1 Ohio Standards Connection: Scientific Ways of Knowing Benchmark A Explain how scientific evidence is used to develop and revise scientific predictions, ideas or theories. Indicator 1 Analyze a set of data to derive a hypothesis and apply that hypothesis to a similar phenomenon (e.g., biome data). Lesson Summary: Students will use solubility rules, based on data, to predict the results of mixing various solutions. They will then use the data obtained from mixing the solutions to solve a problem involving hazardous waste cleanup. Estimated Duration: Four hours Commentary: This lesson is designed to give students experience with making scientific predictions, deriving hypotheses and applying hypotheses based on sets of data. First, students will use an established solubility table, compiled from data, to predict the solubility of several compounds. Second, students will collect a set of data based on experimentation and use the data to design experiments that will identify unknowns. Before attempting this lesson, students need to know how to predict products in double-displacement reactions and write formulas for compounds. They also need to understand the concepts of solubility and precipitation. This lesson was field tested and reviewed by educators across the state of Ohio. Some of their comments were: This is a challenging post-assessment age appropriate and excellent. What could have been a what will I ever do with this? question is tied in beautifully with the real world using the post-assessment. Pre-Assessment: Give students a list of solubility rules and a list of four solution reactions. (See Attachment A, Pre-Assessment). Ask students to predict the products and circle any precipitate that is formed. 1
2 Scoring Guidelines: See Attachment B, Answers and Scoring Guidelines for the Pre-Assessment. Post-Assessment: Give the students a scenario that requires the cleanup of an abandoned lab. The task involves identifying unlabeled chemicals. (See Attachment C, Post-Assessment for the task). Provide the seven chemicals in bottles labeled with the numbers one through seven. Tell students ahead of time that they will not have access to labeled chemicals during the post-assessment; therefore, their data tables need to be as accurate and thorough as possible. Instructional Tip: If time is short, the post-assessment may be limited to having students identify only three or four solutions instead of seven. Scoring Guideline: See Attachment D, Post-Assessment Rubric. Instructional Procedures: 1. Ahead of time, prepare 0.1 M (approximately) aqueous solutions of the following compounds: Salts The amounts in parentheses indicate the mass to dissolve per liter of solution to make 0.1 M. sodium carbonate (10.6g Na 2 CO 3 ) barium chloride ( 39.1g BaCl 2 ) calcium chloride (11.1g CaCl 2 ) sodium hydroxide ( 4.0g NaOH) potassium hydroxide (5.7g KOH) copper (II) nitrate ( 18.8g Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ) potassium carbonate (12.6g K 2 CO 3 ) copper (II) sulfate ( 15.9g CuSO 4 ) cobalt(ii) nitrate ( 18.3g Co(NO 3 ) 2 ) silver nitrate ( 17.0g AgNO 3 ) cobalt(ii) chloride ( 13.0g CoCl 2 ) barium nitrate (26.1g Ba(NO 3 ) 2 ) sodium phosphate (16.4 g Na 3 PO 4 ) iron (III) nitrate (24.2 g Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ) Acids/Bases ammonium hydroxide Add 6.8 ml of concentrated NH 3 (NH 4 OH) solution to ml water. sulfuric acid Add 5.5 ml of concentrated H 2 SO 4 to ml water. (Safety note: Please add the concentrated sulfuric acid to the water carefully while stirring. This is an exothermic dissolution.) hydrochloric acid Add 8.3 ml of concentrated HCl to ml of water. (Safety note: Please do this in the fume hood because concentrated HCl releases HCl gas when the cap is removed.) 2
3 Instructional Tip: If the number of unknowns in the post-assessment is decreased, also decrease the number of solutions in this activity. 2. Distribute the lab sheet to the students. (See Attachment H, Predicting Precipitates). Have students work in pairs to prepare data tables to test all of the possible binary combinations of the following 12 aqueous solutions: ammonium hydroxide sodium sulfate silver nitrate potassium hydroxide copper (II) nitrate barium nitrate potassium carbonate hydrochloric acid sodium phosphate cobalt (II) nitrate calcium chloride iron (III) nitrate Instructional Tip: See Attachment E, Table of Possible Reactions, for a pre-constructed data table if time is not available for students to create their own. Or, perhaps, help students set up a table for a few solutions and then have them complete the data table. 3. On a separate piece of paper, have students write the chemical equation for each doubledisplacement reaction. 4. Ask the students to examine the two possible products from each reaction and, using solubility rules, predict which, if either, of the two products is an insoluble compound. If the compound is insoluble, tell them to circle it. 5. On the data table, have students write ppt, the abbreviation for precipitate, in the boxes of the combinations that produce insoluble compounds. 6. For the microscale investigation, copy the page with the large X s on it. See Attachment G, Template for the Spot Sheet. Make enough copies to have one per lab group. Either laminate the copies or place them in page protectors. Tell the students to place one or two drops of the combinations of chemicals to be tested on the X s and record their observations in the data table. If the students have never observed the formation of precipitates, demonstrate one and point out that cloudiness or clumping in the solution is the formation of the insoluble compound, the precipitate. 7. Have the students answer the follow-up questions in the lab and lead a discussion about the following points: What were their successes and failures in predicting the precipitates? Do they understand that when an acid and a carbonate react, the bubbling they observe is a gas (CO 2 ) being formed? Did they conclude that it is the metal cations that produce the color in the copper, iron and cobalt solutions? These colors can help make predictions about other solutions identities. 8. Tell the students that they are now ready for the challenge (the post-assessment), the Hazardous Waste Report. 3
4 Differentiated Instructional Support: Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs, to help all learners either meet the intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the specified indicator(s). Based on students skills, knowledge and experiences either give them the preconstructed data table or ask them to construct their own data tables for testing the 12 solutions. Give students who are having difficulty with the post-assessment various hints on how to proceed. Challenge students to attempt a greater number of unknowns. Extension: Prepare additional chemicals for those students who desire a greater challenge than the seven unknown solutions in the post-assessment. Homework Options and Home Connections: Have students examine storage areas at home for unlabeled substances. Have students contact local agencies to determine acceptable ways for disposing of unidentified substances. Materials and Resources: The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of Education should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education does not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site s main page, therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the specific information required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students. For the teacher: Spot sheets (laminated or in page protectors), dropper bottles, sodium carbonate, barium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, copper (II) nitrate, potassium carbonate, copper (II) sulfate, cobalt(ii) nitrate, silver nitrate, cobalt(ii) chloride, barium nitrate, sodium phosphate, iron (III) nitrate, ammonium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid. For the students: Spot sheets (laminated or in page protectors), dropper bottles, sodium carbonate, barium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, copper (II) nitrate, potassium carbonate, copper (II) sulfate, cobalt(ii) nitrate, silver nitrate, cobalt(ii) chloride, barium nitrate, sodium phosphate, iron (III) nitrate, ammonium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid. 4
5 Vocabulary: precipitate solubility insoluble cation anion aqueous solution binary hazardous waste Technology Connections: Search the Internet to find acceptable methods for disposing of hazardous or unknown substances. Research Connections: Johnson, D.W., and R.T. Johnson. Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Boston: Allyn &Bacon, Cooperative groups can enhance learning and help motivate students to progress faster. Kumar, D.D. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Science Instruction and Student Engagement. Education Review 43:1 (1991): This exercise provides repetition, which research has shown increases recall. Gardner, H. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Students not only participate in writing and predicting reactions on paper, but they also perform the reactions in the laboratory to cement their learning. General Tips: In the post-assessment, if the students are concerned, assure them that these chemicals are not really hazardous wastes, but they should treat them with the same respect as any chemicals in the laboratory. Make the solutions approximately 0.1 M, but they don t have to be exact. Be sure to remind students that they must wear safety goggles during this activity and that they should wash their hands afterwards. 5
6 Attachments: Attachment A, Pre-Assessment Attachment B, Answers and Scoring Guidelines for the Pre-Assessment Attachment C, Post-Assessment Attachment D, Post-Assessment Rubric Attachment E, Table of Possible Reactions Attachment F, Key to Table of Possible Reactions Attachment G, Template for the Spot Sheet Attachment H, Predicting Precipitates 6
7 Attachment A Pre-Assessment Solubility Rules 1. All nitrates and acetates are soluble. 2. All salts of alkali metals and ammonium are soluble. 3. All halides are soluble, except those of silver, mercury (I) (Hg 2 2+ ), and lead (II) (Pb 2+ ). 4. All sulfates are soluble, except those of calcium (slightly), strontium, barium, lead (II) (Pb 2+ ), and mercury (I), (Hg 2 2+ ). 5. All hydroxides, phosphates, carbonates and sulfides are insoluble, except those of the alkali metals and ammonium. Also, hydroxides and sulfides of calcium, strontium and barium are slightly soluble. As a memory device use CHOPS NAAA. Mostly Insoluble: (CHOPS) Carbonates, Hydroxides, Oxides, Phosphates, and Sulfides Mostly Soluble: (NAAA) Nitrates, Acetates, Alkali Metals, Ammonium Directions Using the above solubility rules and a list of common cations and anions, write the chemical formulas for the reactants, predict the possible products of the following double-displacement reactions in solution and identify any precipitates in the products by circling them. 1. silver nitrate + sodium chloride 2. potassium chromate + lithium bromide 3. copper (II) sulfate + sodium hydroxide 4. ammonium carbonate + iron (III) nitrate 7
8 Attachment B Answers and Scoring Guidelines for the Pre-Assessment 8
9 Attachment C Post-Assessment Hazardous Waste Cleanup You have been called in to help with the cleanup of an abandoned lab. On one of the lab benches is a box with seven bottles in it. The labels have fallen off the bottles, but they are still in the box with the bottles. The labels are: sodium carbonate barium chloride sodium hydroxide sulfuric acid cobalt (II) chloride copper (II) sulfate ammonium hydroxide Caution: Wear safety goggles in the laboratory! The owners of the lab want to dispose of these chemicals, but before that can be done, each chemical must be identified. You have been asked to do this on site. No other chemical solutions are available to help you in this test. Use only the seven chemicals to determine the identity of each. Submit your results to the Hazardous Waste Inspector in this format: I. Procedure for the Identification Determination. II. Data Table III. Conclusions: 1. Bottle #1 is (chemical). I believe this is so because. 2. Bottle #2 is (chemical). I believe this is so because and so on. IV. Method for Analysis V. Answer the following questions: 1. Did you run into any unexpected results? If so, how did you resolve the problem of identifying the unknown solution? 2. Did you need to revise your testing method from your initial plan for identification? If so, please explain your modifications. 3. Explain how you used data to form hypotheses. 9
10 Attachment D Post-Assessment Rubric Factor Level 4 Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Accuracy All seven chemicals have been correctly identified. At least six chemicals have been correctly identified. At least four chemicals have been correctly identified. At least two chemicals have been correctly identified. Comprehension Scientific information and ideas are accurate and thoughtfully explained. Scientific information and ideas are accurate. Scientific information has occasional inaccuracies or is simplified. Scientific information has major inaccuracies or is overly simplified. 10
11 Attachment E Table of Possible Reactions 11
12 Attachment F Key to Table of Possible Reactions 12
13 Attachment G Template for Spot Sheet X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
14 Name Attachment H Predicting Precipitates Purpose: Using the solubility rules, you will predict (hypothesize) which reactions of aqueous solutions will produce precipitates. Procedure: 1. Working in pairs, you will each prepare a data table to test all the possible binary combinations of the following 12 aqueous solutions: ammonium hydroxide sodium sulfate silver nitrate potassium hydroxide copper (II) nitrate barium nitrate potassium carbonate hydrochloric acid sodium phosphate cobalt (II) nitrate calcium chloride iron (III) nitrate 2. On a separate piece of paper, write out the chemical equation for each combination. These are all double-displacement reactions. 3. Now examine the two possible products from each reaction. Using your solubility rules, predict which, if either, of the two products is an insoluble compound. If the compound is insoluble, circle it. 4. On the data table, write ppt, the abbreviation for precipitate, in the boxes of the combinations that produce insoluble compounds. 5. Now test your hypotheses! Caution: Wear your safety goggles in the laboratory! Using the laminated X sheet, drop one or two drops of each chemical to be tested in all the combinations you have in your data table. Be sure to watch for the formation of precipitates in the boxes that you have predicted as precipitates. Record your observations in the data table. If there is no obvious reaction, write NR for no reaction. Disposal: Please use a paper towel to wipe the laminate clean and dispose of it in the wastebasket. Do not wash the chemicals down the sink. Wash your hands before leaving the lab. Questions: 1. Discuss the accuracy of your predictions. Were you correct most of the time? Which combinations, if any, gave you difficulty? 2. Some of the combinations should have produced small bubbles. What gas do you think was produced? 3. Some of the solutions were colored. Which part of the compound, the cation or the anion, do you think caused the color? List the colors and the ions responsible. 4. Explain how scientific evidence (data) is used in this activity to derive a hypothesis. 14
Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are
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