CELLS THE CELL IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF LIFE. ALL ORGANISMS ARE COMPOSED OF CELLS. SOME ARE A SINGLE CELL, OTHERS ARE

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1 CELLS THE CELL IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF LIFE. ALL ORGANISMS ARE COMPOSED OF CELLS. SOME ARE A SINGLE CELL, OTHERS ARE MULTICELLULAR. THE CELL THEORY STATES: 1. ALL ORGANISMS RE COMPOSED OF ONE OR MORE CELLS, WITHIN WHICH THE LIFE PROCESSES OF METABOLISM AND HEREDITY OCCUR. 2. CELLS ARE THE SMALLEST LIVING THINGS, THE BASIC UNIT OF ORGANIZATION OF ALL ORGANISMS THE BASIC UNIT OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. 3. CELLS IN AN ORGANISM ARE ALL INDIVIDUALS OF THE SAME ORGANIZATIONAL RANK. 1

2 4. THE ACTION OF AN ORGANISM IS THE SUM OF MANY ACTIONS OF DIFFERENT COLLABORATING CELLS. IS THIS TRUE? WHY IS IT THE CELL THEORY? 2

3 AN ALTERNATIVE TO THIS IS THE ORGANISMAL THEORY. THIS STATES THAT THE WHOLE ORGANISM IS THE BASIC UNIT OF LIVING ORGANISMS. PLANTS PROVIDE AN EXCELLENT EXAMPLE BECAUSE THEY HAVE INCOMPLETE CLEAVAGE BETWEEN DIVIDING CELLS; CONTINUOUS CYTOPLASMIC CONNECTIONS BETWEEN CELLS (PLASMODESMATA) AND ABSENCE OF CELLULAR MOTILITY DURING DEVELOPMENT. THE FIXED POSITION AND INTERCONNECTEDNESS OF ALL CELLS IN A PLANT CREATE A SYMPLAST THE ENTIRE MASS OF A PLANT AS A CONTINUOUS UNIT. 3

4 CELL WALL PLANT CELLS TYPICALLY HAVE A CELL WALL CONTAINING THE LIVING PROTOPLAST. THE LAYER THAT CONTACTS WALLS OF ADJACENT CELLS IS THE MIDDLE LAMELLA. THIS HAS A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF PECTIN. THE PRIMARY CELL WALL THE WALL FORMED WHILE THE CELL IS GROWING TO ITS MATURE SIZE. THIS WALL IS RELATIVELY THIN; IT IS MADE UP OF CELLULOSE BUT HAS A HIGH PROPORTION OF HEMICELLULOSES IN A GEL-LIKE MATRIX ALLOWING MORE PLASTICITY TO THE GROWING WALL. FOLLOWING CESSATION OF GROWTH SOME CELLS DEVELOP A SECONDARY CELL WALL WHICH IS DEPOSITED ON THE INSIDE SURFACE 4

5 OF THE PRIMARY CELL WALL. IT IS COMPOSED MAINLY OF CELLULOSE BUT CAN CONTAIN DEPOSITS OF LIGNIN (A COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATE, SECOND MOST ABUNDANT POLYMER IN PLANTS, SERVES TO ADD RIGIDITY TO THE CELL WALL) OR SUBERIN (A FATTY SUBSTANCE, FUNCTIONS TO REDUCE WATER LOSS). THE SECONDARY CELL WALL OFTEN APPEARS TO BE LAMELLATED. PRIMARY PIT FIELDS ARE THIN AREAS OF THE PRIMARY WALL WHICH CORRESPOND TO THIN AREAS OF ADJACENT CELLS. THESE USUALLY HAVE PROTOPLASMIC STRANDS (PLASMODESMATA) PASSING THROUGH THEM CONNECTING THE PROTOPLASTS OF NEIGHBORING CELLS. THIS CONNECTION OF 5

6 LIVING PROTOPLASTS FORM THE SYMPLAST. THE PRIMARY PIT FIELDS REMAIN EVEN IF SECONDARY WALLS ARE DEPOSITED THEN THEY ARE CALLED PITS OR PIT PAIRS IF THERE ARE TWO PITS CONNECTING ADJACENT CELLS. THE MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES FROM CELL TO CELL BY MEANS OF PLASMODESMATA IS SYMPLASTIC TRANSPORT AND IS MORE EFFICIENT APOPLASTIC TRANSPORT WHICH GOES THROUGH CELL WALLS AND PLASMA MEMBRANES AND THE MIDDLE LAMELLA. THIS CAN CARRY ONLY WATER AND INORGANIC NUTRIENTS AND IS GOOD FOR SHORT DISTANCES ONLY. THE APOPLAST IS THE NON- LIVING SPACE OUTSIDE THE PROTOPLAST. 6

7 PLASMA MEMBRANE THE PLASMA MEMBRANE (PLASMALEMMA) IS A SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE THAT ENCLOSES THE CONTENTS OF THE CELL AND CONTROLS THE MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS INTO AND OUT OF THE CELL. ORGANELLES ARE MEMBRANE BOUND COMPARTMENTS INSIDE THE CELL EACH WITH ITS SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS. THOSE THAT CAN BE SEEN WITH A LIGHT MICROSCOPE INCLUDE: NUCLEUS LOCATION OF GENETIC MATERIAL, DNA, CHROMOSOMES 7

8 VACUOLE ITS MEMBRANE IS THE TONOPLAST; USUALLY FILLLED WITH WATER WITH DISSOLVED SALTS, SUGARS, ENZYMES, ETC. IT MAY COMPRISE 80-90% OF THE VOLUME OF THE CELL. SOMETIMES THE CONCENTRATION OF A PARTICULAR SUBSTANCE IS SUFFICIENT TO FORM CRYSTALS CALCIUM OXALATE IS COMMON. VACUOLES ARE ALSO SITES WHERE METABOLIC WASTE PRODUCTS ARE STORED THE TONOPLAST DOES NOT ALLOW THEM TO LEAK BACK INTO THE CYTOPLASM. PLANTS DO NOT EXCRETE WASTES LIKE ANIMALS; WASTES STORED IN THE VACUOLE ARE 8

9 NOXIOUS AND BITTER WHICH CAN DETER ANIMALS FROM EATING THE PLANT. PLASTIDS ARE FOOTBALL SHAPED ORGANELLES THAT INCLUDE CHLOROPLASTS THE SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS; AMYLOPLASTS ARE COLORLESS AND ARE STORAGE SITES FOR STARCH; CHROMOPLASTS ARE STORAGE SITES FOR PIGMENTS; LEUCOPLASTS ARE COLORLESS SITES FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF STARCH, FATS, LIPIDS, ETC. ORGANELLES NOT VISIBLE BY THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE ARE: ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM ER A TUBULAR NETWORK THAT FUNCTIONS TO SYNTHESIZE 9

10 LIPIDS AND PROTEINS. THE SMOOTH ER MAKES LIPIDS,THE ROUGH ER, WITH RIBOSOMES ON THE MEMBRANE, IS THE SITE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. GOLGI APPARATUS (DICTYOSOMES) ARE STACKS OF FLATTENED SACS WHERE PRODUCTS OF THE ER ARE PROCESSED FURTHER. THEY ARE ALSO INVOLVED IN SECRETION. MITOCHONDRIA ARE SITES OF RESPIRATION; RELEASES CHEMICAL ENERGY STORED IN FOOD AND TRANSFERS IT TO FORM ATP. MICROBODIES ARE VERY SMALL SPHERICAL BODIES. PEROXISOMES METABOLIZE HYDROGEN 10

11 PEROXIDE AND ARE INVOLVED IN PHOTORESPIRATION, USUALLY FOUND IN THE LEAVES (IN ANIMALS PEROXISOMES ARE COMMON IN LIVER AND KIDNEY CELLS). GLYOXYSOMES ARE INVOLVED IN CONVERTING STORRED FATS INTO SUGARS DURING GERMINATION; THESE ARE FOUND ONLY IN PLANTS SO PLANTS CAN CONVERT LIPIDS TO CARBOHYDRATES, ANIMALS CANNOT. NON-MEMBRANOUS OREGANELLES CYTOSOL IS THE LIQUID MATRIX OF THE CYTOPLASM MOSTLY WATER, ENZYMES, ETC. 11

12 RIBOSOMES ARE THE SITES AT WHICH AMINO ACIDS ARE LINKED TOGETHER TO FORM PROTEINS. THEY OCCUR FREELY IN THE CYTOPLASM OR ARE ATTACHED TO THE ER. THEY ARE COMPOSED OF PROTEIN AND RNA. MICROTUBULES & MICROFILAMENTS ACT AS THE CYTOSKELETON. THE CYTOSKELETON HOLDS REGIONS OF THE CELL SURFACE BACK WHILE OTHERS ARE EXPANDED OTHERWISE THE CELLS WOULD JUST BE SPHERES SO CELL GROWTH AND EXPANSION ARE DIRECTED TO CERTAIN AREAS. THEY GUIDE VESICLES TO CERTAIN SITES/REGIONS AND ARE THE MEANS OF MOTILITY FOR ORGANELLES WITHIN THE 12

13 CELL. THEY PROVIDE THE FRAMEWORK TO MOVE CHROMOSOMES DURING CELLULAR DIVISION. SPHEROSOMES ARE LARGE OIL DROPLETS WITHIN THE CYTOPLASM. 13

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