5th Week. Ways of making a phrase, clause, and sentence

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1 5th Week Ways of making a phrase, clause, and sentence

2 1. Ways of making Phrase Before explaining the way of making phrase, we need to understand the basic concepts in advance. Words are the most basic concept in English. Words make up phrases and phrases make up sentences. This is how English is made when we syntactically view English. Every word can be a phrase. Among many types of phrases, there are major phrases which include P (oun Phrase), VP (Verb Phrase), AP (Adjective Phrase), PP (Preposition Phrase), TP (Tense Phrase). As we continue, we are going to know more about these in stages. Many symbols will occur, so it is advised that you know the basic symbols. These symbols are shown below. : consist of, is made up of / : either one ( ) : optionally occur 1.1 P (oun Phrase) (PP/Clause) oun Phrase known as P is consisted of (PP/Clause). P can sometimes be noun alone or noun followed by preposition phrase or noun followed by a clause. So, there are three ways of how P is constructed. The following examples can explain these ways. (1) a. Book Book is noun itself and it is also an P b. Leader of the army Of the army is PP + Leader, it is P c. Idea that James can play the flute That clause + Idea can be P 1.2 AP (Adjective Phrase) A (PP/ Clause) Adjective Phrase is also consisted of three ways just like P. AP can be adjective itself or adjective followed by PP or adjective followed by clause. These three examples are explained below. (2) a. Intelligent Word intelligent itself is AP b. Eager to leave the meeting To leave the meeting is PP and with eager, it is AP c. Eager for her brother to catch a cold For her brother to catch a cold is a clause and with Eager, it is AP 1.3 PP (Preposition Phrase) P (DP) Preposition Phrase is composed of two ways. Preposition itself can be PP or preposition followed by determiner phrase can be PP. In this part, we also have to know about determiner that determines the reference of the following P. There are five types of determiners. A. Definite and indefinite articles : the, a, an B. Demonstratives : this, that, these, those C. Quantity words : every, each, some, etc D. (Possessive) pronoun : my, I, me, etc E. Wh- determiner : whose, which, what, who These are the types of determiners and the example of PP is shown below. (3) a. Look out Out itself can be PP b. At the cemetery the cemetery is DP and with at, the whole phrase is AP

3 1.4 VP (Verb Phrase) V (DP/Clause/AP/PP/VP) V DP DP/Clause/AP/PP/VP There are many types of constituents when it comes to VP. The reason why there are many types is that verb has five different types. These types are shown below. (4) A. Type 1. VP V (Intransitive) EX) Disappear B. Type 2. VP V DP/AP/PP EX) Become a surgeon DP C. Type 3. VP V DP/Clause EX) Tell Bill that the story was true DP Clause D. Type 4. VP V DP PP/Clause EX) Gave a book to me DP PP VP V PP Clause EX) Say to me that he was tired PP Clause VP V DP DP EX) Gave me a book DP DP E. Type 5. VP V OP AP/VP/PP EX) Make Alice quite angry DP AP These types exist because according to different verbs, the constituents can differ. So, from the examples above, this question might occur. Why proper nouns such as Bill, Alice are considered as DP? Here is an answer for this. (5) DP D Ø P Proper oun (John, Bill) In this tree description, it is considered that article exists but it is just not pronounced. This article is called zero determiner. We cannot see the article but we have to admit the fact that the article exists. Therefore, proper noun becomes DP in this sense. 2. Ways of making Clause There are two forms of clause. One is an independent clause (sentence) that appears all by themselves. Another form is dependent clause (sentence-like expression) that has to depend on others. 2.1 Types of clauses in English In detail, there are 5 types of clauses in English. Clause is a sentence or a sentence-like expression within a sentence. Those types include that /indicative clause, subjunctive clause, infinitive clause, indirect question clause, and indirect yes-no question clause. (A) That /indicative clause In this clause, tense has different forms that include past, present, and modal. Tree description is drawn below in order to make it clear.

4 (2) TP D P T VP Ø P past V DP CP Beth tell D P C TP (Type 4 Verb) Ø that Bill D P T VP the cow past V DP leave D P the pasture (B) Subjunctive clause In this type of clause, only fixed form is used in CP. Only -Ø is used. Tree description is drawn below for clear understanding. TP (3) I T VP present V CP insist C TP that D P T VP he Ø Ø V DP guard D P the paintings (C) Infinitive clause In this type, infinitive marker to is used in CP. Let s find out with tree descriptions. (6) As we know the basic forms, only CP part is drawn briefly in tree description. CP C TP Example sentence: Sally would prefer to finish the porridge. Ø Ø This part is a notional subject.

5 (5) Similar to number 6, only brief form of VP is drawn for clear understanding. VP V CP infinitive marker intend C TP (Type 3 Verb) for PP T D P T VP Ø to V DP Sam review D P that (D) Indirect question clause In indirect question clause and indirect yes-no question clause, the question appears within a sentence. This type contains lot of phrases such as DP, PP, AP, and AdvP. Trees are shown below that makes easy to understand. (7) Brief form of CP will only drawn for clear understanding. CP DP C D P C TP whose Ø book D P T VP Ø past V DP book Shirley locate D P Wh- Expression whose book This right circled part is called Gap (Ø). But it differs from invisible Ø. The circled part starts from the right side of a clause but it moves to the left edge of a clause.

6 (E) Indirect yes-no question clause In this clause, yes-no means alternative. It is easy to understand with a tree description. (11) TP D P T VP VP V VP is possible when V is be, have. Ø future V DP CP Joesph tell D P C TP you whether/if Ø D P T VP Ø present V VP Matrix (mother) clause Martha be V Leave (Type 1 Verb) 3. How to make Sentence Embedded clause By looking at the concepts of phrase and clause that is explained earlier, we can find out how sentences are made. Sentence = Subject + predicate All sentences contain a subject and a predicate. A subject often comes in the front of the sentence and a predicate is often followed right after a subject. However, there are quite a lot of exceptions regarding this order. TP (Tense Phrase) DP/Clause T TP XP T T T VP TP (sentence) is consisted of two ways which are DP/Clause T and XP T. In this, T is consisted of T VP. Then, what is T? T is an intermediate phrase that didn t complete the whole sentence yet. It is easy to understand TP and T with tree description that is drawn below (1) TP (Sentence) DP/CP T (subject) T VP Then we have to know the meaning of tense. Tense is a language expression of time. There are three types of tense which include past (-ed), present (-Ø), and future (modal

7 auxiliary verb). Tense is divided in two general types which are factual situation (past, present) and non-factual situation (modal auxiliary verb). Tense is like a mortar that connects the bricks (DP) with another brick (VP). It is easy to understand TP with tree description that is drawn below. (6) Tense DP/VP/Clause T (Subject) T VP (Predicate) Example (-ed) (study) In this tree description, DP/VP/Clause is a Subject of a sentence and VP is a predicate. Just as mentioned earlier, subject + predicate forms a sentence. At first, tense and VP are separated but then, they combine with each other. In other words, at the beginning the word studied isn t found. Only the tense (-ed) and the VP (study) are found. But when we speak the word, it combines as one and becomes the word studied. Let s look at another tree description example to make sure. (7) TP D P T VP The -ed, - Ø, will shout Professor In this structure, Tense and VP were divided syntactically at first. Then, they combine with each other.

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