SEVENTH WEEK COMPLEX SENTENCES: THE NOUN CLAUSE

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1 SEVENTH WEEK COMPLEX SENTENCES: THE NOUN CLAUSE COMPLEX SENTENCE: a kid of sentence which has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. KINDS OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES: (a) Adverb Clause (b) Adjective Clause (c) Noun Clause THE NOUN CLAUSE I. The structure of the Noun Clause A. Relative Pronouns or Subordinating Conjunctions (1) Can be used in both adjective clause and noun clauses: pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that conjunctions: when, where, why (2) Can be used only in noun clauses: pronouns: what, whatever, whoever, whichever conjunctions: how, whether COMPARE: He likes the girl who is coming. Pron. VT Noun Adjective Clause I don t know who is coming. Pron. VT Noun Clause B. Basic Sentence Types in the Noun Clause (1) Whoever studies hard TYPE 1 whoever N + VI Rel. Pron. VI Adverb (2) Whatever he likes TYPE 2 whatever N + VT + N RP Pron. VT (3) Who he became TYPE 3 who N + LV + N RP Pron. LV (subj.

2 (4) COMPARE: I don t know when he will arrive. TYPE 1 N + VI + Pron. VT Noun Clause when ADVERB (then) PREP. PH. (at that time) We will have dinner when he arrives. Main Clause Adverb Clause---Future-possible Condition (See Text pp ) II. Position of the Noun Clause within the Main Clause (1) Whoever likes Shakespeare will come to this play. Noun Clause VI Prep. Ph. TYPE 1 NOUN CLAUSE + VI (No example given) TYPE 2 (2) Her mother will decide whether she can go. TYPE 2 Noun VT Noun Clause (Direct Object) NOUN CLAUSE + VT + N N + VT + NOUN CLAUSE (3) The company will give whoever signs up for the tour a map of the city. Noun VT Noun Clause Noun Prep. Ph. (Indirect Object) (Direct Object) TYPE 2 N + VT + NOUN CLAUSE + N (4) Bill thought the party boring. TYPE 2 Noun VT Noun Adjective (Object N + VT + N + N or ADJ. Bill thought the party what he had expected it to be. Noun VT Noun Noun Clause (Object TYPE 2 N + VT + N + NOUN CLAUSE

3 (5) That she loves him is what he cares the most about. Noun Clause LV Noun Clause (Subject TYPE 3 NOUN CLAUSE + LV + NOUN CLAUSE (6) It is important that you attend this meeting. Pron. LV Adjective NOUN CLAUSE (Dummy (Subj. (Real Subject) Subj.) TYPE 3 (Pattern 9) IT + LV + ADJ. + NOUN CLUSE Note: Noun clauses are often used in this pattern because in English the major emphasis is at the END of the sentence. (7) Noun Clause as Adjective Complement I am happy that you came. TYPE 3 Pron. LV Adj. Noun Clause (Subj. (Adjective N + LV + ADJ. + NOUN CLAUSE (Pattern 7) (8) Noun Clause as Object of Preposition You may ask about whatever you don t understand. Prep. Noun Clause (Object of Preposition) III. The Noun Clause as Subject (1) Whoever is ready can make a speech Noun Clause VT Noun (Whoever) Noun Clause: describes a person or persons Verb: Action verb (2) Whichever horse is faster will win. Noun Clause VI (Whichever) Noun Clause: refers to living things Verb: Action verb

4 happen. (3) What you hope for may not occur. Noun Clause VI Noun Clause: describes an event Verb: happen or occur (4) That he is always late for work annoys his boss. Noun Clause VT Noun Noun Clause: describes a situation Verb: Arousal of a feeling or reaction decide (5) What the weather is like will determine whether we go hiking tomorrow. Noun Clause VT Noun Clause (Direct Object) Noun Clause: describes a situation or condition Verb: Verb of decision (6) That this new discovery may have harmful effects is what worries many scientists. Noun Clause LV Noun Clause (Subject Noun Clause: describes a situation or condition Verb: Linking verb IV. The Relative Pronoun THAT in Noun Clauses and Adjective Clauses (1) Linda is the girl (that) Bill met yesterday. Noun LV Noun Adjective Clause (2) Fred knows (that) Bill met Linda yesterday. Noun VT Noun Clause--DIRECT OBJECT Note: In a noun clause THAT has no grammatical function (3) He is glad (that) he passed the test. Pron.LV Adj. Noun Clause--ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT (4) That he came surprised everyone. Noun Clause VT Pronoun SUBJECT Note: If a noun clause beginning with THAT is the subject or subject complement, THAT CANNOT be left out.

5 V. Mistakes to Avoid A. The following relative pronouns and subordinating conjunctions can be used in both NOUN CLAUSES and QUESTIONS: who, whom, whose, which, when, where, why, what, how COMPARE: Question: Where is he going? Where + AUXILIARY VERB + SUBJECT + VERB +? Sentence using Noun Clause: I don t know where he is going. Noun Clause WHERE + SUBJECT + VERB B. A NOUN CLAUSE is a DEPENDENT CLAUSE; therefore, it CANNOT stand by itself as a complete sentence. NOT CORRECT: That interest rates have gone down. Noun Clause CORRECT: That interest rates have gone down is good news for businessmen. Noun Clause (SUBJECT) LV Noun Prep. Ph. REMEMBER: NOUN CLAUSE = NOUN

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