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1 Lab Equipment

2 Safety Goggles For the highest level of protection, safety goggles that completely cover the eye and eye socket and seal against the face are recommended.

3 Lab Apron (folded)

4 Beaker Beakers hold solids or liquids id that t will not release gases when reacted or are unlikely to splatter if stirred or heated.

5 Beaker Tongs Beaker tongs are used to move beakers containing hot liquids.

6 Erlenmeyer Flask Erlenmeyer flasks, sometimes called cone-shaped flasks, hold solids or liquids that may release gases during a reaction or that are likely to splatter if stirred or heated.

7 Volumetric Flasks Volumetric flasks come in a variety of sizes and are used to make solutions of exact concentrations.

8 Flask Tongs

9 Graduated Cylinder A graduated cylinder is used to measure volumes of liquids. Always use the smallest one that accommodates the amount you need to measure and record the measurement to the first estimated digit; i.e., read between the lines for the final digit. it

10 Funnel A funnel is used to aid in the transfer of liquid from one vessel to another or, with filter paper, to separate a solid from a liquid.

11 Rubber Stoppers Rubber stoppers are used to close containers to avoid spillage or contamination. Containers should never be heated when there is a stopper in place.

12 Test Tubes Test tubes come in a variety of sizes and are generally used as reaction vessels. They may be heated over a Bunsen burner or placed in a water bath for heating or cooling purposes.

13 Test Tube Holder A test tube holder is useful for holding a test tube which is too hot to handle. This instrument is NOT a test tube clamp! Clamps attach one thing to another thing.

14 Test Tube Racks Test tube racks are for holding and organizing test tubes on the laboratory counter. Plastic racks may melt in contact with very hot test tubes.

15 Test Tube Brushes Test tube brushes are used to clean test tubes and graduated cylinders. Bristles should not be hard enough to scratch the glass surfaces. Forcing a large brush into a small test tube will often break the tube.

16 Micro-Well Plates Micro-well plates are used to perform many small scale reactions at one time. The use of micro-well plates can reduce lab costs and is often safer (due to the smaller amounts used) than full-scale experiments.

17 Glass Plates Glass plates provide a surface for semi-micro micro scale experiments, such as drop reactions and testing of acids and bases.

18 Watch Glass A watch glass is used to hold a small amount of liquid or solid or as a cover for a beaker.

19 Evaporating Dish The evaporating dish is used for recovering a solid solute from a solution by evaporating off the solvent. Evaporating dishes may be heated gently.

20 Crucible Crucibles are used for heating substances to very high temperatures.

21 Crucible Tongs Crucible tongs are used with crucibles to avoid adding mass from finger oils and when handling hot crucibles. They may also used to pick up other hot objects, but NEVER to pick up beakers!

22 Mortar and Pestle A mortar and pestle is used to grind solids into powders. pestle mortar

23 Spatulas / Scoopulas Spatulas Spatulas and scoopulas are used to dispense solid chemicals from their containers. Scoopula Chemicals should NEVER be transferred with your bare hands.

24 Plastic Chemical Spoon Plastic chemical spoons are used when the metal of a regular spatula might react with ih chemicals being used.

25 Forceps Forceps are used to pick up small objects.

26 Weigh Boat Weigh boats are used to weigh (mass) solids that will be transferred to another vessel. Weighing g paper, p sheets of coated paper squares, may also be used to weigh (mass) solids. NEVER place chemicals directly on a balance!!!

27 Analytical Balance Analytical balances are used to find mass precisely to three or four decimal places.

28 Glass Stir Rod A glass rod is used to manually stir solutions. It can also be used to control the transfer of a liquid or even a single drop of a solution.

29 Thermometers

30 Pipets and Pipet Bulb A pipet pp measures and delivers exact volumes of liquids.

31 Buret (on ring stand)

32 Eudiometer Gas Collection Tube

33 Wide-Mouth Bottle (Gas Collecting Bottle) Wide-mouth bottles are used to collect gases by the displacement of water.

34 Pneumatic Water Trough Water Trough for Collecting Gas

35 Medicine Dropper A medicine dropper is used to transfer a small volume of liquid (less than one ml). On top of each medicine i dropper is a rubber bulb. NEVER turn the dropper upside down or allow liquid to enter the bulb.

36 Wash Bottle A wash bottle has a spout that delivers a wash solution to a specific area. Distilled water is the only liquid that should be used in a wash bottle.

37 Ringstands and their Components A ringstand consists of a heavy metal base and screw- in metal rod to which various items may be attached. The use of ringstands and their components (see following slides) provide a safe and convenient way to attach and support a wide variety of items required in many experimental procedures.

38 Ringstands and their Components Iron Rings Iron rings connect to a ringstand and provide a stable, elevated platform.

39 Clay Triangle The clay triangle is used as a support for porcelain crucibles being heated over a Bunsen burner. It can also be used as a support for a funnel.

40 Ringstands and their Components Ring Utility Clamps Ring utility clamps are used to secure test tubes, flasks, burets, distillation columns, etc. to the ringstand.

41 Ringstands and their Components Double Buret Clamps Double Buret Clamps are used to attach burets, eudiometers, or gas collection tubes to a ringstand.

42 Ringstands and their Components Wire Gauze A wire gauze sits on the iron ring to provide a surface on which a beaker or flask may be placed. On older wire gauze, the white material is asbestos!

43 Bunsen Burner Bunsen burners are used for the heating of nonvolatile liquids and solids.

44 Strikers Strikers are used to light Bunsen burners. The flints on strikers are expensive. Do not operate the striker repeatedly just to see the sparks!

45 Pressed Fiber Pad A 4 x 4 square of ceramic fiber, it provides a surface for hot beakers so that the beaker does not come in contact with a cold countertop and shatter.

46 Organic Lab Equipment

47 Florence Flask The Florence Flask is used for heating substances that need to be heated evenly. The bulbed bottom allows the heat to distribute through the liquid more evenly. The Florence Flask is mostly used in distillation experiments.

48 Round Bottom Flask The round bottom flask is used as: boiling flask reaction flask distilling flask collection flask

49 Vials Vials are flat-bottomed, stoppered glass containers. They come in many sizes and shapes and are used to hold small amounts of liquids or solids.

50 Vacuum Flask (Side-Arm Flask or Filtering Flask) The vacuum flask looks like an Erlenmeyer flask with a short arm coming out of it. The "arm" is designed to connect the flask to a vacuum source. Note the heavy the walls of this flask - they are designed to withstand reduced pressure without imploding.

51 Buchner Funnel The Buchner funnel is a white porcelain funnel. A grey or black adaptor or a stopper with a hole in it is required to connect it to a vacuum flask. The Buchner is used exclusively for vacuum filtrations. The adaptor forms a snug seal so that when reduced pressure is applied to the vacuum flask, liquid poured into the Buchner is sucked into the flask quickly.

52 Separatory Funnel The separatory funnel is used primarily in extraction procedures. The sloping sides are designed to make it easy to distinguish layers. The stopcock-controlled outlet on the bottom is designed to allow the liquid to be drained out of the funnel. A ground glass or Teflon stopper may be used to seal the top opening.

53 Condenser (Condensation Tube) The condenser is used in both reflux and distillation procedures to cool and condense vapors.

54 Y-Adaptor The Y-adaptor is used in a distillation set-up: it holds the thermometer the side-arm connects to the condenser it connects the round bottom flask to both the thermometer meter and the condenser

55 Thermometer Adaptor The thermometer adaptor consists of a standard taper joint and a rubber adaptor. The standard d taper joint fits into a glassware set-up, while the rubber adaptor holds a thermometer snugly.

56 Claisen Adaptor The Claisen adaptor is a multi-purpose item of standard taper glassware. It is used in situations which require more than one outlet from a round bottom flask.

57 Vacuum Adaptor The vacuum adaptor is used in a distillation set-up: it connects to the lower end of the condensor and serves to direct the distilled liquid into the receiving flask A "bent adaptor" would serve the same purpose in a simple or fractional distillation. A bent adaptor does not have the connection ct to a vacuum source, which is on the right hand side in the above photo.

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