Flash Microcontrollers. Application Note. Using the STK500 as an AT89C51Rx2 Target Board

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1 Using the STK500 as an AT89C51Rx2 Target Board Features Use of STK 500 as a Development Board for 80C51 Microcontrollers Supports AT89C51Rx2, T89C51AC2, T89C51CC01, and Similar Devices Uses an Additional STK500 to Create the H/W Enable Simple Switch/LED Interface to Enter ISP Mode Introduction The STK500 is an inexpensive development kit for AVR. It supports all 8-40 pin-avr parts directly and larger variants through daughter boards. Due to its versatility, Atmel s customers have asked for ways of using the STK500 as a development board for Atmel s 8051-based microcontrollers. This application note shows how to use the STK500 as a development board for the AT89C51Rx2, the T89C51AC2 as well as other similar devices. It focuses on how to force the devices into the ISP Boot program at reset. The setup consists of two boards, one 8051 STK500 target board and another board with a preprogrammed AVR, which will either boot the 8051 in ISP mode or boot it into the application with a push of a button. Flash Microcontrollers Application Note Pin Compatibility The pinout of the 8051 is the same as that of the AT90S8515 AVR, with the exception of the polarity of the Reset pin, which is active high on the 8051 and active low on the AVR. Therefore, an 8051 can be used in the 8515 socket if the reverse polarity of the reset can be handled. Crystal The difference between the 8051 and the AVR is that the AVR does not divide its clock. The STK500 can provide a software adjustable clock with a maximum clock frequency of 3.69 MHz. Alternatively, a crystal can be mounted in the STK500 crystal socket providing support for clock frequencies up to 20 MHz. Most 8051 applications would run at a higher clock frequency than 3.68 MHz and a crystal is therefore recommended to get the appropriate clock frequency. This application note is tested using a MHz crystal. An additional STK500 (with an AVR) is used to generate the control signals for the This board is used to reset the 8051 and generate the H/W Enable signals to the 8051, required to force the part into ISP mode.

2 The main problem is how to perform in system programming of the device while mounted on the board. Many of the Atmel 8051 support In-System Programming (ISP) using the same method as the AVR. While in Reset, the SPI port acts as the ISP interface. However, some 8051 devices use a different method. For example, the AT89C51 series support Self-Programming over the UART. A Boot Loader in a separate Flash memory can reprogram the application. The problem is how to make the processor enter the ISP Programming mode. This application note uses two STK500s and a single 14,7456 MHz crystal. One board is used as an 8051 target board, and the other contains a preprogrammed AT90S8515 which can force the 8051 on the other board into the ROM monitor using the H/W Enable feature. Atmel (A)T89 H/W ISP (In-System Programming) Two different groups have developed the Atmel 8051 devices. These groups have refined their methods over time. As a result, the way of programming the Flash/EEPROM differs between the devices. There are two basic methods used: H/W In-System Programming Self-Programming A standard 80C51 is pin-compatible with the AT90S8515/ATmega8515 and will therefore fit directly in the SCKT3000D3 socket (Red connector) on the STK500. As mentioned, the only difference is the polarity of the Reset signal, which is active high on the 8051 and active low on the AVR. The H/W ISP uses the RESET and the SPI interface (MOSI, MISO, SCK) pins. The programmer can access internal Flash/EEPROM memory by first asserting RESET. The function of the SPI interface then becomes the ISP interface, allowing the programmer to program/verify the internal memory using SPI transfers. Supporting the H/W ISP for the 8051 is fairly simple, since it is similar to the AVR ISP interface. The STK500 supports programming of a few 8051 devices using this method (see Figure 1). The AVR Studio 4.06 (or any newer version) supports the AT89S/LS51 and AT89S/LS52. Figure 1. Programming Interface for the STK500 2 Using the STK500 as an AT89C51Rx2 Target Board

3 Using the STK500 as an AT89C51Rx2 Target Board The STK500 online User Guide describes the jumper setting necessary for the correct programming of this part. The User Guide is available inside the AVR Studio. There are a few other considerations to make when using the 8051 on the STK500. The STK500 supports generating a target voltage and a CPU clock. These should be configured using AVR Studio and the STK500 plug-in (see Figure 2). Note that the maximum frequency of the CPU clock is 3.69 MHz which is on the low side for an If a higher frequency is desired, it is possible to mount an external 2-20 MHz crystal into the CRYSTAL socket. Be aware that the jumper setting on the STK500 should be changed to use the external crystal. Refer to the STK500 User Guide to determine the correct jumper settings. Figure 2. Dialog Box for Adjusting the STK500 Clock Frequency ISP Using Self- Programming The Flash-based 8051 is designed by what used to be Atmel Wireless and Microcontroller are equipped with a boot area. The controller can be configured by fuses to jump to the boot area at Reset. It can then communicate over any supported interface to the Host Flash Programming application. Typically, the serial port is used, but in some versions of the device, CAN or USB are used. Atmel provides an application called FLIP free of charge. This is written using TCL/TK and is thus portable to many environments including Windows and Linux and can be downloaded from For real applications, the 8051 device is typically configured to jump to the application directly. There is, however, a method to force the device into Self-Programming mode, by asserting three signals at reset. Once in Self-Programming mode, the device can be reconfigured to boot either the application, the standard Boot Loader or to a user defined bootloader. If the EA and ALE signals are forced high and the PSEN signal is forced low while reset is pulsed (driven high and then low), the device will boot into the ISP mode, regardless of the internal configuration. 3

4 The 8051 devices can then be programmed over the application s serial port of the STK500 ( SERIAL SPARE connector). This application note uses one STK500 with an AVR programmed as a state machine to generate this sequence. By pressing a switch, the user can force a reset into either normal mode or into ISP mode. Preparing the AVR Board Normally, the STK500 comes with an AT90S8515 sample mounted on the board. This needs to be programmed with the firmware for the 8051 H/W Enable state machine. If the AVR programming fails, please refer to the STK500 documentation for help. 1. Connect a 9V-15V AC/DC adapter to the Power connector (Power is OFF). 2. Firmly mount the AT90S8515 in the SCKT3000D3 socket. 3. Connect the ISP6PIN to the SPROG3 using the 6-pin flat cable. 4. Make sure that the jumpers are in the default position VTARGET AREF, RESET, and XTAL1 mounted, BSEL2 unmounted, OSCSEL mounted as Connect SWITCHES to PORTD. 6. Connect LEDs to PORTB. 7. The RS232 CTRL UART connector is connected to the PC. Figure 3 shows the connections between the two STK500 boards. Caution! Do not connect the board to the 8051 board during programming of the AVR device. Figure 3. Connections Between the Two STK500 Boards 3 2 AT90S Press to enter Normal Mode Press to enter S/W ISP Mode Volt T89C51RD MHz Connection to PC for FLIP S/W 9-15-Volt 4 Using the STK500 as an AT89C51Rx2 Target Board

5 Using the STK500 as an AT89C51Rx2 Target Board Programming the AVR Firmware Preparing the 8051 Board 1. Turn on the Power of the STK Start AVR Studio and from the menu select: Tools -> STK500/AVRISP/JTAG ICE 3. Select the Board tab and make sure that the voltage is 5.1-Volt and the Clock frequency is 3.69 MHz. 4. Select the Program tab. From the device list select the correct device. 5. Select the Advanced tab, and Read the Signature. If the signature is not read, make sure that all settings and connections are correct and that the board is powered. 6. Select the Program tab. Make sure that ISP Programming mode is selected, and that the device will be erased before programming and verified after programming. Use the HWE.A90 file as input HEX file for Flash programming. 7. Press the Program button to program the firmware into the AVR. The scrolling frame at the bottom of the Pop-up Window should indicate success. 8. Close the STK500 application and then close AVR Studio. 9. Disconnect the PC serial port from the RS232 CTRL connector. 1. Take the second board, which should now have been configured to use the same voltage as the first board. This is done by removing the VTARGET jumper on one board and connecting GND and VTARGET on the two boards. In this way, the board with the VTARGET jumper mounted will supply power to the other board. 2. Remove power and then remove the AT90S8515 device from the SCKT3000D3 socket. Insert the selected 8051 part in the same socket. Only 8051 parts supporting the Self-Programming (Software ISP) mode should be used. The AT89C51RC2 is an example of such a device the AT89Sxx devices are not. 3. Select a suitable crystal to be mounted in the crystal socket. Suitable frequencies are , , , and MHz. This application is tested with the MHz crystal. 4. Make sure that: A 9V-15V AC/DC adapter is connected to the Power connector (Power is OFF). The AT89C51RC2 is firmly mounted in the SCKT3000D3 socket. The crystal is firmly mounted in the crystal socket. The ISP6PIN is disconnected from any SPROGx connector. The OSCSEL 3-pin header is mounted in the 2-3 position. The RESET jumper is not mounted. The other jumpers are in the default position. VTARGET, AREF, and XTAL1 mounted, BSEL2 unmounted. The RS232 SPARE 2-pin header is connected using a dual-wire to the appropriate port pins. RXD<->PORTD0; TXD<->PORTD1. The RS232 SPARE DB-9 connector is connected to your PC. Note: This is not the same UART connector as for the AVR (see illustration of boards in Figure 3). Theoretically, it is possible to use the 3.69 MHz oscillator when programming the device, however, this will result in a baud rate of 1200, which is not supported by the FLIP 8051 Programming software. Therefore, it is recommended to use a MHz crystal. The communication speed when using a MHz system clock is 9600 baud. 5

6 Connecting the Boards 1. First power down the two STK500s. 2. The AVR uses pins PORTA0:3 to generate the H/W enable. Refer to the assignments shown in Table 1. Connect the PA0<->PE0, PA1<->PE1 using a 2-wire cable Connect the PA2<->PE2, PA3<->RST using a 2-wire cable Connect the GND<->GND using a 2-wire cable (only one wire needed) 3. Refer to Figure 3 for details. Table 1. AVR PORTA Header 8051 PORTE/AUX Header Actual 8051 Signal PA0 PE0 EA PA1 PE1 ALE PA2 PE2 PSEN PA3 RST RESET Forcing the 8051 Into ISP Mode Literature/Software Resources The AVR board uses two switches allowing the user to force a reset. Pressing SW0 will force a normal reset to the LED0 will blink while the RESET is in progress and will not blink when the 8051 is in Normal mode, executing the user application. Pressing SW1 will assert the H/W Enable and thus force the 8051 into ISP mode. LED1 will blink while the RESET is in progress and when steady, the 8051 can be programmed using FLIP. Please read the FLIP User Guide to understand how to do the actual ISP programming. STK500 User Guide, found at AVR Studio Software, found at FLIP programming software, found at Architecture&tool_id= Using the STK500 as an AT89C51Rx2 Target Board

7 Atmel Corporation 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95131, USA Tel: 1(408) Fax: 1(408) Regional Headquarters Europe Atmel Sarl Route des Arsenaux 41 Case Postale 80 CH-1705 Fribourg Switzerland Tel: (41) Fax: (41) Asia Room 1219 Chinachem Golden Plaza 77 Mody Road Tsimshatsui East Kowloon Hong Kong Tel: (852) Fax: (852) Japan 9F, Tonetsu Shinkawa Bldg Shinkawa Chuo-ku, Tokyo Japan Tel: (81) Fax: (81) Atmel Operations Memory 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95131, USA Tel: 1(408) Fax: 1(408) Microcontrollers 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95131, USA Tel: 1(408) Fax: 1(408) La Chantrerie BP Nantes Cedex 3, France Tel: (33) Fax: (33) ASIC/ASSP/Smart Cards Zone Industrielle Rousset Cedex, France Tel: (33) Fax: (33) East Cheyenne Mtn. Blvd. Colorado Springs, CO 80906, USA Tel: 1(719) Fax: 1(719) Scottish Enterprise Technology Park Maxwell Building East Kilbride G75 0QR, Scotland Tel: (44) Fax: (44) RF/Automotive Theresienstrasse 2 Postfach Heilbronn, Germany Tel: (49) Fax: (49) East Cheyenne Mtn. Blvd. Colorado Springs, CO 80906, USA Tel: 1(719) Fax: 1(719) Biometrics/Imaging/Hi-Rel MPU/ High Speed Converters/RF Datacom Avenue de Rochepleine BP Saint-Egreve Cedex, France Tel: (33) Fax: (33) Literature Requests Disclaimer: Atmel Corporation makes no warranty for the use of its products, other than those expressly contained in the Company s standard warranty which is detailed in Atmel s Terms and Conditions located on the Company s web site. The Company assumes no responsibility for any errors which may appear in this document, reserves the right to change devices or specifications detailed herein at any time without notice, and does not make any commitment to update the information contained herein. No licenses to patents or other intellectual property of Atmel are granted by the Company in connection with the sale of Atmel products, expressly or by implication. Atmel s products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices or systems. Atmel Corporation All rights reserved. Atmel and combinations thereof, AVR, and Studio AVR are the registered trademarks, and STK is the trademark of Atmel Corporation or its subsidiaries. Windows is the registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Other terms and product names may be the trademarks of others. Printed on recycled paper.

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