1 Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries under the UNFCCC. A new opportunity for promoting forest conservation? ANNALISA SAVARESI PhD Fellow Faculty of Law University of Copenhagen
2 Summary 1. Forests, deforestation and climate change 2. Forests and the UNFCCC: the story so far 3. REDD+ design and implications for biodiversity conservation 4. REDD+ as PES 5. Conclusions
3 Deforestation is a major source of CO2 emissions
4 Deforestation is concentrated in the tropics
5 Top 10 Emitting Countries Source: IIED, 2009
6 The Drivers of Deforestation in the Amazon Mongabay, 2009
7 Deforestation as a market failure Deforestation takes place because the public goods that forests provide are undervalued in markets. (Humphrey, 2008) The hypothesis that people benefit from the forest, and would conserve it if they controlled it, may not hold when alternative land uses provide higher benefits than forests. (Tacconi, 2007) One way of improving the protection of forests is to remunerate the ecosystem (environmental) services provided by forests
8 Costa Rica Forestry Law 7575 (1996) Forests, forest plantations and other ecosystems offer services essential to the citizens and to economic activities, at the local, national and global levels. Environmental Services Payment Program: a financial mechanism created to recognize the environmental services provided by forests to the society. Economic compensation to land owners to guarantee the conservation and sustainable management of forest resources.
9 Forests in International Law The Non-Legally Binding Instrument on All Types of Forest (UNGA, 2007) EU Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT, initiated in 2003) UN Convention to Combat Desertification (1996) Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)
10 Forests in International Law (2) Forests are natural resources subject to State s sovereignty Some services and benefits forests provide (e.g. climate regulation, carbon storage, biodiversity conservation) may be viewed as public goods
11 Forests as public goods The environmental services that forests ecosystems provide to the atmosphere by sequestering and fixing GHG must be recognized by the international community and valued (Government of Bolivia, submission to the UNFCCC, 2006) "Forests are a planetary asset and no longer the concern of individual countries" (Martin Mabala, Environment Minister, Gabon, 11 March 2010)
12 Forests and the UNFCCC. The Story so Far Stabilization of greenhouse-gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous atmospheric interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change. (Art.2) Policies and measures to deal with climate change should be comprehensive, cover all relevant sources, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases and adaptation, and comprise all economic sectors (Art. 3.3) So far, this mandate has only been partially fulfilled in connection with forests
13 Forests under the Kyoto Protocol Article 3.3 KP The net changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from direct human-induced land-use change and forestry activities (LULUCF), limited to afforestation, reforestation and deforestation since 1990, measured as verifiable changes in carbon stocks in each commitment period, shall be used to meet the commitments under this Article of each Party included in Annex I.
14 Forests and the CDM Reforestation: direct human-induced conversion of non-forested land to forested land through planting, seeding, and/or human-induced promotion of natural seed sources, on land that was forested but that has been converted to non-forested land. Afforestation: direct human-induced conversion of land that has not been forested for a period of at least 50 years
15 Afforestation/Reforestation VS Avoided deforestation Afforestation and Reforestation sequester carbon and credit generation is based on increases in carbon stocks (increased carbon sequestration) Avoided deforestation is about reducing emissions by cutting deforestation below a certain baseline scenario - a bit like with industrial emissions under the KP (reduced carbon loss) Presently NOT included in the CDM
16 Avoided deforestation and the UNFCCC: The beginnings In 2005 a group of tropical forest countries (the socalled Rainforest Coalition) suggested to incentivise the reduction of tropical deforestation (REDD) under the UNFCCC, either by inserting them in the Kyoto Protocol or through an additional Protocol to the UNFCCC
17 Rationale for REDD Curbing deforestation is a highly cost-effective way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and has the potential to offer significant reductions fairly quickly (Stern Review, 2006) REDD makes economic sense, as a relatively cheap option to mitigate climate change quickly Reduced deforestation and degradation is the forest mitigation option with the largest and most immediate carbon stock impact in the short term per ha and per year globally (IPPC III WG. 2007, 14). REDD is a way of buying time while measures to reduce emissions in other sectors are being devised.
18 Rationale for REDD (2) Stabilization of GHG in the atmosphere ( ) will be more difficult and costly unless both industrialized and developing countries actively contribute to emissions reductions (PNG and Costa Rica, Submission to the UNFCCC, 2005). REDD is a way to get developing countries to contribute directly to climate change mitigation and perhaps even accept caps on their emissions? But how?
19 REDD Design Implications for Biodiversity
20 Scope of REDD a) Reducing emissions from deforestation (RED); b) Reducing emissions from forest degradation (REDD); c) Conservation of forest carbon stocks; d) Sustainable management of forest; e) Enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) REDD+ could benefit countries that are already effectively protecting their forests, and not only the ones that are currently experiencing high deforestation and forest degradation. This would prevent the displacement of emissions from one place to the other (so called leakage) The actual scope of these activities depends greatly on their definition, and the definition of forest
21 Marrakesh Accords The definition of forest an area of more than ha with a minimum tree crown cover of 10 30%, with tree defined as a plant with the capability of growing to be more than 2 5 m tall. encompasses major variations in forest types and conditions, with considerable differences in species composition, ecology, biodiversity value and safety in carbon storage fails to distinguish between natural forests and plantations Definition elaborated for the purposes of carbon accounting
22 Definition of forest and REDD+ If REDD+ used the definition of forest outlined in the Marrakesh Accords, a wide range of forest contexts may fall within REDD+ primary forests modified natural forests plantation forests non-forest land uses (Harvey et al., 2010)
23 Activities that may fall within REDD+ Reduced Deforestation i.e. direct human-induced conversion of forested land to non-forested land (MA) Reduced Forest Degradation i.e. direct human-induced long-term loss of at least Y per cent of forest carbon stocks since time (T) and not qualifying as deforestation (IPCC)
24 Activities that may fall within REDD+ (2) Sustainable Forest Management i.e., a system of practices for stewardship and use of forest land aimed at fulfilling relevant ecological (including biological diversity), economic and social functions of the forest in a sustainable manner. (MA) Conservation of Forest Carbon Stocks i.e. protected areas? Enhancement of Existing Forest Carbon Stocks i.e. afforestation and reforestation?
25 Potential impact on biodiversity of REDD+ activities Reduced Deforestation Reduced Forest Degradation Conservation of Forest Carbon Stocks no harm to biodiversity, at a minimum, and may provide substantial ecological co benefits. HOWEVER, they may induce a shift in agricultural and pasture expansion from forests to low-biomass native ecosystems, potentially with severe damage to biodiversity
26 Potential impact on biodiversity (2) Enhance existing forest carbon stocks Afforestation and reforestation may lead to the replacement of native ecosystems by monocultural tree plantations The REDD+ mechanism should require a balanced appraisal of tree plantations to discern their benefits and ecological costs Sustainable Forest Management potential degradation of intact primary forests sustainable forest management activities should not affect primary forests and should instead target areas already subject to intensive land use
27 Biodiversity safeguards for REDD+ Countries participating in REDD+ should be prohibited from clearing native vegetation or high conservation value terrestrial ecosystems for agricultural expansion or for the establishment of plantation forests should be obliged to keep track of conversions of intact forest to non forest land uses could be required to demonstrate that measures to protect areas of high biodiversity have been undertaken
28 Biodiversity safeguards so far REDD+ demonstration activities should be consistent with sustainable forest management, noting, inter alia, the relevant provisions of the United Nations Forum on Forests, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2/COP13 complement or be consistent with the objectives of national forest programmes and relevant international conventions and agreements. draft decision 4/COP15
29 Chapter 6, 2(e) Negotiating Text (..) when undertaking activities referred to in paragraph 3 below, the following safeguards should be [promoted and supported] [ensured]: [Actions that are consistent with the conservation of natural forests and biological diversity, ensuring that actions referred to in paragraph 3 below are not used for the conversion of natural forests [into plantations, as monoculture plantations are not forest], but are instead used to incentivize the protection and conservation of natural forests and their ecosystem services, and to enhance other social and environmental benefits;]
30 REDD and PES Reducing biodiversity loss in forests requires particular efforts from biodiversity-rich developing countries, many of which cannot afford the investments required Principle of common but differentiated responsibilities (CBD, UNFCCC): developed countries should provide funding for undertaking biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation endeavours REDD+ as opportunity for establishing an international system for the payment of the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests?
31 Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) Payments for ecosystem services, i.e., benefits people obtain from ecosystems PES Benefits to land users Costs to broader society Adapted from Pagiola (2009) Deforestation and use of land for pasture - crops Biodiversity loss Carbon emissions Soil erosion Conservation with payment for services, e.g. climate regulation, flood defense, water quality, carbon storage
32 REDD+ as PES. The advantages REDD+ could provide funding for the conservation of tropical forests far greater than existing international conservation funding Funding would be performance-based and only accrue to Parties that demonstrate their success in maintaining forests
33 REDD+ as PES. The challenges Not all PES protect or conserve biodiversity. A focus on maximising the provision of just one service (e.g. carbon storage) may have negative impacts on the provision of other ecosystem services While REDD+ may bring about positive gains for tropical forest and biodiversity conservation, the extent of these gains will depend on its design and implementation.
34 Defining REDD+ Ecological Integrity Definition of forest and REDD activities Baselines, i.e. selecting reference levels against which to measure increases/decreases in emissions AND biodiversity co benefits. Leakage i.e. how to prevent the displacement of deforestation and biodiversity loss from an area credited for avoiding deforestation to another place or time. Additionality, i.e. ensuring that REDD+ activities result in emissions reductions beyond business-as-usual, and also that they generate additional funding for forest conservation. Monitoring and Verifiability i.e. establishing internationally agreed methodologies to monitor and verify emission reductions and their biodiversity co benefits
35 CCBA Social and Environmental Standards Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA) the REDD+ program maintains and enhances biodiversity and ecosystem services ecosystem services potentially affected by the REDD + program must be identified, prioritized and mapped the program must be aimed at making a significant contribution to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem services the program does not lead to the conversion of natural forests or other areas that important for maintaining and enhancing the identified biodiversity and ecosystem service priorities
36 Ensuring REDD+ Co benefits for biodiversity In forest landscapes subject to ongoing clearing and forest degradation, climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation can be achieved by reducing deforestation and forest degradation and improving forest management. In forest landscapes that currently experience little deforestation or forest degradation, the conservation of existing primary forests is critical both for protecting carbon stocks and for conserving biodiversity. In forest landscapes that have already been largely cleared and degraded, climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation can be achieved by enhancing carbon stocks through restoration and improved forest management.
37 Caveats Forest carbon sequestration may lead to perverse biodiversity outcomes, so it is crucial to integrate biodiversity safeguards in REDD+ So far, this issue has not been fully addressed by Parties and ambiguities remain Risk of a de minimis agreement at COP16? Adding biodiversity concerns to this already troubled negotiating process may further impede swift action to ensure forest carbon sequestration The overall impact of REDD+ will depend on the extent to which agricultural needs can be met outside of the tropical forest frontier.
38 Conclusions REDD+ is no panacea for biodiversity loss REDD+ needs to be assisted by clear safeguards to avoid potential negative effects on biodiversity The potential rewards from getting it right stretch beyond emission reductions and include the conservation of some of the world's richest forest ecosystems.
Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) Juha Siikamäki Resources for the Future Fifth ECP Seminar THE FINANCIAL ARCHITECTURE FOR THE POST-2012 PERIOD Brussels, 30 September 2008 1 Deforestation
Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) REDD Opportunities and Challenges for Biodiversity Conservation and Poverty Reduction Dr. Susanne Lehmann Division International Nature Conservation 23 September
Accounting rules: the International Debate and National Practices 16.4.2015 Global Workshop on Intended Nationally Determined Contributions Anke Herold, Öko-Institut, firstname.lastname@example.org 1 Background 2 Kapitelüberschrift
Fact sheet: The need for mitigation United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Along with adaptation, mitigation is one of the two central approaches in the international climate change process.
USAID LEAF TECHNICAL GUIDANCE SERIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FOREST CARBON MONITORING SYSTEM FOR REDD+ Module EN: Developing a Reference Level for Carbon Stock Enhancements USAID LEAF TECHNICAL GUIDANCE
CDM SINKS: CAN RECOMMENDATIONS. PAGE 1 OF 7 CAN Recommendations: Modalities for Including Afforestation and Deforestation under Article 12 COP 9, December 2003 The Climate Action Network (CAN) continues
Defining Forest Degradation for an Effective Mechanism to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) Background Sean Cadman October 2008 1 At the request of the Bali COP, SBSTA convened
Assessing potential biodiversity impacts of policies that address drivers of deforestation to achieve REDD+ objectives Dr Valerie Kapos Dr Rebecca Mant REDD+ and drivers of deforestation REDD + (a) Reducing
New Zealand submission to SBSTA Initial views on Issues related to more comprehensive LULUCF accounting April 2013 Context 1. CMP 7 requested SBSTA to consider more comprehensive accounting for anthropogenic
Submission by Norway to the ADP Norway s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution 1. Introduction Norway is fully committed to the UNFCCC negotiation process towards adopting at COP21 a protocol, another
Fact sheet: STEPPING UP INTERNATIONAL ACTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE The Road to Copenhagen Introduction Climate change is today widely recognized as one of mankind s greatest challenges in the 21st century.
The Copenhagen Decisions Submission on the outcome of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long Term Cooperative Action under the Convention under item 3 Proposal by the African Group Rev.1 (Copenhagen Denmark,
Greening REDD+ Challenges and opportunities for forest biodiversity conservation Workshop summary D. Benick 1 *, S. Entenmann 2 *, T. Pistorius 1, C.B. Schmitt 2 1 Institute of Forest and Environmental
Photo: Anne Petermann/Global Justice Ecology Project Introduction Land: carbon sink or territory, home, source of livelihood and food The coming weeks will be shaped with intense negotiations to elaborate
July 7, 2009 DESIGN DOCUMENT FOR THE FOREST INVESTMENT PROGRAM, A TARGETED PROGRAM UNDER THE SCF TRUST FUND 2 I. BACKGROUND 1. There is increasing consensus that addressing climate change is central to
Deforestation Survey 2014 MPI Technical Paper 2015/05 Prepared for the Ministry for Primary Industries by Professor Bruce Manley NZ School of Forestry University of Canterbury ISBN No.: 978-0-477-10571-2
To Kyoto and Beyond 7 International Cooperation 22 International Cooperation on Climate Change 1988 United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution urging the protection of global climate for present
UNEP Programme UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME The defining challenge of our age UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and UNEP Executive Director Achim Steiner agree:. Climate change is the defining challenge
SUMMARY Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in South America Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza SUMMARY Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation
Forest Day 3 Sunday, 13 December 2009 Radisson Blu Falconer Hotel and Conference Center Copenhagen, Denmark Coinciding with UNFCCC COP 15 The speech given by Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland, United Nations Special
Woodland Carbon Code Forests and Climate Change Forests and Climate Change Forests, woodlands and trees can help to combat climate change through mitigation and adaptation. The challenge is to adapt to
Position of the International Indigenous Peoples Forum on Climate Change (IIPFCC)* on current Climate Change negotiations Bonn, Germany, June 2010 GENERAL PRINCIPLES The IIPFCC, gathered in Bonn on the
International Climate Change Negotiations and Agriculture Policy Focus No. 1 May 2009 ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and Trade ICTSD International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development
Sustainable Land Management in the Global Environment Facility GEF Role as Financial Mechanism of the UNCCD GEF as Financial Mechanism of the UNCCD Land Degradation Focal Area as main GEF financing window
UNITED NATIONS Distr. GENERAL FCCC/TP/2009/1 31 May 2009 ENGLISH ONLY Cost of implementing methodologies and monitoring systems relating to estimates of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation,
National Forest Monitoring Systems: Monitoring and Measurement, Reporting and Verification (M & MRV) in the context of REDD+ Activities Empowered lives. Resilient nations. Photo: Leonard G. Reyes Empowered
KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE UNITED NATIONS 1998 KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE The Parties to this Protocol,
United Nations FCCC/SBSTA/2016/1 Distr.: General 7 March 2016 Original: English Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice Forty-fourth session Bonn, 16 26 May 2016 Item 2 of the provisional
LIMITING CLIMATE CHANGE PROMOTING BIODIVERSITY PROTECTING HUMAN RIGHTS ENSURING FINANCING Policy Paper on REDDplus Contents Core demands on REDDplus at a glance: 3 1. Limiting climate change 3 2. Promoting
1. Introduction Zero Net Deforestation by 2020 - A WWF Briefing Paper - At the Ninth Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP9) in May 2008 in Bonn, delegates of 67 countries
Climate change United Nations Environment Programme An overview Climate change is one of the major challenges of our time and adds considerable stress to our societies and to the environment. From shifting
Ecosystem Services and Convention on Biological Diversity How ecosystem services are reflected in the CBD COP Decisions in Nagoya? Heikki Toivonen Finnish Environment Institute Ecosystem services and Biodiversity,
A Guide to Woodland Carbon for Business Contents: 1. Investing in Woodland Carbon: an overview 2. Why Woodland Carbon? 3. How much does it cost? 4. Woodland Carbon Code 5. Woodland Carbon compliance 6.
Facts on biodiversity What is biodiversity? Biological diversity (biodiversity) comprises diversity of species and habitats as well as the genetic diversity within the individual species of fauna and flora.
United Nations FCCC/SBI/ICA/2015/TATR.1/BRA Distr.: General 22 September 2015 English only Technical report on the technical analysis of the technical annex to the first biennial update report of Brazil
Fordham University New York 22 February 2010 Understanding Copenhagen: U.S and E.U. Negotiation Positions and the Landscape for Future Negotiations The Copenhagen Accord on Climate Change: A legal analysis
NEW ZEALAND Submission to the ADP New Zealand s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution 7 July 2015 New Zealand hereby communicates its intended nationally determined contribution and the accompanying
UNITED NATIONS Distr. LIMITED FCCC/CP/2009/L.7 18 December 2009 Original : ENGLISH CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES Fifteenth session Copenhagen, 7 18 December 2009 Agenda item 9 High-level segment Draft decision
1 Narration: This presentation will introduce you to biofuels and their impact on climate. You will also learn about future energy challenges. 2 Narration: How big is the energy challenge of climate change?
Next Steps in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions, a Global Overview Richard Burke, CEP, Office Practice Leader, TRC Environmental, Inc., 707 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 3250, Los Angeles CA 90017, email@example.com,
A Summary of the Kyoto Protocol and the Marrakesh Accords By James G. Derouin Fredric D. Bellamy David R. Nelson Mark E. Freeze 1 The Kyoto Protocol is an outgrowth of the United Nations Framework Convention
FORESTS AND CLIMATE CHANGE: DISCUSSION PAPER ON A PROPOSED NEW SET OF UK INTERVENTIONS TO TACKLE DEFORESTATION Summary Deforestation damages people s livelihoods and the environment; avoiding dangerous
A cool CAP post-2013: What measures could help adapt Cyprus farming and biodiversity to the consequences of climate change? 26 September 2012: IFOAM EU Conference Future farming in times of climate change
Deforestation Survey 2012 MPI Technical Paper No: 2013/02 Dr Bruce Manley NZ School of Forestry University of Canterbury ISBN No: 978-0-478-40554-5 (print) ISBN No. 978-0-478-40555-2 (online) ISSN 2253-3915
Climate change United Nations Environment Programme An overview Climate change is one of the major challenges of our time and adds considerable stress to our societies and to the environment. From shifting
REDD+ MEASUREMENT, REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL SUMMARY FOR POLICYMAKERS INTRODUCTION REDD+ refers to mitigation actions in developing countries relating to reducing emissions from deforestation
Protocol Decision No 41, 10 September, 2015 Government of the Republic of Armenia On approving the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions of the Republic of Armenia under the UN Framework Convention
MEMO/04/43 Bruxelles, 4 March 2004 Kyoto Protocol What is the Kyoto Protocol? The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol provide the only international framework
a. Terms of Reference For Developing A Sustainable National GHG Inventory Management System In Zambia 1. Background On 9 May 1992, the world s governments adopted the United Nations Framework Convention
Forest Carbon Standards a WWF Assessment Guide Contents Introduction WWF has been active in the forest carbon field since 2007. Foreword Introduction Background Purpose of the guide Assessment guidance:
PART B: DETAILED QUESTIONS FOR RESPONSE Please indicate your preference by providing comments as appropriate. Where there is insufficient space, please attach additional pages as necessary. (1) The first
CBD Distr. GENERAL UNEP/CBD/COP/13/24 6 December 2016 CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY Thirteenth meeting Cancun, Mexico, 4-17 December 2016 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH THE CANCUN
United Nations E/CN.18/2009/13/Add.3 Economic and Social Council Distr.: General 26 January 2009 Word Count: 3,117 Original: English Advanced Unedited Version United Nations Forum on Forests Eighth session
EEA Report No 10/2013 Tracking progress towards Europe's climate and energy targets until 2020 Executive summary ISSN 1725-9177 Executive summary This 2013 edition of the annual EEA 'Trends and projections'
UNITED NATIONS Distr. GENERAL FCCC/CP/1997/7/Add.1 25 March 1998 Original: ENGLISH CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS THIRD SESSION, HELD AT KYOTO FROM 1 TO 11 DECEMBER
The Conference of the Parties, Decision -/CP.13 Bali Action Plan Resolving to urgently enhance implementation of the Convention in order to achieve its ultimate objective in full accordance with its principles
11/12/01 Molly Anderson, VERTIC Report to CAN on the Articles 5, 7 and 8 section of the Marrakech Accords to the Kyoto Protocol This summary is based on sections J (Article 7.4) and M (Articles 5, 7 and
FORESTS Climate Change, Biodiversity and Land Degradation Joint Liaison Group of the Rio Conventions Photos courtesy of C. Buddle Forests cover approximately 30% of the Earth s land surface and provide
PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR IMMEDIATE PROGRESS ON CLIMATE CHANGE BUILDING BLOCKS FOR A GLOBAL AGREEMENT Forging an effective response to climate change is one of the international community s highest priorities.
Where does carbon come from? What are Carbon Sinks? Presentation by Jutta Kill SinksWatch firstname.lastname@example.org www.sinkswatch.org Carbon dioxide is a gas that is created when carbon (C) comes in contact with
Climate change & the Role of Forests to Climate Change Yemiru Tesfaye (PhD) SESA Task Force Member Climate change & the Role of Forests to Climate Change What are the signs that climate change is occurring?
SNAPSHOT APRIL 2014 NEW ZEALAND S GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY & NET POSITION REPORT 1990 2012 Key points: In 2012, New Zealand s total greenhouse gas emissions were 76.0 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent
Technology For Adaptation. Forestry Conservation Management Dr. Javier Aliaga Lordemann Forests has more carbon store than the currently carbon free atmosphere. By contrast, are important sources of emissions
AVON PRODUCTS, INC. THE AVON PAPER PROMISE I. VISION & PREAMBLE Avon Products, Inc. recognizes that business leadership carries a responsibility to the environment and the world's forests. The global pulp
IS ENVIRONMENTAL LAW READY FOR ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION? An Cliquet IUCN AEL Conference, University of Maryland 2 July 2012 Overview Policy and legal obligations for ecological restoration Where, what and
Research letter n 09/03 October 2009 http://www.carbonium.fr/pdf/research0903.pdf CONTENTS Interview: Aurélie Faure, Financial Analyst at Dexia Asset Management... p. 1 Hot topics in Copenhagen... p. 3
PAN-EUROPEAN BIOLOGICAL AND LANDSCAPE DIVERSITY STRATEGY Geneva and Strasbourg, 17 September 2009 STRACO (2009) 10 COUNCIL FOR THE PAN-EUROPEAN BIOLOGICAL AND LANDSCAPE DIVERSITY STRATEGY FIFTH INTERGOVERNMENTAL
For use of the media only PRESS RELEASE UN Climate Change Conference in Doha kicks off with calls to implement agreed decisions, stick to agreed tasks and timetable (Doha, 26 November 2012) The UN Climate
United Nations FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add.1 Distr.: General 15 March 2012 Original: English Conference of the Parties Contents Report of the Conference of the Parties on its seventeenth session, held in Durban
Environment and Climate Change Canada Economics and Environmental Policy Research Network (EEPRN) Request for Proposals 2016-2017 The EEPRN is seeking proposals for academic research projects in the following
Discussion Paper Tropical Forest Deforestation December 2014 Author: Eimear Dempsey (email: email@example.com) Published: 2 December 2014 Introduction Tropical Forests can vary widely in
The National Climate Change Policy of Sri Lanka Preamble Climate change which is the ultimate outcome of global warming is now universally recognized as the fundamental human development challenge of the
Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) Readiness Mechanism Review and Assessment of Readiness Preparation Proposals DRAFT September 4, 2009 This Program Document updates Program Document FMT 2009-1-Rev.2
1. Introduction Forest Carbon Trading and Marketing in the United States 1 Steven Ruddell 2 Michael J. Walsh, PhD Murali Kanakasabai, PhD October 2006 During the 1992 Earth Summit convened by the United
Potential Policy Responses to the Underlying Causes of Deforestation Frances Seymour Director General Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) Rome, February 19, 2008 Center for International
SFM FINANCING facts and challenges Republic of Indonesia By: YETTI RUSLI Senior Adviser to the Minister of Forestry 1 st Ad hoc Expert Group of The UNFF on Forest Financing, Nairobi 13-17 September 2010
8 Technology Development and Transfer COORDINATORS K. Madhava Sarma (India) K. Haraguchi (Japan) CONTENTS TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER 8.1 TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT 223 A. Overview 223 B. Measures
MRV Document 2 of 2: Technical Specifications for the Emissions Calculator The purpose of this document is to provide a transparent explanation for the process used to calculate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
Comparison of Carbon Offset Standards for Climate Forestation Projects participating in the Voluntary Carbon Market A comparison of Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standard (CCBS), CarbonFix Standard
SUBMISSION BY ITALY AND THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE EUROPEAN UNION AND ITS MEMBER STATES This submission is supported by Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
InVEST Scenarios Case Study: Borneo, Indonesia Andy Dean, Thomas Barano, Nirmal Bhagabati, Emily McKenzie, Anna Van Paddenburg, Amy Rosenthal, Agus Salim excerpted from Developing Scenarios to Assess Ecosystem
EURELECTRIC responses to the invitation in Draft decision -/CMP.5 to make submissions to the UNFCCC secretariat on: 1. Inclusion of CCS in Clean Development project activities 2. Standardized baselines
0 0 0. QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL.. Introduction The IPCC Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management (GPG000, IPCC, 000), Chapter, Quality Assurance and Quality Control, defines quality
Managing Climate Change: The Biggest Challenge to Global Governance Ever 1 John Mathiason, Cornell Institute for Public Affairs, Cornell University The sky is falling! The sky is falling! - Chicken Little
Forest-Climate Working Group: Policy Platform 1 Forest-Climate Working Group: Policy Platform Endorsing Organizations American Bird Conservancy American Forest & Paper Association American Forest Foundation
United Nations FCCC/TAR/2014/BRA Distr.: General 1 December 2014 English only Report of the technical assessment of the proposed forest reference emission level of Brazil submitted in 2014 Summary This
Forests and Climate Change: Mitigation and Adaptation through Sustainable Forest Management Remarks presented by Mr. Pekka Patosaari, Director, UN Forum on Forests Secretariat To the 60 th Annual DPI /
Tropical Deforestation Emission Reduction Mechanism 1 A Discussion Paper Bill Hare 2 & Kirsten Macey 3 Table of Contents Executive Summary...3 Introduction...9 Part I: Background...10 Tropical Deforestation:
SUBMISSION BY LATVIA AND THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE EUROPEAN UNION AND ITS MEMBER STATES Riga, 6 March 2015 Subject: Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of the EU and its Member States
Framework Convention on Climate Change Afforestation and Reforestation Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism A Reference Manual A manual synthesizing the requirements in respect of the project
UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS (INDCs) 1. Introduction The United Republic of Tanzania, which comprises of Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar, brings forth her Intended