxation and Shopping (see Table 2). Further analysis showed that Novelty and Relaxation, as motivation factors, had positive effects on visitors attitude towards revisiting Hong Kong. However, Knowledge and Shopping did not impact attitude towards revisiting Hong Kong. Among the four motivation factors, only Shopping had a positive effect on revisit intention, indicating that past mainland visitors who held strong motivation for shopping tended to have high intention to revisit Hong Kong. Results showed that the number of past visits did not influence at- 4 議 會 季 刊 二 零 一 零 年 第 三 期

4 Cover Story 主 題 故 事 研 究 結 果 顯 示, 以 前 遊 覽 過 香 港 的 次 數 不 會 影 響 重 遊 態 度 相 反, 以 前 遊 覽 過 香 港 的 話, 對 重 遊 意 圖 卻 會 有 重 大 的 正 面 作 用 以 前 遊 覽 香 港 時 是 滿 意 的 話, 對 重 遊 香 港 的 態 度 有 正 面 效 果, 這 顯 示 受 訪 者 過 往 遊 覽 香 港 時 越 感 滿 意, 就 越 會 對 重 遊 香 港 抱 有 正 面 態 度 滿 意 程 度 對 於 重 遊 意 圖 也 有 正 面 效 果, 這 表 示 過 往 的 旅 遊 經 驗 若 是 滿 意, 就 會 變 成 重 遊 香 港 的 強 烈 意 圖 通 過 分 析 已 察 覺 阻 礙 的 項 目, 揭 示 出 受 訪 者 對 於 重 遊 與 否 有 三 類 阻 礙 : 結 構 上 的 阻 礙 人 際 關 係 上 的 阻 礙 不 感 興 趣 的 阻 礙 ( 見 表 三 ) 研 究 發 現 結 構 上 的 阻 礙 和 人 際 關 係 上 的 阻 礙 對 重 遊 意 圖 沒 有 影 響, 而 不 感 興 趣 的 阻 礙 卻 不 利 於 重 遊 意 圖 此 外, 重 遊 態 度 對 重 遊 意 圖 有 正 面 效 果 這 些 究 竟 在 說 甚 麼? 這 項 研 究 找 到 的 四 個 關 於 動 機 的 因 素, 對 重 遊 態 度 和 重 遊 意 圖 各 有 不 同 效 果 增 進 知 識 和 購 物 對 重 遊 香 港 的 態 度 沒 有 任 何 影 響, 而 新 鮮 感 和 放 鬆 身 心 卻 對 態 度 有 正 面 titude towards revisit. On the contrary, past visitation exhibited a significant positive effect on revisit intention. Satisfaction of past visit experience had a positive effect on attitude towards revisiting Hong Kong, indicating that the more satisfied the respondents were with their past experience of visiting Hong Kong, the more favourable their attitude would be towards revisiting the city. Satisfaction also had a positive effect on revisit intention, suggesting that satisfaction with previous visit experiences would result in strong intention to revisit Hong Kong. Through analysis of the perceived constraint items, it was revealed that the respondents perceived three types of barriers (Structural, Interpersonal and Disinterest) of returning to Hong Kong (see Table 3). Findings disclosed that Structural and Interpersonal constraints had no influence on revisit intention, while Disinterest constraints had a negative effect on revisit intention. And there was a positive effect of attitude on revisit intention. What does it all mean? The four motivation dimensions identified by the study had different effects on attitude towards revisit and revisit intention. Knowledge and Shopping did not have any impact on attitude towards revisiting Hong Kong. In contrast, Novelty and Relaxation had a positive effect on attitude. It could be argued that people s attitude towards revisiting a destination is partly determined by their needs to seek novelty and relaxation at the destination. If a previously visited destination still appears novel, pleasure travellers would hold a positive attitude 表 三 : 阻 礙 Table 3: Constraints 結 構 上 的 阻 礙 Structural ( 平 均 mean = 3.52) 不 易 辦 理 去 香 港 的 旅 遊 證 件 Getting travel documents to Hong Kong is not easy 香 港 離 開 你 家 非 常 遠 Hong Kong is very far away from where you live 在 你 家 附 近 很 少 組 辦 香 港 團 的 旅 行 社 There are few travel agencies organising Hong Kong tours around your residential location 你 不 會 說 粵 語 You cannot speak Cantonese 遊 覽 香 港 要 很 多 錢 Visiting Hong Kong needs a lot of money 你 的 假 期 不 夠 You do not have enough holidays 人 際 關 係 上 的 阻 礙 Interpersonal ( 平 均 mean = 4.06) 難 以 編 配 時 間 去 和 家 人 / 朋 友 一 起 遊 覽 香 港 It is difficult to synchronise time with your family/friends who would visit Hong Kong with you 找 不 到 和 你 一 起 遊 覽 香 港 的 人 You cannot find travel companions to Hong Kong 不 感 興 趣 的 阻 礙 Disinterest ( 平 均 mean = 3.51) 香 港 對 你 再 沒 有 新 鮮 感 Hong Kong is not novel to you any more 你 家 人 對 遊 覽 香 港 不 感 興 趣 Your family is not interested in visiting Hong Kong 1 = 很 不 同 意 strongly disagree,7 = 非 常 同 意 strongly agree The Voice of TIC No. 3 /

5 主 題 故 事 Cover Story 作 用 這 不 妨 解 釋 為 旅 客 對 是 否 重 遊 某 地 的 態 度, 部 份 取 決 於 他 們 想 在 該 地 找 尋 新 鮮 感 和 放 鬆 身 心 如 以 前 遊 覽 過 的 目 的 地 仍 有 新 鮮 感, 消 閒 旅 客 對 於 日 後 重 遊 就 會 抱 有 正 面 態 度 與 此 相 似, 目 的 地 若 能 滿 足 放 鬆 身 心 的 要 求, 以 前 去 過 的 旅 客 也 會 對 日 後 重 遊 有 正 面 態 度 從 另 一 角 度 來 看, 研 究 結 果 也 可 用 這 些 因 素 的 內 在 性 質 來 解 釋 增 進 知 識 是 挺 理 智 的 事, 而 在 香 港 購 物 有 省 錢 和 選 擇 多 的 明 顯 功 利 價 值, 這 也 要 靠 理 智 去 衡 量 因 此, 兩 者 都 不 大 可 能 影 響 旅 客 對 重 遊 香 港 的 態 度, 因 為 態 度 頗 為 關 乎 情 緒 另 一 方 面, 新 鮮 感 和 放 鬆 身 心 卻 屬 於 感 情 依 附, 因 而 會 對 態 度 有 強 烈 作 用 在 重 遊 香 港 的 內 地 旅 客 之 中, 購 物 依 舊 是 強 烈 的 動 機 這 次 研 究 也 發 現 了 過 往 的 旅 遊 經 驗 是 影 響 旅 客 日 後 行 為 的 關 鍵 之 一 其 他 研 究 人 員 慣 於 把 以 前 遊 覽 某 地 的 次 數 當 作 過 往 經 驗 的 替 代 指 標, 但 這 項 研 究 卻 指 出, 雖 然 以 前 遊 覽 的 次 數 在 數 量 上 代 表 了 過 往 經 驗, 但 滿 意 程 度 卻 更 能 顯 示 過 往 經 驗 的 素 質, 因 此 可 能 是 過 往 經 驗 之 中 的 重 要 因 素 這 項 研 究 用 以 前 遊 覽 的 次 數 和 滿 意 程 度 一 起 來 代 表 過 往 經 驗, 這 樣 就 能 更 瞭 解 過 往 旅 遊 經 驗 對 日 後 旅 客 行 為 的 影 響 滿 意 程 度 和 重 遊 態 度 有 所 關 聯, 這 也 揭 示 出 旅 客 遊 覽 過 某 地 後, 會 視 乎 先 前 遊 覽 時 對 該 地 的 整 體 感 覺, 而 或 會 與 該 地 產 生 感 情 聯 繫 對 於 去 過 香 港 的 內 地 旅 客 而 言, 結 構 上 或 人 際 關 係 上 的 阻 礙 都 不 會 影 響 他 們 重 遊 香 港 的 意 圖 原 因 不 妨 這 般 解 釋, 所 有 受 訪 者 既 已 去 過 香 港, 他 們 以 前 決 定 要 去 香 港 時, 應 已 充 份 解 決 了 結 構 上 或 人 際 關 係 上 的 阻 礙 因 此, 日 後 要 重 遊 香 港 時 儘 管 仍 會 察 覺 到 這 些 阻 礙, 但 對 重 遊 意 圖 的 影 響 已 變 得 微 不 足 道 大 家 可 以 做 甚 麼? 對 重 遊 旅 客 而 言, 對 目 的 地 的 新 鮮 感 難 免 不 及 初 訪 旅 客 正 因 為 新 鮮 感 可 影 響 重 遊 旅 客 對 日 後 重 遊 香 港 的 態 度, 旅 遊 目 的 地 的 推 廣 和 管 理 人 員 應 參 與 旅 遊 項 目 發 展 和 推 廣 策 略, 藉 以 提 升 重 遊 旅 客 覺 得 的 新 鮮 感 香 港 的 景 點 種 類 繁 多, 有 好 些 towards future visitation. Similarly, if the destination can meet the relaxation need, past travellers would also formulate a positive attitude towards future visitation. From another perspective, the findings could be interpreted by the innate nature associated with each of the variables. Knowledge is quite rational; and shopping in Hong Kong has the clear functional value of cost saving and better choices, which is also a rational assessment. Thus, they are not likely to affect the attitude towards revisiting Hong Kong as attitude is a rather emotional thing. On the other hand, novelty and relaxation may convey an emotional attachment; thus they would exhibit a strong effect on attitude. Shopping remained to be a strong motivation among repeat mainland visitors to Hong Kong. Past travel experience was also identified as one of the determinants for future tourist behaviour. Researchers have customarily used the number of past visits as a proxy indicator for past experience. This study argued that while the number of past visits may represent the quantitative aspect of past experience, satisfaction may reflect more on the quality of past experience and thus may be an important component of the construct. By combining the number of past visits and satisfaction with past experience to represent the construct, this study provided a better understanding of past travel experience s influence on future tourist behaviour. The association of satisfaction with attitude also suggested that previous visitors may foster emotional ties with the destination based on their general impression of earlier experience in the destination. For past mainland visitors, neither Structural nor Interpersonal constraints exerted an influence on intention to revisit Hong Kong. It can be argued that, because all respondents had visited Hong Kong before, the Structural and Interpersonal constraints should have been well negotiated during the decision-making process of previous visits. Therefore, even though the constraints could still be perceived when future visitations are considered, their impacts on revisit intention become insignificant. What can we do? For repeat visitors, the level of novelty is naturally lower than that for first-time visitors. Because novelty can influence repeat visitors attitude towards visiting Hong Kong in the future, destination marketers and managers should engage in tourism development and marketing strategies to increase past visitors perceived novelty level. Hong Kong has a broad range of tourist attractions. Many attractions, such as beaches and outlying islands, are inaccessible to first-timers, and thus remain novel features among repeat visitors. The Hong Kong Tourism Board (HKTB) and the trade may consider promoting attractions that are lesser-known on the mainland. Promotion campaigns can emphasise the novel features of these attractions and distinguish them from the obvious must-see attractions. Recent mega 6 議 會 季 刊 二 零 一 零 年 第 三 期

6 Cover Story 主 題 故 事 景 點, 如 海 灘 離 島 等, 初 訪 旅 客 都 不 易 抵 達, 所 以 即 便 是 重 遊 旅 客, 也 仍 會 感 到 富 新 鮮 感 香 港 旅 遊 發 展 局 及 業 界 不 妨 考 慮 宣 傳 內 地 不 大 熟 知 的 景 點 推 廣 活 動 可 著 重 於 這 些 景 點 新 鮮 的 特 色, 以 便 和 不 得 不 看 的 顯 著 景 點 區 別 開 來 香 港 最 近 所 舉 辦 的 大 型 活 動, 也 是 提 升 新 鮮 感 的 方 法 之 一 香 港 的 形 象 是 一 個 國 際 大 都 會, 瞬 息 萬 變 的 生 活 方 式 廣 為 人 知, 這 些 都 不 利 於 培 養 重 遊 旅 客 放 鬆 身 心 的 動 機 不 過, 旅 遊 宣 傳 可 按 主 題 分 類, 凸 顯 香 港 閒 適 的 一 面, 如 海 灘 活 動 酒 吧 消 遣 在 舒 適 環 境 中 購 物 等 這 些 富 特 色 的 消 閒 活 動, 可 強 調 旅 客 與 家 人 朋 友 共 聚 的 愉 快 時 光, 以 及 遠 離 日 常 煩 惱 的 歡 樂 香 港 有 些 地 方 可 代 表 城 市 生 活 的 閒 適 一 面, 運 用 這 些 地 方 的 影 像, 可 使 重 遊 旅 客 得 到 清 晰 的 訊 息, 那 就 是 香 港 能 使 他 們 放 鬆 身 心 我 們 也 別 忘 記 對 內 地 重 遊 旅 客 而 言, 購 物 是 至 關 緊 要 的 重 遊 動 機 為 了 鞏 固 這 一 動 機, 香 港 應 發 展 更 多 吸 引 的 購 物 設 施, 藉 以 迎 合 內 地 旅 客 此 外, 還 要 把 免 費 的 購 物 指 南 放 在 方 便 拿 取 的 地 方, 以 及 確 保 會 說 普 通 話 的 零 售 服 務 人 員 要 足 夠 要 招 徠 內 地 的 重 遊 旅 客, 旅 發 局 也 可 考 慮 推 出 媒 體 及 其 他 宣 傳 活 動, 反 覆 申 說 在 香 港 購 物 的 好 處 當 然, 旅 客 到 來 後, 他 們 的 購 物 經 驗 務 必 小 心 維 護, 確 保 他 們 滿 意, 而 且 要 信 守 在 香 港 購 物 既 輕 鬆 又 無 憂 的 承 諾 在 這 項 研 究 中, 不 感 興 趣 是 唯 一 對 重 遊 意 圖 非 常 不 利 的 阻 礙 因 素 單 是 重 複 本 身, 就 能 使 人 不 感 興 趣, 因 此, 不 感 興 趣 這 個 重 遊 的 阻 礙 因 素, 推 廣 人 員 務 須 時 刻 在 意 怎 樣 避 免 重 遊 旅 客 不 感 興 趣, 怎 樣 使 內 地 旅 客 保 持 長 久 的 興 趣, 這 些 都 要 由 深 入 的 市 場 研 究 去 探 索 最 後 必 須 一 提 的 是, 由 於 數 據 都 是 由 北 京 居 民 那 裡 取 得 的, 研 究 的 結 果 和 結 論 都 不 宜 以 為 適 用 於 內 地 其 他 地 方 的 居 民 events are also examples of ways to increase the novelty level perceived. The cosmopolitan image of Hong Kong and its well-known fast-pace lifestyle could be disadvantageous when attempting to nurture the relaxation motivation among past visitors. However, thematic tourism communications can feature the relaxing side of the city, such as beach activities, pastime in bars, and relaxing shopping environments. Relaxation activities featured can highlight tourists happy moments with family and friends and their joy of being away from daily problems. Through images of places representing the relaxing part of city life, a clear message can be conveyed to past visitors that the city can meet their needs for relaxation. We should also bear in mind that Shopping was the single most important motivation factor for past mainland visitors to revisit. To foster this motivation, Hong Kong should develop more attractive shopping facilities to cater to mainland visitors. Conveniently located and freely available shopping guides and a sufficient number of Mandarin-speaking retail service staff are also necessary. To attract repeat visitors from mainland China, the HKTB could also consider launching media and other promotion activities emphasising the benefits of shopping in Hong Kong. Of course, when tourists arrive, their shopping experience should be carefully safeguarded to ensure satisfaction and to deliver the promise that shopping in Hong Kong is relaxing and hassle free. In this study, Disinterest was the only constraint dimension that had a strong negative effect on revisit intention. Because repetition itself could lead to disinterest, Disinterest as a constraint dimension for repeat visitation should receive more attention from destination marketers. In-depth marketing research should be undertaken on how to prevent disinterest emerging from past visitors and how to foster sustainable visitation interest among visitors from mainland China. Finally, a word of caution: since data were only collected from Beijing residents, the findings and conclusions may not be generalisable to mainland citizens of other locations. Dr Cathy H C Hsu is an Associate Director and Professor of the School of Hotel and Tourism Management of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. 徐 惠 群 博 士 是 香 港 理 工 大 學 酒 店 及 旅 遊 業 管 理 學 院 的 學 院 副 院 長 及 教 授 The Voice of TIC No. 3 /

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