CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY"

Transcription

1 CAPTER. AQUEOUS REACTION CEMISTRY solution - homogeneous mixture of or more substances; uniform distribution of particles and same properties throughout. A solution is composed of a solute dissolved in a solvent: solute - substance present in lesser amount solvent - substance present in greatest amount aqueous solution water is solvent; write (aq) after formula PROPERTIES AND CLASSIFICATION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS 1) Strong electrolyte - a solution that is a good conductor of electricity. Substance that totally dissociates or ionizes in water. (Many ions) Soluble ionic compounds, strong acids, strong bases. E.g. NaCl, Cl, NaO ) Nonelectrolyte - solution that does not conduct electricity. Neutral molecules are present in solution. (No ions) Molecular compounds such as O, C 6 1 O 6 (sugar) ) Weak Electrolyte - solution that conducts electricity poorly. Substance that partially ionizes in water. (few ions) Weak acids or weak bases such as C O, N Understand how ionic compounds & molecular compounds dissolve in water ACID, BASE & SALT DEFINITIONS Acid: substance that produces ions in aqueous solutions. Strong acids completely ionize in water: E.g. NO NO - only ions and NO - ions are present in water NOW 7 Strong acids: Cl, Br, I, NO, SO, ClO, ClO All other acids are weak and only partially ionize in water (reversible rxn): E.g. C O C O - All species are present - most of the acid molecules have not ionized Base: substance that accepts ions in aqueous solns.; forms O - ions NaO (aq) Na O - Common Strong bases: Group 1A hydroxides (e.g. LiO, NaO, O) & heavy Group A hydroxides (Ca(O), Ba(O), Sr(O) ) Weak bases: N, several others exist but don t need to recognize yet. NEUTRALIZATION RXN (Type of DR rxn): ACID BASE SALT O Salt - ionic compound formed from base cation & acid anion during acid-base rxn. E.g. Cl NaO NaCl O

2 DOUBLE REPLACEMENT REACTIONS: AX BY AY BX Ions trade partners DR reactions occur when: 1) Insoluble product (solid ppt) forms. Refer to solubility rules - will be provided. ) Weak or nonelectrolyte forms. One of products is a weak acid, weak base or molecular compound. ) Gas forms. Note: DR rxn does not occur if soluble salts form. Precipitation reactions solubility - maximum amount of solid that will dissolve in a given amount of liquid at a given temperature. Solubility is a physical constant (like BP, density) 6.0 g NaCl E.g. NaCl solubility in water at 0 C: 100 g O Solubility Rules table.1, p. 111 now compounds containing 1A or N are always soluble; other ions, refer to table If insoluble in water, symbol is (s); if soluble in water, symbol is (aq) E.g. Na CO (aq) CaCl (aq) NaCl (aq) CaCO (s) NET IONIC REACTIONS Molecular Equation- write full formulas of all substances. See example above. Total Ionic Equation: Split up formulas of soluble salts, strong acids and strong bases into ions. Don't split apart solids, liquids, gases, weak or non-electrolytes. Net Ionic Equation: An ionic equation in which the spectator ions have been removed - net result after canceling common ions in total ionic equation. Spectator ions: Ions present on both sides of the equation. Must include (s), (g) or (l) symbols, but can omit (aq) symbol in writing rxns Total ionic: Na Net ionic: CO Ca CaCO (s) CO Ca Cl - Na Cl - CaCO (s) Exercise. Write molecular, total & net ionic rxns for the following: 1. molecular: Pb(NO ) (aq) Cl (aq) PbCl (s) NO (aq) Total: Pb NO Cl - PbCl (s) NO Net: Pb Cl - PbCl (s)

3 . Molecular: FeBr (aq) Ca(O) (aq) Fe(O) (s) CaBr (aq) Total: Fe 6Br - Ca 6O - Fe(O) (s) Ca 6Br - Net: Fe 6O - Fe(O) (s) Fe O - Fe(O) (s) Acid-base neutralization reaction nonelectrolyte e ( O) is formed Molecular: SO (aq) NaO (aq) O (l) Na SO (aq) Total: Net: SO Na O - O (l) Na SO O - O (l) O - O (l) note that formation of water is net result when strong acid & strong base react Gas formation during acid-base reactions This occurs if (A) a gas such as S forms Na S (aq) NO (aq) NaNO (aq) S (g) Total: Na S - NO Na NO S (g) Net: S - S (g) (B) an unstable product forms & breaks down. E.g. CO (aq) CO (g) O (l) Total: Na Na CO (aq) Cl (aq) NaCl (aq) O (l) CO (g) CO Cl - Na Cl - O (l) CO (g) Net: CO O (l) CO (g) Oxidation numbers- bookkeeping system for keeping track of e- these are values we assign; don t necessarily correspond to true number of e- gained or lost by atom write /- sign before number instead of after Rules 1) Uncombined elements: ox number = 0. E.g. Na or O ) monatomic ion: ox number = charge for ion; S - : ox # = -; Mg : ox # = ) : ox # = 1 (except for M compounds, = -1) ) O: ox # = - (except O, O = -1, 5) F: ox # = -1; other halogens usually 1 except when combined with O 6) polyatomic: sum of ox # s = charge on ion neutral compound: sum of ox # s = 0 E.g. assign ox # s to atoms in the following: 1. SF F: -1; S:. CO O: - C (-) = - C -6 = - C=. ClO O: - Cl (-) = -1 Cl -6 = -1 Cl = 5

4 . NO : 1; O: -; 1 N (-) = 0 N 5 = 0 N = 5 SINGLE REPLACEMENT (OXIDATION-REDUCTION) REACTIONS: A BC B AC oxidation: loss of electrons, substance becomes more (LEO) Mg Mg e - reduction: gain of electrons, substance becomes more - (GER) Ag e - Ag oxidizing agent: causes other substance to be oxidized; ox. agent is reduced reducing agent: causes reduction & becomes oxidized Ca (s) Cl (aq) CaCl (aq) (g) Net: Ca (s) (aq) Ca aq) (g) Which is oxidizing agent? reduced gains e-: Which is reducing agent? oxidized loses e-: Ca Many reactions involve oxidation & reduction not just SR: E.g. For the following reaction PbS O PbO SO 0 a. Identify the species oxidized S - _ b. Identify the species reduced O c. Oxidized element goes from oxidation number _-_ to. d. Reduced element goes from oxidation number 0_ to -. e. Oxidizing agent _O f. Reducing agent PbS Predict products for SR rxns Not all single replacement reactions occur - depends on activity of metal Use activity series to decide if reaction occurs (Table on p. 1) Elements at top are more reactive (more likely to become oxidized and form ions). An element in the series can replace elements below it but cannot replace elements above it. Complete the following reactions. Write NR if reaction does not occur. 1. Zn (s) PO Zn (PO ) (g). Ag (s) Cl (aq) NR. Mg (s) AgNO (aq) Mg(NO ) (aq) Ag (s). Al (s) SO (aq) Al (SO ) (aq) (g) 5. (g) CuBr (aq) Cu (s) Br (aq)

5 SOLUTION CONCENTRATION Because chemical reactions between solids are usually slow, we carry out these reactions by dissolving the solids in water. (Dissolved ions are more mobile & come into contact more frequently) The most common unit for expressing the concentration of the solution is called Molarity. moles solute moles Molarity = M = Units: M = Liter of solution Liter 1) 0.6 g NaO are dissolved in enough water to make 50 ml of solution. Calculate the molarity. NaO 0.6 g NaO = mol NaO; 50 ml = 0.5 L 0.0 g NaO 1000mL mol 0.765mol NaO M = = =. M L 0.5 L ) ow many ml of 0.56 M Cl will contain 10.0 mol of Cl? Cl 10.0 mol Cl 1000 ml 0.56mol Cl = 9100 ml Molarity of ions Soluble ionic compounds completely dissociate in solution E.g. What is the molarity of ions in a 0.0 M CO solution? What is the molar concentration of the carbonate ions? 0.0mol CO mol 0.0 mol = = 0.0 M CO 0.0mol CO CO 0.0mol CO = = 0.0 M CO CO SOLUTION STOICIOMETRY Grams or Grams or L or M of soln moles given moles wanted L or M of soln g To go from g moles use MM = mol mole To go from L (or M) of soln moles use M = L 1. ow many L of 0.00 M CaCl is needed to react with.90 g PO? CaCl (aq) PO (aq) Ca (PO ) (s) 6Cl (aq) g PO mol PO mol CaCl L CaCl mol PO mol CaCl.90 g PO = 0.50 L CaCl 98.0 g PO mol PO 0.00 mol CaCl. ow many grams of S can be produced from 15 ml of 0.55 M Cl solution? Cl (aq) S (aq) S (g) Cl (aq) ml Cl L Cl moles Cl moles S g S

6 0.55mol Cl S. 1g S 15 ml = 1.18 g S 1000 ml mol Cl mol S WORSEET FOR MOLARITY & SOLUTION STOICIOMETRY 1. What is the molarity of Na and PO ions in a 0.5 M solution of Na PO? 0.5mol NaPO mol Na NaPO PO NaPO = 0.75M Na = 0.5 M PO 0.5mol NaPO. Find the mass of NaCl present in 150 ml of 1.50 M NaCl mol 58.5 g NaCl 150 ml 1000 ml NaCl = 1. g NaCl. ow many ml of 0.5 M AgCl solution will contain.5 g of AgCl? AgCl.5 g AgCl AgCl 1000mL 1. g AgCl = 8.90 x10 ml AgCl 0.5mol AgCl. What is the molarity of SO solution if ml of SO is required to neutralize.00 ml of M NaO? SO NaO O Na SO ml NaO L NaO moles NaO moles SO M SO mol NaO SO.00 ml = moles SO 1000 ml mol NaO mole mol M = = SO 1000 ml L = M 50.00mL 5. ow many L of 0.16 M Ca(O) is needed to neutralize 5.00 ml of 0.58 M Cl solution? Ca(O) Cl CaCl O 0.58 moles Cl Ca( O ) 5.00 ml = 0.09 L 1000 ml L mol Cl 0.16mol Ca( O ) Titration- procedure used to determine the concentration of a solution by measuring the volume of one reagent required to react with a known mass or volume of another reagent. Standard solution solution with a known concentration Indicator substance that changes color at end point of titration Equivalence point pt at which the two reagents are present in stochiometrically equivalent amounts

7 DILUTION Dilution - process of adding more solvent to solution to prepare a more dilute solution. concentrated solution - a solution containing a relatively large amount of solute dilute solution - a solution containing a relatively small amount of solute. In dilution problems moles before dilution equal moles after dilution: moles 1 = moles Dilution formula: M 1 x V 1 = M x V 1) a) ow many ml of 16 M NO will you use to prepare 750. ml of 0.69 M NO? b) ow many ml of water were added to make this solution? M 1 = 0.69 M NO ; V 1 = 750 ml; M = 16 M NO ; V =? a) V = M 1V M 1 = ( 0.69 M )( 750 ml ) 16 M b) 750 ml - ml = 78 ml = ml ) What is the molarity of a solution prepared by diluting 15 ml of 0.00 M Cl to 1000 ml of Cl solution? M 1 = 0.00 M Cl; V 1 = 15 ml; M =?; V = 15 ml 875 ml = 1000 ml M = M 1V V 1 = ( 0.00 M )( 15mL ) 1000mL = M DON'T USE DILUTION FORMULA FOR SOLUTION STOICIOMETRY PROBLEMS!!!

Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. Aqueous Solutions

Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. Aqueous Solutions Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. 1 Aqueous Solutions Molarity (dilution calculations, solution stoichiometry); Solubility and Solubility Rules Molecular, Ionic and Net Ionic Equations Precipitation

More information

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent.

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. TYPES OF SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. Solute: substance being dissolved; present in lesser amount. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving; present

More information

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's

More information

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Properties of Compounds in Water Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water soluble compounds

More information

Chemical Reactions in Water

Chemical Reactions in Water Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Acids, Bases and Salts Acids dissolve in water to give H + ions. These ions attach

More information

Chemical Reactions. Chemical Arithmetic

Chemical Reactions. Chemical Arithmetic Chemical Reactions Chapter 6 Chemical Arithmetic Balancing Equations The mole Gram - mole conversions Mole - mole relationships in chemical equations Mass relationships in chemical equations Per cent yeilds

More information

Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Sections )

Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Sections ) Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Sections 4.1-4.12) Chapter Goals Be able to: Classify substances as electrolytes or nonelectrolytes. Write molecular, ionic, and net ionic equations for precipitation,

More information

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change The chemical change involves rearranging matter Converting one or more pure substances into new pure

More information

Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Chemical Reaction A chemical change or chemical reaction is a process in which one or more pure substances

More information

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions. Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

More information

Reactions in solution. A subset of chemical reactions

Reactions in solution. A subset of chemical reactions Reactions in solution A subset of chemical reactions Learning objectives Define solution and its components Distinguish among strong, weak and non-electrolyte Identify strong acids and strong bases Apply

More information

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction.

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

More information

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions I) Ions in Aqueous Solution many reactions take place in water form ions in solution aq solution = solute + solvent solute: substance being dissolved and present in lesser

More information

Lecture 6: Lec4a Chemical Reactions in solutions

Lecture 6: Lec4a Chemical Reactions in solutions Lecture 6: Lec4a Chemical Reactions in solutions Zumdahl 6 th Ed, Chapter 4 Sections 1-6. 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition

More information

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Describing Chemical Reactions A. A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. A chemical

More information

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is:

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NET IONIC EQUATIONS A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NaCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NaNO 3 In this case, the simple formulas of the various reactants

More information

How Many Cookies Can I Make? You can make cookies until you run out of one of the ingredients Once you run out of sugar, you will stop making cookies

How Many Cookies Can I Make? You can make cookies until you run out of one of the ingredients Once you run out of sugar, you will stop making cookies Limi$ng reactants How Many Cookies Can I Make? You can make cookies until you run out of one of the ingredients Once you run out of sugar, you will stop making cookies How Many Cookies Can I Make? In this

More information

General Chemistry II Chapter 20

General Chemistry II Chapter 20 1 General Chemistry II Chapter 0 Ionic Equilibria: Principle There are many compounds that appear to be insoluble in aqueous solution (nonelectrolytes). That is, when we add a certain compound to water

More information

H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation.

H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation. CEMICAL REACTIONS 1 ydrogen + Oxygen Water 2 + O 2 2 O reactants product(s) reactant substance before chemical change product substance after chemical change Conservation of Mass During a chemical reaction,

More information

Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4)

Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Chemical Equations 1. Balancing Chemical Equations (from Chapter 3) Adjust coefficients to get equal numbers of each kind of element on both sides of arrow.

More information

Chapter 4: Phenomena. Electrolytes. Electrolytes. Molarity & Dilutions. Electrolytes. Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Chapter 4: Phenomena. Electrolytes. Electrolytes. Molarity & Dilutions. Electrolytes. Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Chapter 4: Phenomena Phenomena: Many different reactions are known to occur. Scientists wondered if these reaction could be separated into groups based on their properties. Look at the reactions below

More information

4.1 Aqueous Solutions. Chapter 4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution. Electrolytes. Strong Electrolytes. Weak Electrolytes

4.1 Aqueous Solutions. Chapter 4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution. Electrolytes. Strong Electrolytes. Weak Electrolytes Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution 4.1 Aqueous Solutions Solution homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances Solute the substance present in a smaller amount (usually solid in Chap. 4) Solvent the

More information

Solubility Rules and Net Ionic Equations

Solubility Rules and Net Ionic Equations Solubility Rules and Net Ionic Equations Why? Solubility of a salt depends upon the type of ions in the salt. Some salts are soluble in water and others are not. When two soluble salts are mixed together

More information

CHM1 Review for Exam 9

CHM1 Review for Exam 9 Topics 1. Reaction Types a. Combustion b. Synthesis c. Decomposition d. Single replacement i. Metal activity series ii. Nonmetal activity series e. Double replacement i. Precipitates and solubility rules

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. When sodium bicarbonate, e.g. baking soda, is combined with an acid, a gas is produced

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. When sodium bicarbonate, e.g. baking soda, is combined with an acid, a gas is produced CHEMICAL REACTIONS OBJECTIVES 1. To study reactions between ions in aqueous solutions 2. To observe exothermic and endothermic reactions 3. To study oxidation-reduction reactions 4. To practice balancing

More information

Net Ionic Equations Making Sense of Chemical Reactions

Net Ionic Equations Making Sense of Chemical Reactions 14 Making Sense of Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVE Students will be able to write net ionic equations from balanced molecular equations. LEVEL Chemistry NATIONAL STANDARDS UCP.1, UCP.2, B.3 T E A C H E R

More information

REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 8

REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 8 Chemistry 51 ANSWER KEY REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 8 1. Identify each of the diagrams below as strong electrolyte, weak electrolyte or non-electrolyte: (a) Non-electrolyte (no ions present) (b) Weak electrolyte

More information

Review of Basic Concepts, Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions and Beer s Law

Review of Basic Concepts, Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions and Beer s Law Review of Basic Concepts, Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions and Beer s Law Aqueous Solutions In Chemistry, many reactions take place in water. This is also true for Biological processes. Reactions that take

More information

More on ions (Chapters 2.1 and )

More on ions (Chapters 2.1 and ) More on ions (Chapters 2.1 and 3.5 3.7) Ion: an atom or molecule that has a net electrical charge. Examples: Na + (sodium ion), Cl - (chloride), NH 4 + (ammonium). Anion: a negative ion, formed when electrons

More information

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

More information

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solution Chemistry Lect-06

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solution Chemistry Lect-06 CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solution Chemistry Lect-06 Ionic solutes are involved in three types of reactions in aqueous solutions: precipitation reactions - sparingly soluble ionic substances produced when two

More information

6/27/2014. Periodic Table of the ELEMENTS. Chemical REACTIONS you should know. Brief Review for 1311 Honors Exam 2

6/27/2014. Periodic Table of the ELEMENTS. Chemical REACTIONS you should know. Brief Review for 1311 Honors Exam 2 Brief Review for 3 Honors Exam 2 Chapter 2: Periodic Table I. Metals. Representative Metals Alkali Metals Group Alkaline Earth Metals. Group 2 2. Transition Metals II. Metalloids Chapter 3: All Chapter

More information

Types of Chemical Reactions (rxns.)

Types of Chemical Reactions (rxns.) Types of Chemical Reactions (rxns.) Chemical reactions occur when bonds (between the electrons of atoms) are formed or broken Chemical reactions involve l changes in the chemical composition of matter

More information

Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous Solution

Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous Solution Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous Solution What is a Solution? Solute + substance dissolved typically smaller quantity Solvent! dissolving medium typically larger quantity Solution homogeneous mixture variable

More information

Goals. 1. How are chemical reactions written?

Goals. 1. How are chemical reactions written? Goals 1. How are chemical reactions written? Given the identities of reactants and products, be able to write a balanced chemical equation or net ionic equation. 2. How are chemical reactions of ionic

More information

IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: NET IONIC EQUATIONS AB + CD AD + CB

IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: NET IONIC EQUATIONS AB + CD AD + CB 35 IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: NET IONIC EQUATIONS Double replacements are among the most common of the simple chemical reactions. Consider the hypothetical reaction: AB + CD AD + CB where AB

More information

Name Class Date. Chapter: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Name Class Date. Chapter: Chemical Equations and Reactions Assessment Chapter Test B Chapter: Chemical Equations and Reactions PART I In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question

More information

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1 Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions Chapter 8.1 Objectives List observations that suggest that a chemical reaction has taken place List the requirements for a correctly written chemical equation.

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Chem 101 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Lectures 15 and 16 Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Occur Forces that drive a reaction Formation of a solid Formation of water Transfer of electrons Formation

More information

Tutorial 5 NET IONIC EQUATIONS

Tutorial 5 NET IONIC EQUATIONS T-33 Tutorial 5 NET IONIC EQUATIONS The efficiency and extent of a chemical reaction is very much dependent upon the physical state (solid, liquid, gas, or solution) of reactants and products. Not surprisingly,

More information

Ch 8 Notes: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Ch 8 Notes: Chemical Equations and Reactions Name: Ch 8 Notes: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Chemical Equations A properly written chemical equation can summarize any chemical change. The following requirements will help you write and read

More information

Do Now CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemical Reaction. chemical reaction. Chemical Equations. Evidence

Do Now CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemical Reaction. chemical reaction. Chemical Equations. Evidence Do Now CHEMICAL REACTIONS What are some signs that a chemical change may have taken place? Where are the reactants and products in a reaction? What do they represent? Describe the law of conservation of

More information

Chemical reactions. Classifications Reactions in solution Ionic equations

Chemical reactions. Classifications Reactions in solution Ionic equations Chemical reactions Classifications Reactions in solution Ionic equations Learning objectives Distinguish between chemical and physical change Write and balance chemical equations Describe concepts of oxidation

More information

What is a chemical reaction?

What is a chemical reaction? Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations What is a chemical reaction? How do we know a chemical reaction occurs? Writing chemical equations Predicting chemical reactions Representing reactions in aqueous

More information

Skeleton Equations equations describing a reaction using formulas. HCl(aq) + Zn(s) ZnCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g)

Skeleton Equations equations describing a reaction using formulas. HCl(aq) + Zn(s) ZnCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) 10.1 Reactions and Equations Evidence of Chemical Reactions Chemical Reaction a process in which one or more substances are converted into new substances with different physical and chemical properties.

More information

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions Chapter 7 Page 1 Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction: a process in which at least one new substance is formed as the result of a chemical change. A + B C + D Reactants Products Evidence that

More information

What physical evidence do we have that sodium hydroxide dissociates into ions when it dissolves in water? NaOH(s) Na + + OH -

What physical evidence do we have that sodium hydroxide dissociates into ions when it dissolves in water? NaOH(s) Na + + OH - Chemistry Date Period Name CW double replacement reactions 030812.doc Double Replacement Reactions Double replacement reactions are some of the most common reactions that are performed in the laboratory.

More information

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

EXPERIMENT #12 DOUBLE-REPLACEMENT REACTIONS

EXPERIMENT #12 DOUBLE-REPLACEMENT REACTIONS EXPERIMENT #12 DOUBLE-REPLACEMENT REACTIONS Purpose: 1. To study the most common type of double-replacement reactions. Principles: In double-replacement reactions, two compounds are involved in a reaction,

More information

How many ml of 0.250M potassium permangenate are needed to react with 3.36 g of iron(ii) sulfate?

How many ml of 0.250M potassium permangenate are needed to react with 3.36 g of iron(ii) sulfate? How many ml of 0.250M potassium permangenate are needed to react with 3.36 g of iron(ii) sulfate? 1 - Change the mass of iron(ii) sulfate to moles using the formula weight.of iron(ii) sulfate 2 - Change

More information

Unit 8: Chemical Reactions and Equations

Unit 8: Chemical Reactions and Equations 1 Chemical Reactions Unit 8: Chemical Reactions and Equations What are chemical reactions and how do they occur? How are chemical reactions classified? How are products of chemical reactions predicted?

More information

Chemistry AS90171 Describe chemical reactions

Chemistry AS90171 Describe chemical reactions Chemistry AS90171 Describe chemical reactions This achievement standard involves the description of chemical reactions, including the carrying out of calculations. Achievement Merit Excellence Describe

More information

2. Write the chemical formula(s) of the product(s) and balance the following spontaneous reactions.

2. Write the chemical formula(s) of the product(s) and balance the following spontaneous reactions. 1. Using the Activity Series on the Useful Information pages of the exam write the chemical formula(s) of the product(s) and balance the following reactions. Identify all products phases as either (g)as,

More information

NET IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AB + CD AD + CB

NET IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AB + CD AD + CB NET IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Double replacements are among the most common of the simple chemical reactions. Consider the hypothetical reaction: AB + CD AD + CB where AB exists as A + and B

More information

Molarity of Ions in Solution

Molarity of Ions in Solution APPENDIX A Molarity of Ions in Solution ften it is necessary to calculate not only the concentration (in molarity) of a compound in aqueous solution but also the concentration of each ion in aqueous solution.

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

1/7/2013. Chapter 9. Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions. Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 9.

1/7/2013. Chapter 9. Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions. Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 9. Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby 9 Reactions in Aqueous s Chapter 9 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous s Kent L. McCorkle Cosumnes River College Sacramento, CA Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules, Moles, and Chemical Equations. Chapter Objectives. Warning!! Chapter Objectives. Chapter Objectives

Chapter 3 Molecules, Moles, and Chemical Equations. Chapter Objectives. Warning!! Chapter Objectives. Chapter Objectives Larry Brown Tom Holme www.cengage.com/chemistry/brown Chapter 3 Molecules, Moles, and Chemical Equations Jacqueline Bennett SUNY Oneonta 2 Warning!! These slides contains visual aids for learning BUT they

More information

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Water a polar solvent: dissolves most ionic compounds as well as many molecular compounds Aqueous solution:

More information

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up )

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up ) TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Most reactions can be classified into one of five categories by examining the types of reactants and products involved in the reaction. Knowing the types of reactions can help

More information

MOLARITY = (moles solute) / (vol.solution in liter units)

MOLARITY = (moles solute) / (vol.solution in liter units) CHEM 101/105 Stoichiometry, as applied to Aqueous Solutions containing Ionic Solutes Lect-05 MOLES - a quantity of substance. Quantities of substances can be expressed as masses, as numbers, or as moles.

More information

EXPERIMENT 10: Electrical Conductivity Chem 111

EXPERIMENT 10: Electrical Conductivity Chem 111 EXPERIMENT 10: Electrical Conductivity Chem 111 INTRODUCTION A. Electrical Conductivity A substance can conduct an electrical current if it is made of positively and negatively charged particles that are

More information

Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction

Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction Introduction Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations Chemical reactions occur all around us. How do we make sense of these changes? What patterns can we find? 1 2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

Steps for balancing a chemical equation

Steps for balancing a chemical equation The Chemical Equation: A Chemical Recipe Dr. Gergens - SD Mesa College A. Learn the meaning of these arrows. B. The chemical equation is the shorthand notation for a chemical reaction. A chemical equation

More information

Ch. 9 Chemical Reactions

Ch. 9 Chemical Reactions Ch. 9 Chemical Reactions I. Intro to Reactions (p. 282 285) I II III IV V Chemical Reaction Chemical change Atoms of one or more substances (reactants) are rearranged into new substances (products) Signs

More information

CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS

CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS 1 CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS The Chemical Equation A chemical equation concisely shows the initial (reactants) and final (products) results of

More information

6. What is the mass of a phosphorus sample which contains moles of phosphorus atoms? a g b g c g d g e. 34.

6. What is the mass of a phosphorus sample which contains moles of phosphorus atoms? a g b g c g d g e. 34. General Chemistry 1. Fall 2006. Exam 1. October 30, 2006. 64 points total. Choose the best answer for questions 1-20. You must show your work for all questions to receive credit. Be sure to include units

More information

Lecture 6. Classes of Chemical Reactions

Lecture 6. Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Outline 6.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent 6.2 Precipitation Reactions 6.3 Acid-Base Reactions 1 Electron distribution in molecules of H 2 and H 2 O The

More information

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations I. Objective: To predict the products of some displacement reactions and write net ionic equations. II. Chemical Principles: A. Reaction Types. Chemical

More information

Chemistry 12 Review Sheet on Unit 3 Solubility of Ionic Substances

Chemistry 12 Review Sheet on Unit 3 Solubility of Ionic Substances Chemistry 12 Review Sheet on Unit 3 Solubility of Ionic Substances 1. Identify each of the following as ionic or molecular substances: a) NaCl (aq)... b) CH 3 COOH (aq)... c) CCl 4(l)... d) HNO 3(aq)...

More information

1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products?

1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? 1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? 1 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + _3 C(s) 2 Fe(s) + _3 CO(g) a) 5 b) 6 c) 7 d) 8 e) 9 2. Which of the following equations

More information

Chemical Reactions Vocabulary

Chemical Reactions Vocabulary Chemical Reactions Vocabulary Chemical Reaction Chemical Equation Process in which the physical and chemical properties of the original substances change as a new substance with different physical and

More information

Chemical Reactions Chapter 8 Assignment & Problem Set

Chemical Reactions Chapter 8 Assignment & Problem Set Chemical Reactions Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Chemical Reactions 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the

More information

EXPERIMENT A5: TYPES OF REACTIONS. Learning Outcomes. Introduction. Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to:

EXPERIMENT A5: TYPES OF REACTIONS. Learning Outcomes. Introduction. Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to: 1 Learning Outcomes EXPERIMENT A5: TYPES OF REACTIONS Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to: 1) Examine different types of chemical reactions. 2) Express chemical equations in molecular,

More information

Aqueous Ions and Reactions

Aqueous Ions and Reactions Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for

More information

Steps to Predicting the Products of Chemical Reactions. CP Chemistry

Steps to Predicting the Products of Chemical Reactions. CP Chemistry Steps to Predicting the Products of Chemical Reactions CP Chemistry TYPES OF REACTIONS REVIEW 2 NaNO 3 + PbO Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + Na 2 O C 2 H 4 O 2 + 2 O 2 2 CO 2 + 2 H 2 O ZnSO 4 + Li 2 CO 3 ZnCO 3 + Li 2 SO

More information

Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving and Solubility

Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving and Solubility Dissolving Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving and Solubility One very important property of a solution is the rate of, or how quickly a solute dissolves in a solvent. When dissolving occurs, there

More information

Chemistry. Zumdahl, 7th edition

Chemistry. Zumdahl, 7th edition Chemistry Zumdahl, 7th edition CH4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Yellow lead(ii) iodide is produced when lead(ii) nitrate is mixed with potassium iodide. P.126 Contents 4.1 Water,

More information

Solute and Solvent 7.1. Solutions. Examples of Solutions. Nature of Solutes in Solutions. Learning Check. Solution. Solutions

Solute and Solvent 7.1. Solutions. Examples of Solutions. Nature of Solutes in Solutions. Learning Check. Solution. Solutions Chapter 7 s 7.1 s Solute and Solvent s are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances. consist of a solvent and one or more solutes. 1 2 Nature of Solutes in s Examples of s Solutes spread evenly throughout

More information

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions 8-1 Describing Chemical Reactions I. Introduction A. Reactants 1. Original substances entering into a chemical rxn B. Products 1. The resulting substances from

More information

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

4/16/13 Objective Review ionic and covalent bonding Identify the signs of a chemical reaction and discuss chemical equations 4/15/13

4/16/13 Objective Review ionic and covalent bonding Identify the signs of a chemical reaction and discuss chemical equations 4/15/13 4/15/13 Illustrate bonding Describe the signs of a chemical reaction and discuss chemical equations Find the charge of the ions below: (int: Ignore the neutrons and compare p and e) 1.5 protons, 6 electrons,

More information

Experiment 5: Studying Chemical Reactions

Experiment 5: Studying Chemical Reactions 1 Experiment 5: Studying Chemical Reactions When a chemical reaction occurs, substances called reactants are transformed into different substances called products that may have different appearances and

More information

Name Class Date. Chapter: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Name Class Date. Chapter: Chemical Equations and Reactions Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: Chemical Equations and Reactions In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. You

More information

midterm1, 2009 Name: Class: Date:

midterm1, 2009 Name: Class: Date: Class: Date: midterm1, 2009 Record your name on the top of this exam and on the scantron form. Record the test ID letter in the top right box of the scantron form. Record all of your answers on the scantron

More information

Chemical Reactions and Equations. Chapter 8

Chemical Reactions and Equations. Chapter 8 Chemical Reactions and Equations Chapter 8 Describing Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into different substances Reactants Products When

More information

Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses

Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses B. Calculations of moles C. Calculations of number of atoms from moles/molar masses 1. Avagadro

More information

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu Calculations and Chemical Equations Atomic mass: Mass of an atom of an element, expressed in atomic mass units Atomic mass unit (amu): 1.661 x 10-24 g Atomic weight: Average mass of all isotopes of a given

More information

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution.

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. T-27 Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. Of the various methods of expressing solution concentration the most convenient

More information

e) 2 CsOH + H 2 SO 4 Cs 2 SO H 2 O

e) 2 CsOH + H 2 SO 4 Cs 2 SO H 2 O 1 1. Classify the following reaction? Mg(CN) 2 (s) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) MgSO 4 (aq) + 2 HCN(g) a) Single-Replacement Reaction b) Double-Replacement Reaction c) Redox Reaction d) Combination Reaction e) Neutralization

More information

Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1. A chemical equation. (C-4.4)

Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1. A chemical equation. (C-4.4) Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Question What is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction? What 3 things (values) is a mole of a chemical

More information

Balancing Reaction Equations Oxidation State Reduction-oxidation Reactions

Balancing Reaction Equations Oxidation State Reduction-oxidation Reactions Balancing Reaction Equations Oxidation State Reduction-oxidation Reactions OCN 623 Chemical Oceanography Balanced chemical reactions are the math of chemistry They show the relationship between the reactants

More information

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

More information

Chapter 11. Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Chapter 11. Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Chapter 11 Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions An oxidation and reduction reaction occurs in both aqueous solutions and in reactions where substances are burned

More information

3. How many moles of KCl and O 2 are formed from the decomposition of 6 moles of KClO 3?

3. How many moles of KCl and O 2 are formed from the decomposition of 6 moles of KClO 3? What coefficients mean: 2 Na + Cl 2 2NaCl 2 Na 1 Cl 2 2NaCl 4 Na 2 Na + Cl 2 4Cl 2 6 moles Na 2NaCl 10 atoms Na ONLY WORKS FOR MOLES, MOLECULES, ATOMS 1. How many moles of H 2 and O 2 must react to form

More information

The formation of a gas is evidence of. 1. A chemical change. 2. A physical change. 3. No change in energy 4. Both (1) and (2)

The formation of a gas is evidence of. 1. A chemical change. 2. A physical change. 3. No change in energy 4. Both (1) and (2) Chapter 8 Review The formation of a gas is evidence of 1. A chemical change. 2. A physical change. 3. No change in energy 4. Both (1) and (2) The formation of a gas is evidence of 1. A chemical change.

More information

B. chemical equation - set of symbols and numbers which represent a chemical change. Reactants Products

B. chemical equation - set of symbols and numbers which represent a chemical change. Reactants Products 1 I. Introduction A. chemical reaction any chemical change B. chemical equation set of symbols and numbers which represent a chemical change 1. reactants what you begin with 2. products what you end up

More information

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS Objectives: 1. To perform spot test precipitation reactions. 2. To write and balance precipitation reaction equations. 3. To learn how to balance equations. 4. To learn the solubility

More information