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1 1 Grade 5 Term Geography World map and compass directions The position of the equator and the North and South Poles on a globe The equator is an imaginary line that divides the earth into a top half and a bottom half. The top half is called the northern hemisphere and the bottom half is called the southern hemisphere. If you move north from the equator you will get to the top of the earth. The top of the earth is called the North Pole. If you move south from the equator you will get to the bottom of the earth. The bottom of the earth is called the South Pole. Equator Northern Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere The position of the equator and the North and South Poles

2 2 Activity 1 1. Look at the picture of the globe on the worksheet that will be given to you. Which letters A, B and C show the position of the equator, North Pole and South Pole? The Seven continents of the world In Grade 4 you learnt that there are seven continents. The continents are North America, South America, Africa, Europe, Asia, Antarctica and Australia/Oceania. Activity 2 1. Look at the outline of the world map in your workbook. Colour each continent using a different colour and name the continent. 2. Which continent is the smallest? 3. Which continent is the largest? 4. Do you think that Africa is a big or a small continent?

3 3 The eight points of the compass Do you remember how to move around a map using four compass directions? North is up, south is down, west is left and east is right. This year we are going to learn about four more compass direction points. By adding four more points on a compass, it is even easier to describe where places are. Useful Tip You can remember the four main compass points by using the following phrase: Now We Shall Eat Activity 3 1. In your workbook, redraw the compass points with the four compass points N, S, W and E, and add the two new compass points SW and NW. 2. What do SW and NW stand for? 3. Add NE and SE yourself. 4. What do NE and SE stand for? The position between north and east is called northeast (NE). The position between north and west is called northwest (NW). The position between south and east is called southeast (SE). The position between south and west is called southwest (SW).

4 4 Activity 4 Look at the world map on page 2. The dot on this page shows the position of South Africa. Use this dot as a reference point to answer the following questions. 1. Name the continent that is west of South Africa. 2. Name the continent that is south of South Africa. 3. Name the continent that is east of South Africa. 4. What country will you find if you move north east from South Africa? 5. What ocean will you find if you move in a south east direction? 6. What country will you find if you move in a north westerly direction? Africa, our continent (oceans, countries and main cities) The position of Africa on a world map and globe On the diagram and picture of the globe on page 1 you will see that the line of the equator runs through the centre of the African continent. When you look at a globe, it is not really possible to describe the position of Africa as being in the middle of the world. How would you describe the position of Africa? Oceans around the coast of Africa

5 5 Activity 5 Look at the world map, on the previous page, and write down the names of the oceans around Africa. 1. Which oceans are found off the west coast of Africa? 2. Which oceans are found off the east coast of Africa? 3. Is there sea between Africa and Europe? Borders of Countries New Words: Border: The boundary of a country is called a border. Boundary: A line showing the end or edge of an area. Plateau: Large area of high lying level ground. Coastline: The area between the land and the sea. Landlocked: These are countries that are not next to the sea. Their borders do not touch the coastline and they are surrounded by land. Think of the wall around your home. The wall shows the boundary of your plot of land. On the other side of the wall is your neighbour s land and home. The boundary of a country is called a border. Borders are drawn on maps to show the land that belongs to a country. Border lines between countries are not actually drawn on the ground, although we can see them on maps. Borders can be straight lines or (wiggly) irregular lines. Irregular boundary lines often follow rivers, mountains or coastlines. Straight lines are usually used when there are no natural boundaries. This happens in deserts and plateaus. Sometimes, walls or fences are built along borders to stop people moving from one country to another. One of the most famous borders is the Great Wall of China. It was built to protect the northern border of China from enemies.

6 The borders of South Africa 6 Activity 6 Look at the map that will be given to you showing the borders of South Africa. 1. Which border lines are rivers? 2. Which arrows point to straight border lines? 3. Which arrows point to irregular border lines? 4. Name the rivers in question Which irregular line is part of the coastline? The countries of Africa Africa has 54 countries. 17 of these countries are landlocked. 5 of the countries are islands. Madagascar is an island country that is surrounded by the Indian Ocean. Zanzibar and Pemba are islands that are part of Tanzania.

7 7 Activity 7 Use the map on page 6 and answer the following questions. You will be provided with a copy for your workbook. 1. Name the countries that are islands. 2. Colour in the countries that are found north of the equator in blue. 3. Colour in the countries that are found south of the equator in green. 4. Colour in the countries that are found along the equator in black. 5. Draw an x on all the countries that are found along the coastline. How many countries are there? 6. Count the number of landlocked countries in Africa and write down how many there are? A political map of Africa

8 8 The big cities of Africa Big cities: are often the capital city of their country. have a lot of buildings and people living there. are often the oldest city in the country. A data table of information about five big cities in Africa Name of city Country which the city is found in Number of people living in the city The city was started as a. Is the city the capital of the country? Cairo Egypt 15 million Trade town Yes Lagos Nigeria 11 million Trade town No Kinshasa DRC 8 million Trade town Yes Johannesburg South Africa 7.5 million Gold mining No town Nairobi Kenya 4 million Trade town Yes Activity 8 Look at the information table on the five big African cities. Find the following information in the table. 1. Is Cairo found in the country of Egypt? 2. Did Cairo start as a trading town? 3. Is Cairo the capital of Egypt? 4. How many people live in Cairo? 5. Which city is the capital of Kenya? 6. How many people live in Lagos?

9 9 South Africa s neighbouring countries South Africa s six neighbouring countries are: Botswana Lesotho Mozambique Namibia Swaziland Zimbabwe A map of Southern Africa Activity 9 You will be given an outline of the map of Southern Africa to paste into your book. Answer the questions that follow. 1. Fill in the names of the countries in Southern Africa and colour each one in a different colour. 2. Which of the countries are landlocked? 3. Which of the countries are next to the ocean? 4. How many neighbours does Lesotho have?

10 10 Capital cities A capital city is usually the city where the government of a country is found. The government works from here to run the country. It does not necessarily have to be the richest, oldest or largest city, but more often it is one of these. Nigeria s capital city is Abuja, even though Lagos is the richest and the largest city in Nigeria. Abuja is found in the centre of Nigeria so it is easier to travel to all parts of Nigeria. A map of Nigeria The Capital cities of South Africa South Africa has 3 capital cities and Pretoria is the executive capital. The country is run from the Union Buildings in Pretoria. Cape Town is the legislative capital so that means that laws are made for the country at parliament in Cape Town. Bloemfontein is the judicial capital and this means that laws are carried out in the Supreme Court which is in Bloemfontein. Activity Write down the names of South Africa s neighbouring countries and their capital cities. New Words: Physical map: this map shows the natural features of a country such as mountains, rivers, lakes and valleys. Mountains: these are large areas of high ground that have names on a physical map Sea level: this is 0 metres high on a map. It is the same level as the sea.

11 11 A physical map of Africa Features on a physical map The following information is usually shown on a physical map. They are mostly natural features. Lakes Rivers High and low areas of land Mountains Physical maps use colour to show different heights. The map key provides details of the information it shows you, for example rivers are blue and show the direction that they flow in. Rivers also have their names written on the map. Lakes are also shown as blue and their shapes and names are also shown on the map. Examples of Physical Maps of Africa

12 12 Activity 11 Look at the physical map of Africa that has been provided by your teacher and answer the following questions. 1. What is the name of the mountain that starts with an A? 2. What is the compass direction of this mountain? 3. How high is the mountain? 4. What is the name of the river that starts in Lake Victoria and ends in the Mediterranean Sea? Height above sea level on a physical map A dyke in the Netherlands The different colours of land on a physical map show how high the land is above sea level. The highest land is usually a dark brown or purple. Mountain peaks have the height written on the map.

13 13 Some of Africa s greatest physical features A relief map shows mountains and valleys using different colours Important mountains and deserts of Africa Mount Kilimanjaro, in Tanzania is the highest mountain in Africa. It is 5895m above sea level. This is an old volcano. Mount Kenya is found in Kenya. It is 5199m high. It is also an old volcano. The Sahara desert covers 12 countries in Africa. It is the second largest desert in the world and is made up of sand and rock.

14 14 Activity 11 Look at the physical map and photographs on page 13 and 14 and answer the following questions. 1. Name the deserts that are found in the southern hemisphere. 2. In which hemisphere is the highest mountain found in Africa? 3. In which countries is the Sahara desert found/ 4. What is the name of the highest mountain found in Africa? 5. Are Mount Kenya and Mount Kilimanjaro found in the same country? If not, name the country they are found in. Important Rivers and Waterfalls of Africa The Niger River flows through 6 countries. The Nile River flows through 10 It is 4180 km long and ends in the Atlantic countries. It is 6650 km long and ends Ocean. in the Mediterranean Sea. The Congo river flows through 10 The Zambezi river flows through 9 countries. It is 4700 km long and ends countries. It is 2574 km long and ends in the Atlantic Ocean. in the Indian Ocean.

15 15 The Gariep/Orange River flows through The Limpopo river flows through 6 3 countries. It is 2200 km long and countries. It is 1750 km long and ends ends in the Atlantic Ocean. in the Indian Ocean. The Victoria Falls is found on the Zambezi River between Zambia and Zimbabwe. The falls are 108m high. The local name for Victoria falls is the smoke that thunders. The Maletsunyane Falls is found in Lesotho on a tributary of the Orange/ Gariep River. The falls are 192m high. The local name for the falls is place of smoke. Lake Victoria is found in the countries of Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya. It is 83m deep. The Augrabies falls are found in South Africa on the Orange/Gariep River. The falls are 56m high. The local name is place of big noises.

16 16 Lake Malawi is found in the countries of Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique. It is 706m deep. Lake Tanganyika is found in the countries of Burundi, Tanzania, Zambia and DRC. It is 1470m deep. Activity Copy this table into your workbook and fill in the missing information. Longest river in Africa Highest waterfall in Africa Deepest lake in Africa Name and country Depth or length Rivers and lakes that are borders between countries in Africa Natural features such as rivers, lakes and mountains form natural borders between countries. In Africa, examples of natural borders like these include the border between South Africa and Namibia, which is the Orange/Gariep River. Lake Victoria forms the border between Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya.

17 17 Activity 14 Using the political map and physical map in your book answer the following questions: 1. Which country has the smallest part of Lake Victoria? 2. How many countries have the Zambezi River as a border? 3. How many countries have the Congo River as a border? Images of Africa What photographs can tell you about people and places in Africa A photograph can give you a lot of information. To get information about the view or angle of a photograph, you should ask the following questions: Is the photograph showing a side view? Is the photo showing a top or aerial view? From where was the photo taken? A top or aerial view shows objects from above or from looking down. The shape of these objects will be correct but it will be very difficult to work out their height. You will also not be able to see the details on the side of the objects. A side view shows people or objects in the front or in the foreground. These will be larger than the people or objects in the back of the photograph, or in the background.

18 18 When we look at the picture of the pyramids from the top or aerial view, we see shadow that is pointing to the north. We also see 2 sides of a square. The other 2 sides are very light because the sun is shining on them. We see 3 small pyramids on the east side. From the side view we see triangular shapes. Activity 15 What else does the side view picture of the pyramids tell you? Look at the following: 1. Is there any grass or any trees? What does this tell you about this place? 2. Describe the buildings? Do you think they are new? Table Mountain Mount Kilimanjaro Mount Kilimanjaro Table Mountain Victoria Falls Nile River

19 19 Island of Zanzibar Equatorial forests Pyramids of Egypt Great Zimbabwe Ruins Zulu homestead in Kwazulu Natal Timbuktu Mombasa Johannesburg, City of Gold

20 20 Commercial maize farming in the Free State, South Africa Masai subsistence farmers in Tanzania Open cast mining, Northern Cape Oil mining, Nigeria Activity 16 Choose any one of the photographs above that shows the following: a physical feature, a town or city, a building and people working. 1. What information does the picture give you? 2. Write 4 sentences about the picture. What is it like there? Use words like hot, cold, dry, lots of people, few people, old building, new building and vegetation. Bibliography: Angier K, Carr D, Cockburn J, Wallace J Our World, Our Society grade 5

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