SEVENTH WEEK COMPLEX SENTENCES: THE NOUN CLAUSE

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "SEVENTH WEEK COMPLEX SENTENCES: THE NOUN CLAUSE"

Transcription

1 SEVENTH WEEK COMPLEX SENTENCES: THE NOUN CLAUSE COMPLEX SENTENCE: a kid of sentence which has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. KINDS OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES: (a) Adverb Clause (b) Adjective Clause (c) Noun Clause THE NOUN CLAUSE I. The structure of the Noun Clause A. Relative Pronouns or Subordinating Conjunctions (1) Can be used in both adjective clause and noun clauses: pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that conjunctions: when, where, why (2) Can be used only in noun clauses: pronouns: what, whatever, whoever, whichever conjunctions: how, whether COMPARE: He likes the girl who is coming. Pron. VT Noun Adjective Clause I don t know who is coming. Pron. VT Noun Clause B. Basic Sentence Types in the Noun Clause (1) Whoever studies hard TYPE 1 whoever N + VI Rel. Pron. VI Adverb (2) Whatever he likes TYPE 2 whatever N + VT + N RP Pron. VT (3) Who he became TYPE 3 who N + LV + N RP Pron. LV (subj.

2 (4) COMPARE: I don t know when he will arrive. TYPE 1 N + VI + Pron. VT Noun Clause when ADVERB (then) PREP. PH. (at that time) We will have dinner when he arrives. Main Clause Adverb Clause---Future-possible Condition (See Text pp ) II. Position of the Noun Clause within the Main Clause (1) Whoever likes Shakespeare will come to this play. Noun Clause VI Prep. Ph. TYPE 1 NOUN CLAUSE + VI (No example given) TYPE 2 (2) Her mother will decide whether she can go. TYPE 2 Noun VT Noun Clause (Direct Object) NOUN CLAUSE + VT + N N + VT + NOUN CLAUSE (3) The company will give whoever signs up for the tour a map of the city. Noun VT Noun Clause Noun Prep. Ph. (Indirect Object) (Direct Object) TYPE 2 N + VT + NOUN CLAUSE + N (4) Bill thought the party boring. TYPE 2 Noun VT Noun Adjective (Object N + VT + N + N or ADJ. Bill thought the party what he had expected it to be. Noun VT Noun Noun Clause (Object TYPE 2 N + VT + N + NOUN CLAUSE

3 (5) That she loves him is what he cares the most about. Noun Clause LV Noun Clause (Subject TYPE 3 NOUN CLAUSE + LV + NOUN CLAUSE (6) It is important that you attend this meeting. Pron. LV Adjective NOUN CLAUSE (Dummy (Subj. (Real Subject) Subj.) TYPE 3 (Pattern 9) IT + LV + ADJ. + NOUN CLUSE Note: Noun clauses are often used in this pattern because in English the major emphasis is at the END of the sentence. (7) Noun Clause as Adjective Complement I am happy that you came. TYPE 3 Pron. LV Adj. Noun Clause (Subj. (Adjective N + LV + ADJ. + NOUN CLAUSE (Pattern 7) (8) Noun Clause as Object of Preposition You may ask about whatever you don t understand. Prep. Noun Clause (Object of Preposition) III. The Noun Clause as Subject (1) Whoever is ready can make a speech Noun Clause VT Noun (Whoever) Noun Clause: describes a person or persons Verb: Action verb (2) Whichever horse is faster will win. Noun Clause VI (Whichever) Noun Clause: refers to living things Verb: Action verb

4 happen. (3) What you hope for may not occur. Noun Clause VI Noun Clause: describes an event Verb: happen or occur (4) That he is always late for work annoys his boss. Noun Clause VT Noun Noun Clause: describes a situation Verb: Arousal of a feeling or reaction decide (5) What the weather is like will determine whether we go hiking tomorrow. Noun Clause VT Noun Clause (Direct Object) Noun Clause: describes a situation or condition Verb: Verb of decision (6) That this new discovery may have harmful effects is what worries many scientists. Noun Clause LV Noun Clause (Subject Noun Clause: describes a situation or condition Verb: Linking verb IV. The Relative Pronoun THAT in Noun Clauses and Adjective Clauses (1) Linda is the girl (that) Bill met yesterday. Noun LV Noun Adjective Clause (2) Fred knows (that) Bill met Linda yesterday. Noun VT Noun Clause--DIRECT OBJECT Note: In a noun clause THAT has no grammatical function (3) He is glad (that) he passed the test. Pron.LV Adj. Noun Clause--ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT (4) That he came surprised everyone. Noun Clause VT Pronoun SUBJECT Note: If a noun clause beginning with THAT is the subject or subject complement, THAT CANNOT be left out.

5 V. Mistakes to Avoid A. The following relative pronouns and subordinating conjunctions can be used in both NOUN CLAUSES and QUESTIONS: who, whom, whose, which, when, where, why, what, how COMPARE: Question: Where is he going? Where + AUXILIARY VERB + SUBJECT + VERB +? Sentence using Noun Clause: I don t know where he is going. Noun Clause WHERE + SUBJECT + VERB B. A NOUN CLAUSE is a DEPENDENT CLAUSE; therefore, it CANNOT stand by itself as a complete sentence. NOT CORRECT: That interest rates have gone down. Noun Clause CORRECT: That interest rates have gone down is good news for businessmen. Noun Clause (SUBJECT) LV Noun Prep. Ph. REMEMBER: NOUN CLAUSE = NOUN

BASIC SENTENCE PARTS. Mr. Brasher

BASIC SENTENCE PARTS. Mr. Brasher BASIC SENTENCE PARTS Mr. Brasher Complete Subjects and Predicates Sentence- group of words with 2 main parts: complete subject and complete predicate. Together, they express a clear thought. Complete subject

More information

Sentence structure. It all begins with the clause! 1. An INDEPENDENT CLAUSE expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.

Sentence structure. It all begins with the clause! 1. An INDEPENDENT CLAUSE expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. Sentence structure It all begins with the clause! A CLAUSE is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. Kate noted the day s events in her journal. (subject) (verb) 1. An INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

More information

Pyramids. nouns adjectives adverbs. Here are some definitions of the words that we will look at in this lesson:

Pyramids. nouns adjectives adverbs. Here are some definitions of the words that we will look at in this lesson: Pyramids The pyramid is another metaphor (an analogy) that can help you understand the use of one-word nouns, noun phrases and noun clauses; one-word adjectives, adjective phrases and adjective clauses;

More information

NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES

NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES Universidad de Los Andes Facultad de Humanidades y Educación Escuela de Idiomas Modernos NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES In English, as in many other languages in the world, individual words

More information

There are only eight kinds of words! Only 8! These eight kinds of words are called the Eight Parts of Speech!

There are only eight kinds of words! Only 8! These eight kinds of words are called the Eight Parts of Speech! There are only eight kinds of words! Only 8! These eight kinds of words are called the Eight Parts of Speech! Our whole language is made of only these eight kinds of parts! Here are the names of the eight

More information

Diagramming Parts of Speech

Diagramming Parts of Speech NOUNS (E.O.W. 423-427) Depending on how a noun is used, it can be diagrammed six different ways. (E.O.W. 400-402) A noun being used as the subject of the sentence is place on the horizontal line in front

More information

Both of the sentences above are also independent clauses. A clause is independent when it can stand alone as a sentence:

Both of the sentences above are also independent clauses. A clause is independent when it can stand alone as a sentence: Dear Students, It is possible to learn about the four types of clauses. A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate. And you already know what contains a subject and a predicate

More information

Part 1: Parts of Speech. Conjunction Preposition Pronoun Interjection

Part 1: Parts of Speech. Conjunction Preposition Pronoun Interjection Part 1: Parts of Speech 8 Parts of Speech Noun Verb Adjective Adverb Conjunction Preposition Pronoun Interjection Nouns The name of a person, place, thing, or quality Answers the questions who? or what?

More information

Summary of Basic Grammar

Summary of Basic Grammar Page 1 of 8 Summary of Basic Grammar Prepared by Marjorie D. Lewis Part of Speech Noun = naming words Forms that can function as nouns: Common noun: names a thing (house), person (man), or concept (love)

More information

Basic Sentence Parts. Mr. Brasher

Basic Sentence Parts. Mr. Brasher Basic Sentence Parts Mr. Brasher Subjects and Predicates Complete Subjects and Predicates Sentence- group of words with two main parts: complete subject and complete predicate. Together, express a complete

More information

B1-7

B1-7 Parts of Speech: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/definitions.htm B1-7 http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/definitions.htm#parts Identifying the Subject / Identifying the Verb: http://depts.dyc.edu/learningcenter/owl/sentences_core_parts.htm

More information

Sentence Parts. Abbreviations

Sentence Parts. Abbreviations Sentence Parts Daily Grammar Practice Day 2 Tuesday what do I do with all those labels from Monday? First, don t ignore what you did yesterday. Use Monday s labels as a guide. 1. Label any prepositional

More information

Sentence Variety. Dr. Karen Petit

Sentence Variety. Dr. Karen Petit Sentence Variety Dr. Karen Petit Unvaried Sentences Unvaried sentence structures make ideas sound simplistic and repetitious: The pencil was yellow. The pencil was new. The pencil was rolling off the table.

More information

LESSON 29: DEPENDENT CLAUSES (ADJECTIVE)

LESSON 29: DEPENDENT CLAUSES (ADJECTIVE) LESSON 29: DEPENDENT CLAUSES (ADJECTIVE) Relevant Review Dependent clauses are groups of words with a subject and a verb, they can't stand alone, and they act as one part of speech. Adjectives describe

More information

LESSON 26: DEPENDENT CLAUSES (ADVERB)

LESSON 26: DEPENDENT CLAUSES (ADVERB) LESSON 26: DEPENDENT CLAUSES (ADVERB) Relevant Review Clauses are groups of words with a subject and a verb. Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Lesson o They answer the adverb questions.

More information

Parts of Speech. Clauses

Parts of Speech. Clauses Parts of Speech noun the name of a person, place, thing, or idea creates a picture in the mind pronoun takes the place of a noun creates no picture in the mind verb an action or state of being adjective

More information

Grammar 5: Sheet 1. Unless directed to do otherwise, mark your answers to these questions on the above passage.

Grammar 5: Sheet 1. Unless directed to do otherwise, mark your answers to these questions on the above passage. Grammar 5: Sheet 1 Passage Henry Reed, p. 30: Being Verbs By the time we were kids, my folks that s your grandparents had sold three lots here on this side of the road. All the present houses were here

More information

Satzbestandteile erkennen Theorie

Satzbestandteile erkennen Theorie I prepared this extra topic because I noticed that my gwapa has difficulties in the identification of the single parts of a sentence. However, this important so that you are able to handle the cases and

More information

RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 1.- DEFINING RELATIVE SENTENCES.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 1.- DEFINING RELATIVE SENTENCES. Who... people (subject) Whom... people (object) Which... things Where... places When... times Whose... possession RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 1.- DEFINING RELATIVE SENTENCES. Have a look at these examples: I found

More information

12 FIRST QUARTER. Class Assignments

12 FIRST QUARTER. Class Assignments 12 FIRST QUARTER Class Assignments August 6- Handout textbooks. August 7- Overview of the course. Go over senior dates. Go over class syllabus. August 10- Part 2 Chapter 1 Parts of Speech. Nouns. Daily

More information

SENTENCE SENSE. A phrase is a group of words that may contain a subject or a verb, but it never contains both.

SENTENCE SENSE. A phrase is a group of words that may contain a subject or a verb, but it never contains both. SENTENCE SENSE PART I: Phrases and Clauses A subject is the thing or idea or person that the clause is about. A predicate is the part of the clause that describes action or state of being (is, am, are,

More information

Diagramming Review. WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013

Diagramming Review. WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013 Diagramming Review WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013 Sentence Basics The subject of the sentence is the person or thing is performing the action of the sentence or is being described by the sentence.

More information

Independent and Dependent Clauses

Independent and Dependent Clauses Independent and Dependent Clauses Definition A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. There are two kinds of clauses: 1. An independent clause is a complete thought, a sentence.

More information

who whom whose (whose) 3 rd person

who whom whose (whose) 3 rd person PRONOUN CASE This is a run-down of how to decide pronoun case in clauses. (N.B. I do not say decide pronoun case in sentences why not?) I urge you to read carefully Chapters 24 and 25 on pronoun case in

More information

Commas. Dr. Karen Petit

Commas. Dr. Karen Petit Commas Dr. Karen Petit The Logic of Commas If no comma separates two words, readers will join them together. Commas show readers the parts of an idea. Incorrect and Confusing: The classroom was absolutely

More information

who whom whose (whose) 3 rd person

who whom whose (whose) 3 rd person PRONOUN CASE This is a run-down of how to decide pronoun case in clauses. (N.B. I do not say decide pronoun case in sentences why not?) I urge you to read carefully Chapters 24 and 25 on pronoun case in

More information

LESSON 7: ADVERBS. Lesson In the last lesson, you learned about adjectives. Adjectives are a kind of modifier. They modify nouns and pronouns.

LESSON 7: ADVERBS. Lesson In the last lesson, you learned about adjectives. Adjectives are a kind of modifier. They modify nouns and pronouns. LESSON 7: ADVERBS Relevant Review Words can be separated into eight groups called the parts of speech. Verbs tell what the subject is or does. Adjectives are words that modify nouns and pronouns. Lesson

More information

Definition of parts of speech The parts of speech and their basic functions

Definition of parts of speech The parts of speech and their basic functions Page 3 Introduction to English Grammar Pages 8-11 Parts of Speech: An Introduction Page 12 Nouns Pages 13-30 Definition of English Grammar The seven basic units of English Grammar: letter, syllable, word,

More information

Year 3 Grammar Guide. For Children and Parents MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL

Year 3 Grammar Guide. For Children and Parents MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL Year 3 Grammar Guide For Children and Parents A guide to the key grammar skills and understanding that your child will be learning this year with examples and practice questions

More information

CLAUSES. A clause is a part of a sentence that contains a complete subject and a complete predicate. There are two types of clauses:

CLAUSES. A clause is a part of a sentence that contains a complete subject and a complete predicate. There are two types of clauses: CLAUSES A clause is a part of a sentence that contains a complete subject and a complete predicate. There are two types of clauses: 1. ndependent clause (or main clause) 2. ependent clause (or subordinate

More information

12 FIRST QUARTER. Class Assignments

12 FIRST QUARTER. Class Assignments August 7- Go over senior dates. Go over school rules. 12 FIRST QUARTER Class Assignments August 8- Overview of the course. Go over class syllabus. Handout textbooks. August 11- Part 2 Chapter 1 Parts of

More information

Monday Simple Sentence

Monday Simple Sentence Monday Simple Sentence Definition: A simple sentence is exactly what it sounds like, simple. It has a tensed verb (past or present), a subject, and expresses a complete thought. A simple sentence is also

More information

Phrase Structure. A formal hypothesis for representing constituency

Phrase Structure. A formal hypothesis for representing constituency Phrase Structure A formal hypothesis for representing constituency Constituents are hierarchically organized TP NP VP The man eats at fancy restaurants. D N V PP the man eats P at AdjP Adj fancy NP N restaurants

More information

Indicate whether the underlined verb form is finite or non-finite. 1. He decided to go. finite. non-finite. 2. She has seen the film.

Indicate whether the underlined verb form is finite or non-finite. 1. He decided to go. finite. non-finite. 2. She has seen the film. FINITE AND NON-FINITE VERBS. Every main clause needs a finite verb. A finite verb is marked for tense or aspect and needs a subject e.g. he walked. A non-finite verb is not marked for tense or aspect and

More information

6th Standard level English Grammar Parts of Speech Table

6th Standard level English Grammar Parts of Speech Table 6th Standard level English Grammar Parts of Speech Table www.tnpscrock.in This is a summary of the 8 parts of speech*. You can find more detail if you click on each part of speech. part of speech function

More information

You will remember that clauses have both subject and predicate.

You will remember that clauses have both subject and predicate. DEPENDENT CLAUSES Folks, the following discussion may seem daunting at first, but there are no grammatical concepts here that you have not seen and worked with. You ll be introduced to some combinations

More information

FRAGMENTS II. Common Causes of Complex Fragments

FRAGMENTS II. Common Causes of Complex Fragments FRAGMENTS II Simple fragments can usually be easily fixed once a writer learns to check each sentence for a subject and a verb. But, there are other types of fragments that are a little tougher to identify

More information

Ways of Expressing Emphasis in English

Ways of Expressing Emphasis in English Universidad de Los Andes Facultad de Humanidades y Educación Escuela de Idiomas Modernos Ways of Expressing Emphasis in English In English, there are different ways of adding emphasis to a sentence or

More information

TKT Module 1: Describing language: Grammar Teacher s Notes

TKT Module 1: Describing language: Grammar Teacher s Notes TKT Module 1: Describing language: Grammar Teacher s Notes Description Participants will discover what is covered by the TKT Module 1 Part 1 syllabus area relating concepts and terminology for describing

More information

English Grammar Practice

English Grammar Practice ENG Name: Date: Pg. English Grammar Practice NOUNS Lesson 1: Noun Types A. On your answer sheet, write each noun. Then write C or P beside it to show whether it is a Common or Proper noun. B. On your answer

More information

GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS Understanding Relative Clauses

GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS Understanding Relative Clauses GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS Understanding Relative Clauses A relative (or adjective) clause modifies a noun or pronoun and is introduced by a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, or that) or occasionally

More information

Ways to Achieve Clarity 1. What is one of the best ways to achieve clarity in writing and how to you achieve it?

Ways to Achieve Clarity 1. What is one of the best ways to achieve clarity in writing and how to you achieve it? Ways to Achieve Clarity. What is one of the best ways to achieve clarity in writing and how to you achieve it? Coordinating Ideas. What does it mean grammatically if ideas are coordinating?. What are the

More information

Adverbs - quiz. Level A. 1. Which word is an adverb (for describing a verb)? A) refused B) delicious C) quickly

Adverbs - quiz. Level A. 1. Which word is an adverb (for describing a verb)? A) refused B) delicious C) quickly Level A 1. Which word is an adverb (for describing a verb)? A) refused B) delicious C) quickly 2. Which word is an adverb (for describing a verb)? A) sun B) shone C) brightly 3. Which word is an adverb

More information

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES: ESSENTIAL AND NONESSENTIAL. Barry 2011

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES: ESSENTIAL AND NONESSENTIAL. Barry 2011 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES: ESSENTIAL AND NONESSENTIAL Barry 2011 Review What is a phrase? A phrase is a group of related words that functions as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a subject

More information

Grammar Island. Second Edition Michael Clay Thompson art by Milton N. Kemnitz. Student Manual. Royal Fireworks Press.

Grammar Island. Second Edition Michael Clay Thompson art by Milton N. Kemnitz. Student Manual. Royal Fireworks Press. Second Edition Michael Clay Thompson art by Milton N. Kemnitz Student Manual Royal Fireworks Press 1 Royal Fireworks Language Arts by Michael Clay Thompson Copyright @ 2010, Royal Fireworks Publishing

More information

Learning the Question & Answer Flows

Learning the Question & Answer Flows Learning the Question & Answer Flows These exercises are designed to help you learn how the Question and Answer Flows are constructed in the Parent Help Booklet. In the Question and Answer Flow, a series

More information

Sentence structure

Sentence structure Semester III Group B Grammar 3 Mrs. Skirdj Sentence structure The subject is a noun, noun phrase or pronoun representing the person or thing that performs the action of the verb. There are two types of

More information

An Introduction to the Grammar of English

An Introduction to the Grammar of English An Introduction to the Grammar of English Revised edition Elly van Gelderen Arizona State University John Benjamins Publishing Company Amsterdam / Philadelphia Table of contents Foreword Preface to the

More information

Grammar, Usage, & Mechanics Skillbook

Grammar, Usage, & Mechanics Skillbook M A N Y V O I C E S L A N G U A G E Grammar, Usage, & Mechanics Skillbook Level J Perfection Learning Table of Contents Chapter 1: The Parts of Speech Finding Nouns 7 Finding Common and Proper Nouns 8

More information

Avoiding Run-On Sentences, Comma Splices, and Fragments

Avoiding Run-On Sentences, Comma Splices, and Fragments Avoiding Run-On Sentences, Comma Splices, and Fragments Understanding sentence structure helps in identifying and correcting run-on sentences and sentence fragments. A computer s spell checker does not

More information

TERMS. Parts of Speech

TERMS. Parts of Speech TERMS Parts of Speech Noun: a word that names a person, place, thing, quality, or idea (examples: Maggie, Alabama, clarinet, satisfaction, socialism). Pronoun: a word used in place of a noun (examples:

More information

Grammar Rules: Parts of Speech Words are classed into eight categories according to their uses in a sentence.

Grammar Rules: Parts of Speech Words are classed into eight categories according to their uses in a sentence. Grammar Rules: Parts of Speech Words are classed into eight categories according to their uses in a sentence. 1. Noun Name for a person, animal, thing, place, idea, activity. John, cat, box, desert,, golf

More information

are used to show how a text fits

are used to show how a text fits Glossary of terms: Term Definition Example active voice An active verb has its usual pattern of subject and object (in contrast to the passive voice). Active The school arranged a visit. Passive: adverbs

More information

Sentence Combining. Sentence Combining

Sentence Combining. Sentence Combining Sentence Combining English 67 Professor Jean Garrett Sentence Combining Compound Sentences 1 Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions join two or more complete sentences into one, longer compound

More information

Understanding Clauses and How to Connect Them to Avoid Fragments, Comma Splices, and Fused Sentences A Grammar Help Handout by Abbie Potter Henry

Understanding Clauses and How to Connect Them to Avoid Fragments, Comma Splices, and Fused Sentences A Grammar Help Handout by Abbie Potter Henry Independent Clauses An independent clause (IC) contains at least one subject and one verb and can stand by itself as a simple sentence. Here are examples of independent clauses. Because these sentences

More information

MESLEKİ İNGİLİZCE I / VOCATIONAL ENGLISH I

MESLEKİ İNGİLİZCE I / VOCATIONAL ENGLISH I MESLEKİ İNGİLİZCE I / VOCATIONAL ENGLISH I VOCATIONAL ENGLISH I / 2 credits 3 rd * Reviewing Basic English Grammar (word order, nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, prepositions etc.) * Learning common

More information

2. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SUBORDINATION IN SENTENCE. related clauses with a subordinating conjunction to form a complex sentence

2. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SUBORDINATION IN SENTENCE. related clauses with a subordinating conjunction to form a complex sentence 2.1 Subordination 2. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SUBORDINATION IN SENTENCE What is subordination? Subordination is a way of combining sentences that makes one sentence more important than the other. It is connecting

More information

Rooms of the house U11. Questions words: what and where

Rooms of the house U11. Questions words: what and where Rooms of the house U11 Questions words: what and where Question word: what What Use: Asking about things or activities Examples: What does he do at weekends? What is that? What kind of / type of Use: Asking

More information

White Mere Community Primary School

White Mere Community Primary School White Mere Community Primary School KS2 Grammar and Punctuation Overview To ensure our pupils have a complete and secure understanding of discrete grammatical terms, punctuation and spelling rules, discrete

More information

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL CONTENTS. How to Use this Book xv

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL CONTENTS. How to Use this Book xv CONTENTS How to Use this Book xv Section One Grammar 1 1. the noun 2. types of nouns 3. the pronoun 4. personal pronouns 5. Do you know your personal pronouns? 6. reflexive, demonstrative, and interrogative

More information

Clauses and Phrases. How to know them when you see them! How they work to make more complex sentences!

Clauses and Phrases. How to know them when you see them! How they work to make more complex sentences! Clauses and Phrases How to know them when you see them! How they work to make more complex sentences! Why it s important to use them in your writing! What s a CLAUSE? Clauses are clusters of words. Clauses

More information

GRAMMAR. Eight Parts of Speech. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection

GRAMMAR. Eight Parts of Speech. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection 1 GRAMMAR Eight Parts of Speech Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection Noun Name or classify persons, places, things, and concepts 1. Proper Nouns: Name particular people,

More information

ANALYTICAL GRAMMAR (UNIT #13) NOTES-PAGE 27 INFINITIVE PHRASES. EXAMPLES: Lydia refused to help. ( to help is the direct object, a noun's job)

ANALYTICAL GRAMMAR (UNIT #13) NOTES-PAGE 27 INFINITIVE PHRASES. EXAMPLES: Lydia refused to help. ( to help is the direct object, a noun's job) ANALYTICAL GRAMMAR (UNIT #13) NOTES-PAGE 27 INFINITIVE PHRASES DEFINITION: An infinitive is a verb form, almost always preceded by to, which is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. EXAMPLES: Lydia refused

More information

Reference Grammars COMPLEX SENTENCE. Student s Grammars

Reference Grammars COMPLEX SENTENCE. Student s Grammars Subordination following Biber et al. (2002, 1999), Greenbaum & Quirk (1985), Quirk et al. (1985) Carter & McCarthy (2006) and Selection of Definitions from Oxford Reference Online by T.Naves tnaves@ub.edu

More information

GRAMMAR V ADVANCED I. SUBORDINATION

GRAMMAR V ADVANCED I. SUBORDINATION GRAMMAR V ADVANCED April 20, 2001 I. SUBORDINATION A. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES 1. Expansion of adjective clause usage through the introduction of a) Expressions of quantity in adjective clauses This conference

More information

015 CANNONVALE STATE SCHOOL CURRICULUM. GRAMMAR and PUNCTUATION GUIDELINES WHAT IS GRAMMAR?

015 CANNONVALE STATE SCHOOL CURRICULUM. GRAMMAR and PUNCTUATION GUIDELINES WHAT IS GRAMMAR? GRAMMAR and PUNCTUATION GUIDELINES WHAT IS GRAMMAR? In the Australian Curriculum: English, the purpose of punctuation and grammar is to reflect that in describing language, attention is paid to both structure

More information

The university writing Center 3211 HHRA Building

The university writing Center 3211 HHRA Building The university writing Center 3211 HHRA Building TERMS TO KNOW: Vital Sentence Elements SENTENCE: A group of words that names at least one person or thing and expresses a complete thought about it. (The

More information

Language Usage: Grammar and Usage: Parts of Speech

Language Usage: Grammar and Usage: Parts of Speech Students: DesCartes Statements: Students: RIT Above 230: Explains how nominative and objective pronouns are used Identifies infinitives in written Identifies past participles in written (e.g., misspelled)

More information

Appendix C: Scope and sequence of grammar and punctuation skills K 6

Appendix C: Scope and sequence of grammar and punctuation skills K 6 Appendix C: Scope and sequence of grammar and punctuation skills K 6 The following scope and sequence of grammar and punctuation framework indicates those understandings and terms which students might

More information

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns.

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns. English Parts of speech Parts of Speech There are eight parts of speech. Here are some of their highlights. Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Articles Verbs Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Click on any of the

More information

Morphology. classes. Nancy Kula

Morphology. classes. Nancy Kula Morphology Word Structure: Words and word classes Nancy Kula Class 8: Words & word classes ( Radford et al. p125 139) 139) Class 9: Building words (Radford et al. p140 155) Class 10: Morphology across

More information

Learning the Question & Answer Flows

Learning the Question & Answer Flows Learning the Question & Answer Flows These exercises are designed to help you learn how the Question and Answer Flows are constructed in the Parent Help Booklet. In the Question and Answer Flow, a series

More information

Module 4 Simple, compound and complex sentences

Module 4 Simple, compound and complex sentences Module 4 Simple, compound and complex sentences Aim This module highlights the difference between compound and complex sentences. It also shows a variety of ways in which complex sentences can be constructed.

More information

Grade 10 Grammar Packet. FANBOYS- Coordinating Conjunctions. Subordinating conjunctions and relative pronouns

Grade 10 Grammar Packet. FANBOYS- Coordinating Conjunctions. Subordinating conjunctions and relative pronouns Grade 10 Grammar Packet FANBOYS- Coordinating Conjunctions For And Nor But Or Yet So Subordinating conjunctions and relative pronouns WABU WABU WATIST Where When Which/Why As Although After Because Before

More information

Level 5 Homeschool Teacher s Manual iii

Level 5 Homeschool Teacher s Manual iii Chapter 1 Pages 1-10 STUDY SKILLS (Long-term Goals and Short-term Goals) Beginning setup plan for homeschool SKILLS (Synonyms, Antonyms), Six-Step Vocabulary Plan, VOCABULARY #1 WRITING (Journal), STUDY,

More information

Kinds of Clauses Pages 92 94

Kinds of Clauses Pages 92 94 er Class Date Preparing for Chapter 4 Write Away Pupil s Edition p. 90 R.02a, R.02b, R.07a, R.08c Diagnostic Testing Diagnostic Test Pupils Edition p. 91 Chapter Pretest Assessment Masters pp. 8 9 or Chapter

More information

Direct & Indirect Speech

Direct & Indirect Speech English (Précis & Composition) Direct & Indirect Speech Agha Zohaib Khan Introduction There two ways to convey a message of a person, or the words spoken by a person to other person. Direct speech We may

More information

Ling 201 Syntax 1. Jirka Hana April 10, 2006

Ling 201 Syntax 1. Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Overview of topics What is Syntax? Word Classes What to remember and understand: Ling 201 Syntax 1 Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Syntax, difference between syntax and semantics, open/closed class words, all

More information

Section (A) Verb Patterns 8/6/2013

Section (A) Verb Patterns 8/6/2013 Section (A) Verb Patterns 1 Important patterns (i) Subject + verb Subject + verb (to be)+ Complement ( noun) Subject + verb (to be) + Complement ( adjective) Subject + verb(to be) + Complement ( adverb)

More information

Past, present and future are basic tenses that most students use effectively. The PAST tense requires an ed on regular verbs. I walked to work.

Past, present and future are basic tenses that most students use effectively. The PAST tense requires an ed on regular verbs. I walked to work. Past, present and future are basic tenses that most students use effectively. The PAST tense requires an ed on regular verbs. I walked to work. Irregular verbs are just annoying and require memorization.

More information

Adopted from Longman english grammar of spoken and written english. There are two types of clauses: Independent clauses and dependent clauses.

Adopted from Longman english grammar of spoken and written english. There are two types of clauses: Independent clauses and dependent clauses. vikramtech.com GRMR 2 - Clause Analysis Clause is a group of words containing a finite verb. Unlike phrases, they communicate complete meaning. To understand lengthy sentences it is necessary to study

More information

St. Paul s C.E. Primary School. Grammar progress - sentence and text structure. By year group. Foundation Stage to Year 6

St. Paul s C.E. Primary School. Grammar progress - sentence and text structure. By year group. Foundation Stage to Year 6 St. Paul s C.E. Primary School Grammar progress - sentence and text structure By year group Foundation Stage to Year 6 Updated June 2014 Foundation Stage To write their own name with a capital letter.

More information

Daily Grammar Practice DGP Notes. Day 1 Parts of Speech

Daily Grammar Practice DGP Notes. Day 1 Parts of Speech Daily Grammar Practice DGP Notes Name Day 1 Parts of Speech Part of Speech Definition/Types/Examples Abbreviation Noun Pronoun Adverb Adjective Preposition Conjunction Verb Person, place, thing, idea Common

More information

A Note About Commas Before We Begin

A Note About Commas Before We Begin COURT REPORTING: Bad Grammar/ Good Punctuation mww@margiewakemanwells.com 1 A Note About Commas Before We Begin 2 Commas that separate. Commas that set off. 3 1 I live in Culver City, California. It was

More information

The Bedford Handbook, Eighth Edition Diana Hacker and Nancy Sommers. What s new on the companion Web site?

The Bedford Handbook, Eighth Edition Diana Hacker and Nancy Sommers. What s new on the companion Web site? The Bedford Handbook, Eighth Edition Diana Hacker and Nancy Sommers What s new on the companion Web site? www.hackerhandbooks.com/bedhandbook The companion Web site for The Bedford Handbook, Eighth Edition,

More information

Phrase vs. Clause. Phrase: a group of words that does not have both a subject and a verb. Clause: a group of words with both a subject and a verb

Phrase vs. Clause. Phrase: a group of words that does not have both a subject and a verb. Clause: a group of words with both a subject and a verb Phrase vs. Clause Phrase: a group of words that does not have both a subject and a verb Clause: a group of words with both a subject and a verb Types of Clauses Independent Clause (I.C.) a group of words

More information

Parts of Sentences. Sentence: (def) a group of words that contains a subject and its predicate and makes a complete thought. EX. Justin studied.

Parts of Sentences. Sentence: (def) a group of words that contains a subject and its predicate and makes a complete thought. EX. Justin studied. s Sentence: (def) a group of words that contains a subject and its predicate and makes a complete thought. EX. Justin studied. To say anything clearly, we must say two things: what we are talking about

More information

Part of Speech Overview

Part of Speech Overview Part of Speech Overview In the English language, words can be considered as the smallest elements that have distinctive meanings. Based on their use and functions, words are categorized into several types

More information

Lingua e traduzione inglese 1 prima lingua / seconda lingua / OCI (canale A-F) a.a prof. Pierini. Clauses

Lingua e traduzione inglese 1 prima lingua / seconda lingua / OCI (canale A-F) a.a prof. Pierini. Clauses Clauses Clause (part of the sentence): a sequence of words that cannot stand alone but depends on another clause defined main clause, and consisting of a subject (optional) and a predicator (compulsory)

More information

Looking more closely at nouns

Looking more closely at nouns Looking more closely at nouns Nouns and Pronouns 10 Nouns are words that name: Grammarians have come up with different groupings: Common Proper Collective Abstract Concrete Mass Compound You might also

More information

Georgia State Standards correlated to Merit Software Writing Mechanics- Grammar Programs

Georgia State Standards correlated to Merit Software Writing Mechanics- Grammar Programs Georgia State Standards correlated to Merit Software Writing Mechanics- Grammar Programs The QBE Act calls upon the Department of Education to revise and update the QCC periodically to keep pace with rising

More information

Grammar & Usage. Liza Kleinman

Grammar & Usage. Liza Kleinman Grammar & Usage Liza Kleinman table of contents To the Student......................... v Part 1: Introduction.................................... 1 Part 2: Test-Taking Words............................

More information

Facilitators: Flory Barringham Wendy Blum Michael Feher October 31, 2014

Facilitators: Flory Barringham Wendy Blum Michael Feher October 31, 2014 Speech and Pronunciation Instruction To Improve English Language Learners Understandability A First Literacy Professional Development Workshop Facilitators: Flory Barringham Wendy Blum Michael Feher October

More information

Shurley Grammar Jingles 5 th Grade

Shurley Grammar Jingles 5 th Grade Shurley Grammar Jingles 5 th Grade Jingle 1: SENTENCE JINGLE A sentence, sentence, sentence Is complete, complete, complete When five simple rules it meets, meets, meets. It has a subject, subject, subject

More information

Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard 1, to Develop Conventions of Standard English

Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard 1, to Develop Conventions of Standard English Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard, to Develop Conventions of Standard English Language Stage CCSS* Supporting Speaking and Writing for Students with Complex Communication

More information

English 7: Quarter One Exam. Tuesday, October 26, POINTS

English 7: Quarter One Exam. Tuesday, October 26, POINTS English 7: Quarter One Exam Tuesday, October 26, 2010 170 POINTS Breaking Down the Test Subject & Object Pronouns (10 points) Pronouns & Antecedents (12 points) Action Verbs & Linking Verbs (16 points)

More information

8th Grade Grammar Review Packet

8th Grade Grammar Review Packet Name 8th Grade Grammar Review Packet 1. Nouns 1. A noun is defined as a: person, place, thing or idea 2. A proper noun is: a specific person, place, thing, or idea 3. A proper noun always starts with a:

More information

Chapter 29: Pronouns. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc.

Chapter 29: Pronouns. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Chapter Outline and Learning Objectives LO1 Pronoun Case LO2 Relative Pronouns LO3 Reflexive Pronouns LO4 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement LO5 Indefinite Pronouns LO6 Vague Pronouns LO7 Pronoun Shifts Pronouns

More information

Noun clause Defining a noun clause Noun clause subordinators Functions of a noun clause

Noun clause Defining a noun clause Noun clause subordinators Functions of a noun clause Noun clause Defining a noun clause Noun clause subordinators Functions of a noun clause Noun clause Noun clause subordinators: who, whom, which, whose, what, that, when, where, why, whether, if, how, wh

More information