The Crystal Structures of Solids

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Crystal Structures of Solids"

Transcription

1 The Crystal Structures of Solids Crystals of pure substances can be analyzed using X-ray diffraction methods to provide valuable information. The type and strength of intramolecular forces, density, molar mass, and more can be extracted from a thorough crystal lattice investigation. No formal lab write-up is required for this lab; simply complete the handout found at the end of this lab and turn it in (with all relevant work displayed on adjacent pages) to your instructor. Observing the crystals of an ordinary substance (such as table salt) using a magnifying glass, one sees many planes at right angles within the solid. This occurs in many common solids, and the regularity we see implies a deeper regularity in the arrangement of atoms or ions in the solid. Indeed, when we study crystals by x-ray diffraction we find that the atomic nuclei are present in remarkably symmetrical arrays that continue for thousands or millions of units in three dimensions. Substances having a regular arrangement of atom-size particles in the solid are called crystalline, and the solid material consists of crystals. This lab deals with some of the simpler arrays in which atoms or ions occur in crystals and what these arrays can tell us about such properties as atomic sizes, densities of solids, and the efficiency of packing of particles. Many crystals are unbelievably complex, and we will limit ourselves to the simplest crystals that have cubic structures. Cubic structures imply 90 angles and sides of equal length (hence, a cube.) We will also limit ourselves to the study of only one or two kinds of systems (namely elements or binary compounds), yet they will exhibit many of the interesting properties of more complicated structures. The Simple Cubic (SC) Crystal The simple cubic unit cell is a cube with an edge length, d 0, equal to the distance from the center of one atom to the center of the next (see Figure One). The volume of the cube is equal to (d 0 ) 3, expressed as V = (d 0 ) 3 and is very small since d 0 is on the order of 0.5 nm. Using x- ray diffraction we can measure the value of d 0 easily to four significant figures. The number of atoms in a simple cubic unit cell is equal to one, for only 1 / 8 of each corner atom is actually inside the cell. Figure One: The Simple Cubic Crystal Each atom in the simple cubic unit cell is actually connected to six other atoms in the cubic lattice; hence, we say that the coordination number of the atoms in this structure is equal to six. Many diagrams displaying the simple cubic unit cell show a gap between adjoining atoms. In an actual crystal, we consider that the atoms that are closest are touching. It is on this assumption that we determine atomic radii, r. In the SC crystal, if we know d 0, we can find the radius r of the atoms, since one side contains 2 atomic radii, or d 0 = 2r Page I-45 / The Crystal Structures of Solids Lab

2 for simple cubic crystals. Knowing the radius, we can calculate d 0, and then we can calculate the volume of the unit cell. Knowing that one atom occupies the simple cubic cell, we can calculate the mass of the unit cell (using the molar mass and Avogadro s number), and from this we can determine the density using the volume of the cell. Essentially no elements crystallize in the simple cubic structure, however, due to the inefficiency of the packing. The atoms in the simple cubic crystal are farther apart then they need to be, and inspection of the SC lattice will reveal a large hole in the center of the unit cell. Only about 52% of the cell volume is occupied by atoms, and more empty space means less stabilization for the crystal structure. The Body Centered Cubic (BCC) Crystal In a body centered cubic crystal, the unit cell still contains the corner atoms present in the SC structure, but the center of the cell now contains an additional atom. This means that every BCC crystal structure holds two net atoms (eight atoms are 1 / 8 within the cell, and one whole atom within the center of the cell for two net atoms). The edge length, d 0, can be determined using simple geometry from the cube diagonal (see Figure Two). The cube diagonal reaches across the cube, from an atom in the lower left front to an atom in the upper right back, or from any other appropriate combination. Geometry dictates the following relationship between the cube body diagonal and the edge length, d 0 : cube diagonal = 3 d 0 The cube diagonal encompasses 4 radii lengths, and d 0 can be expressed in terms of the radius of the atom: Figure Two: Body Centered Cubic Crystal d 0 = 4r 3 The quantity d 0 can be used to find the volume of the cube; hence, this relationship is important for BCC cubic systems. In a BCC lattice, each atom touches eight other atoms, and the coordination number is eight. The BCC lattice is much more stable than the SC structure, in part due to the higher coordination number. Many metals at room temperature display the BCC lattice, including sodium, chromium, tungsten and iron. Note that there are two atoms per unit cell in the BCC crystal. BCC crystals are more efficient than SC crystals, occupying approximately 68% of the total available volume. Page I-46 / The Crystal Structures of Solids Lab

3 Close Packed Structures Although many elements prefer the BCC crystal arrangement, still more prefer structures in which the atoms are close packed. In close packed structures there are layers of atoms in which each atom is in contact with six others, as in the sketch below: This is the way in which billiard balls lie in a rack or the honeycomb cells are arranged in a bees' nest. It is the most efficient way one can pack spheres, with about 74% of the volume in a close packed structure filled with atoms. There is more than one way whereby close packed crystal structures can be stacked. One of the stacking methods is cubic and is called the Face Centered Cubic (FCC). The other is called hexagonal packing. We shall look at both close packed structures. The Face Centered Cubic (FCC) Crystal In the face centered cubic crystal unit cell there are atoms in each corner of the cell (as in the SC cell discussed earlier) and there is another atom at the center of each of the six faces. This means that FCC cubic systems consist of four net atoms per unit cell (eight atoms are 1 / 8 within the cell, and six faces hold an atom which is 1 / 2 within the cell for four net atoms). See Figure Three. The edge length d 0 can be determined in an FCC crystal from the face diagonal which is defined as the distance across one face of the cube. Using geometry, we can find the edge length from the face diagonal using the following equation: face diagonal = 2 d 0 The face diagonal encompasses 4 radii lengths, and d 0 can be expressed in terms of the radius r: Figure Three: Face Centered Cubic Crystal d 0 = 4r 2 This expression can be used to find the volume of the cube; hence, this relationship is important for FCC cubic systems. The coordination number in an FCC lattice is 12, implying that FCC lattices are quite stable. Page I-47 / The Crystal Structures of Solids Lab

4 It is worthwhile to look at the types of holes within the FCC lattice for they will be helpful when discussing ionic solids later. One type of hole is in the center of the FCC lattice; this type of hole is called an octahedral hole (Figure Four) because the six atoms around it define an octahedron. There are twelve octahedral holes in an FCC lattice. In an ionic crystal, the anions often occupy the sites of the atoms in your cell, and there is a cation in the center of the octahedral hole. The ratio of the maximum radius of the cation, r+, compared with the maximum radius of the anion, r-, is often calculated to determine what type of hole to use for the cations. If the ratio r+/r- is greater than but less than 0.732, the cations will be placed in octahedral holes. Figure Four: Octahedral Holes There is another type of hole in the FCC lattice called tetrahedral holes. There are eight tetrahedral holes in the FCC lattice, and each atom in a tetrahedral hole is surrounded by four complimentary atoms (hence the tetrahedron reference). If the ratio r+/r- is between and 0.414, the cations will go into tetrahedral holes. The close-packed layers of atoms in the FCC lattice are not parallel to the unit cell faces, but rather are perpendicular to the cell diagonal. If you look down the cell diagonal, you see six atoms in a close-packed triangle in the layer immediately behind the corner atom, and another layer of close-packed atoms below that, followed by another corner atom. The layers are indeed closely packed, and as one goes down the diagonal of this and succeeding cells, the layers repeat their positions in the order ABCABC. This implies that atoms in every fourth layer lie below one another (see Figure Five (b)). Hexagonal Packing There is another way to stack the layers as in the FCC lattice, above. The first and second layers will always be in the same relative positions, but the third layer could be below the first one if it were shifted properly. This results in a close-packed structure in which the order of the layers is ABABAB (see Figure Five (a)) The crystal obtained from this arrangement of layers is not cubic but hexagonal. It is another common structure for metals. Cadmium, zinc and manganese have this structure. As you might Figure Five: Hexagonal Close Packing (left) and Cubic Close Packing (right) Page I-48 / The Crystal Structures of Solids Lab

5 expect, the stability of this structure is very similar to that of FCC crystals. We find that simply changing the temperature often converts a metal from one form to another. Calcium, for example, is FCC at room temperature, but if heated to 450 C it converts to close-packed hexagonal. Crystal Structures of Some Common Binary Compounds We have now dealt with all of the possible cubic crystal structures for metals. It turns out that the structures of binary ionic compounds (i.e. MX where M is the cation and X is the anion in 1:1 stoichiometry) are often related to these metal structures in a relatively simple way. In many ionic crystals, the anions (which are large compared to cations recall the periodic properties of elements and ions) are essentially in contact with each other in either an SC or FCC structure. The cations go into the cubic, octahedral or tetrahedral holes depending on the cation-anion radius ratios r + /r -. The idea to remember is that cations tend to go in holes in which it will not quite fit. This increases the unit cell size from the value it would have if the anions were touching, which reduces the Coulombic repulsion energy. According to the radius-ratio rule, large cations go into cubic holes, smaller cations go into octahedral holes, and the smallest cations go into tetrahedral holes. One can calculate the radius ratio and then determine the location of the cations: If: r + /r - > cations go into cubic holes > r + /r - > cations go into octahedral holes > r + /r - > cations go into tetrahedral holes These are the three common cubic structures of binary compounds. The radius-ratio rule allows us to predict the structure a given compound will have. It does not always work, but it is correct more often than not. Examples follow for each of the common binary compounds. The NaCl Crystal (Octahedral Cation Holes) To apply the radius rule to NaCl, we need to calculate the r + /r - ratio. From tables we find r + for Na + equals nm and r - for Cl - equals nm. The radius ratio is 0.095/0.181 = 0.525, and the ratio implies that the Na + ions will be placed in octahedral holes since this value is less than and greater than (See Figure Six.) To build a NaCl lattice, we place a Cl - ion in each FCC position. Figure Six: The NaCl crystal The Na + ions go into each of the octahedral holes in the FCC lattice. There are twelve octahedral holes in the FCC lattice (one on each edge), and each Na + ion will be 1 / 4 in the unit cell. In addition, one sodium atom fits in the center of the FCC lattice of Cl - atoms. Therefore, the number of Na + ions per NaCl unit cell will be (12 octahedral atoms * 1 / 4 ) + (1 Na + in center) = 4 net Na + atoms per unit cell. We have already seen that a FCC lattice holds four net atoms, which means each NaCl unit cell contains four net Cl - ions. Since there are four net Na + cations and four net Cl - anions, the resulting structure is Na 4 Cl 4 or, as is more commonly expressed in empirical form, NaCl. The edge of an octahedral ionic solid can be related to the cation and anion radii using d 0 = 2r + + 2r - Page I-49 / The Crystal Structures of Solids Lab

6 The CsCl Crystal (Cubic Cation Holes) Cesium chloride is a binary ionic compound just like NaCl, but due to the larger r + value of the Cs + ion (0.169 nm), the r + /r - radius ratio is Using the radius-ratio rule, we find that the Cs + cations should be placed in cubic holes (see Figure Seven). The structure of CsCl will look like the BCC lattice except that the atom in the center will be Cs + while the corner atoms will be Cl - ions. Note that this structure is not BCC because the corner and center atoms have different identities. The resulting empirical formula for cesium chloride is (1 net Cs + atom in center) + (8 Cl - atoms * 1 / 8 each atom in unit cell) = CsCl. Figure Seven: The CsCl Crystal The edge of a cubic ionic solid can be related to the cation and anion radii using d0 = 2r + + 2r - 3 The ZnS Crystal (Tetrahedral Cation Holes) To determine the structure of ZnS (another binary compound), we first determine the r + /r - radius ratio. From tables we find r + for Zn 2+ is nm while r - for S 2- is nm. The r + /r - radius ratio is, therefore, 0.402, and this implies that the Zn 2+ cations will be placed in tetrahedral holes. (See Figure Eight) To build the ZnS crystal, first construct a FCC crystal lattice using S 2- ions. The Zn 2+ cations occupy four of a possible eight tetrahedral holes. The resulting formula for ZnS will consist of four Zn atoms (each tetrahedral cation is completely within the unit cell) and four S atoms (a FCC lattice has four net atoms), and the resulting empirical formula is ZnS (zinc(ii) sulfide). Figure Eight: The ZnS Crystal Page I-50 / The Crystal Structures of Solids Lab

7 Summary of Crystal Lattice Types Figure Nine shows the three main cubic unit crystal types that we have explored. Recall that binary ionic compounds utilize these shapes in their own way by placing the cations in the octahedral, tetrahedral, or cubic "holes" within the lattice; the anions occupy the "normal" cubic positions. The r + /r - radius ratio determines which of the three possible holes in which the cations are placed. Relevant relationships between the edge length, d 0, and the cation and anion radii are given in Figure Ten. Lattice Type Simple Cubic Body Centered Cubic Face Centered Cubic # net atoms per cell d 0 (edge) in relation d 0 = 2r d to r 0 = 4r d 0 = 4r 3 2 Figure Nine: Summary of the Three Cubic Unit Cell Types Binary Cell Type Cubic Octahedral Tetrahedral # net molecules per cell radius ratio qualifying r + /r - > > r + /r - > > r + /r - > values d 0 (edge) in relation d to r 0 = 2r + + 2r - d 0 = 2r + + 2r - d0 = 2r + + 2r Figure Ten: Summary of the Three Common Binary Cell Types Page I-51 / The Crystal Structures of Solids Lab

8 The Crystal Structures of Solids Complete the following problems using the table of radii at the bottom of this page. All answers must be provided on the worksheet, and relevant work must be stapled to the back of the worksheet. 1. Experimentally determine the density of an unknown metal solid to at least three significant figures using any equipment found in your lab drawer. Explain the process (and show calculations) used to determine the density in three sentences or less on both this sheet and in your lab notebook. 2. What element forms a face centered cubic cell, has a density of 8.92 g/cm 3, and a radius of 128 pm? 3. Chromium forms a body centered cubic crystal. If the length of an edge is angstroms, calculate the density (g/cm 3 ) and the radius of a chromium atom in angstroms. 4. Sodium forms a body centered cubic crystal. Calculate the density of sodium metal. Propose a simple experiment to confirm your calculated density of sodium in the lab. (Note: use the table of radii below!) 5. Calculate the radius ratio for TlBr. What kind of cation holes will be filled in a crystal of TlBr? 6. Calculate the radius ratio for KI. What kind of cation holes will be filled in a crystal of KI? 7. Consider a cubic array of bromide ions in which the anions are touching along the face of the cube. What is the maximum radius (in angstroms) that a cation could have and still fit in the octahedral holes on the edges of the FCC unit cell? 8. Clausthalite is a mineral composed of lead(ii) selenide. The mineral adopts a NaCl octahedral-type structure. If the density of PbSe is 8.27 g/cm 3, calculate the radius of the lead(ii) ion. (The radius of selenide ion is given below.) 9. NaBr forms a crystal lattice similar to octahedral NaCl. Calculate the density of NaBr. Propose a simple experiment to confirm your calculated density in the lab. Atom Atomic Radius (pm) Ionic Radius (pm) Na Se (Se 2- ) Cs Cl Br Zn Tl (Tl + ) K S I conversion V = edge 3 density molar mass (g/mol) Avogadro (6.022 x ) radius edge volume mass (g) moles atoms / molecules 1 pm = m / 1 A = m / 1 cm = 10-2 m 4 atoms = 1 fcc cell, etc. Page I-52 / The Crystal Structures of Solids Lab

9 Worksheet: The Crystal Structures of Solids Name: All final answers to the questions (which appear on the previous page) must be provided on this worksheet, and relevant work must be stapled to the back on separate paper to receive full credit. 1. Density of unknown metal (g cm -3 ): Unknown letter: Brief description (with calculations) of method used to calculate density: 2. Element: 3. Density of Cr (g cm -3 ): Radius of Cr (angstroms): 4. Density of sodium (g cm -3 ) = Proposed Experiment: 5. Radius ratio for TlBr = Type of cation holes = 6. Radius ratio for KI = Type of cation holes = 7. Maximum radius of cation (angstroms): 8. Radius of the lead(ii) ion (angstroms): 9. Density of NaBr (g cm -3 ): Proposed Experiment: Page I-53 / The Crystal Structures of Solids Lab

10 Page I-54 / The Crystal Structures of Solids Lab

Chem 106 Thursday Feb. 3, 2011

Chem 106 Thursday Feb. 3, 2011 Chem 106 Thursday Feb. 3, 2011 Chapter 13: -The Chemistry of Solids -Phase Diagrams - (no Born-Haber cycle) 2/3/2011 1 Approx surface area (Å 2 ) 253 258 Which C 5 H 12 alkane do you think has the highest

More information

This is Solids, chapter 12 from the book Principles of General Chemistry (index.html) (v. 1.0).

This is Solids, chapter 12 from the book Principles of General Chemistry (index.html) (v. 1.0). This is Solids, chapter 12 from the book Principles of General Chemistry (index.html) (v. 1.0). This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/

More information

Chapter 3: The Structure of Crystalline Solids

Chapter 3: The Structure of Crystalline Solids Sapphire: cryst. Al 2 O 3 Insulin : The Structure of Crystalline Solids Crystal: a solid composed of atoms, ions, or molecules arranged in a pattern that is repeated in three dimensions A material in which

More information

b) What is the trend in melting point as one moves up the group in alkali metals? Explain.

b) What is the trend in melting point as one moves up the group in alkali metals? Explain. Problem Set 2 Wed May 25, 2011 1. What is the rough trend in the number of oxidation states available to the elements (excluding the noble gases) as you move a) to the right and b) down the periodic table?

More information

Chapter Outline. How do atoms arrange themselves to form solids?

Chapter Outline. How do atoms arrange themselves to form solids? Chapter Outline How do atoms arrange themselves to form solids? Fundamental concepts and language Unit cells Crystal structures Simple cubic Face-centered cubic Body-centered cubic Hexagonal close-packed

More information

Sample Exercise 12.1 Calculating Packing Efficiency

Sample Exercise 12.1 Calculating Packing Efficiency Sample Exercise 12.1 Calculating Packing Efficiency It is not possible to pack spheres together without leaving some void spaces between the spheres. Packing efficiency is the fraction of space in a crystal

More information

CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011

CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011 CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011 Name (please print) All equations must be balanced and show phases for full credit. Significant figures count, show charges as appropriate, and please box your answers!

More information

It is unaffected by electric and magnetic fields (as is all electromagnetic radiation e.g. light).

It is unaffected by electric and magnetic fields (as is all electromagnetic radiation e.g. light). γ-radiation Electromagnetic radiation with very short wavelength, smaller than even X-rays - arises from most nuclear disintegrations. It causes no change in atomic structure upon emission. It is unaffected

More information

Coordination and Pauling's Rules

Coordination and Pauling's Rules Page 1 of 8 EENS 2110 Tulane University Mineralogy Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Coordination and Pauling's Rules This document last updated on 24-Sep-2013 The arrangement of atoms in a crystal structure not

More information

Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Solids

Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Solids Chapter 13 The Chemistry of Solids Jeffrey Mack California State University, Sacramento Metallic & Ionic Solids Crystal Lattices Regular 3-D arrangements of equivalent LATTICE POINTS in space. Lattice

More information

Nuclear reactions determine element abundance. Is the earth homogeneous though? Is the solar system?? Is the universe???

Nuclear reactions determine element abundance. Is the earth homogeneous though? Is the solar system?? Is the universe??? Nuclear reactions determine element abundance Is the earth homogeneous though? Is the solar system?? Is the universe??? Earth = anion balls with cations in the spaces View of the earth as a system of anions

More information

UNIT 1 THE SOLID STATE VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (1 MARKS)

UNIT 1 THE SOLID STATE VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (1 MARKS) UNIT 1 THE SOLID STATE VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (1 MARKS) Q-1. How many spheres are in contact with each other in a single plane of a close packed structure? A-1. Six(6). Q-2.Name the two closest

More information

Engr Materials Science and Engineering TEST 4 -- Sample Solution

Engr Materials Science and Engineering TEST 4 -- Sample Solution Engr 70 -- Materials Science and Engineering TEST 4 -- Sample Solution Part : Solve each of the following problems completely. 1. In this problem we are asked to show that the minimum cation-to-anion radius

More information

Ionic and Metallic Bonding

Ionic and Metallic Bonding Ionic and Metallic Bonding BNDING AND INTERACTINS 71 Ions For students using the Foundation edition, assign problems 1, 3 5, 7 12, 14, 15, 18 20 Essential Understanding Ions form when atoms gain or lose

More information

Materials Science and Engineering Department MSE , Sample Test #1, Spring 2010

Materials Science and Engineering Department MSE , Sample Test #1, Spring 2010 Materials Science and Engineering Department MSE 200-001, Sample Test #1, Spring 2010 ID number First letter of your last name: Name: No notes, books, or information stored in calculator memories may be

More information

Chapter 3: Structure of Metals and Ceramics. Chapter 3: Structure of Metals and Ceramics. Learning Objective

Chapter 3: Structure of Metals and Ceramics. Chapter 3: Structure of Metals and Ceramics. Learning Objective Chapter 3: Structure of Metals and Ceramics Chapter 3: Structure of Metals and Ceramics Goals Define basic terms and give examples of each: Lattice Basis Atoms (Decorations or Motifs) Crystal Structure

More information

1/7/2013. Chapter 12. Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby. Intermolecular Forces and the Physical properties of Liquids and Solids

1/7/2013. Chapter 12. Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby. Intermolecular Forces and the Physical properties of Liquids and Solids /7/203 Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby Chapter 2 Intermolecular Forces and the Physical Properties of Liquids and Solids Kent L. McCorkle Cosumnes River College Sacramento, CA Copyright

More information

More on ions (Chapters 2.1 and )

More on ions (Chapters 2.1 and ) More on ions (Chapters 2.1 and 3.5 3.7) Ion: an atom or molecule that has a net electrical charge. Examples: Na + (sodium ion), Cl - (chloride), NH 4 + (ammonium). Anion: a negative ion, formed when electrons

More information

POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION: STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF ALKALI HALIDE SALTS

POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION: STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF ALKALI HALIDE SALTS EXPERIMENT 4 POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION: STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF ALKALI HALIDE SALTS I. Introduction The determination of the chemical structure of molecules is indispensable to chemists in their effort

More information

Imperfections in atomic arrangements

Imperfections in atomic arrangements MME131: Lecture 8 Imperfections in atomic arrangements Part 1: 0D Defects A. K. M. B. Rashid Professor, Department of MME BUET, Dhaka Today s Topics Occurrence and importance of crystal defects Classification

More information

Type of Solid Particles Attractive Force Properties Examples. ionic positive ions electrostatic solid poor conductor NaCl KNO 3

Type of Solid Particles Attractive Force Properties Examples. ionic positive ions electrostatic solid poor conductor NaCl KNO 3 Soids&Materials 1 Solids & Materials Summary of Properties and Types of Solids Type of Solid Particles Attractive Force Properties Examples ionic positive ions electrostatic solid poor conductor NaCl KNO

More information

CHAPTER 3 THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER 3 THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS CHAPTER THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Fundamental Concepts.6 Show that the atomic packing factor for HCP is 0.74. The APF is just the total sphere volume-unit cell volume ratio.

More information

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 11 Chemical Bonds The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter Outline 11.1 11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 11.3 The Ionic Bond Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 11.4 Predicting Formulas of

More information

100 Practice Questions for Chem 1C Midterm 1 - Joseph

100 Practice Questions for Chem 1C Midterm 1 - Joseph 100 Practice Questions for hem 1 Midterm 1 - Joseph 1. Which of the following statements is incorrect? A) Ionic bonding results from the transfer of electrons from one atom to another. B) Dipole moments

More information

Solid State Theory Physics 545

Solid State Theory Physics 545 Solid State Theory Physics 545 CRYSTAL STRUCTURES Describing periodic structures Terminology Basic Structures Symmetry Operations Ionic crystals often have a definite habit which gives rise to particular

More information

Chem. Ch. 10 ~ THE MOLE NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics.

Chem. Ch. 10 ~ THE MOLE NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. Chem. Ch. 10 ~ THE MOLE NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. 10.1 Notes I. Measuring Matter A. SI unit of chemical quantity = the mole (abbreviated

More information

Major chemistry laws. Mole and Avogadro s number. Calculating concentrations.

Major chemistry laws. Mole and Avogadro s number. Calculating concentrations. Major chemistry laws. Mole and Avogadro s number. Calculating concentrations. Major chemistry laws Avogadro's Law Equal volumes of gases under identical temperature and pressure conditions will contain

More information

Next, solid silicon is separated from other solid impurities by treatment with hydrogen chloride at 350 C to form gaseous trichlorosilane (SiCl 3 H):

Next, solid silicon is separated from other solid impurities by treatment with hydrogen chloride at 350 C to form gaseous trichlorosilane (SiCl 3 H): University Chemistry Quiz 5 2014/12/25 1. (5%) What is the coordination number of each sphere in (a) a simple cubic cell, (b) a body-centered cubic cell, and (c) a face-centered cubic cell? Assume the

More information

Crystal Field theory to explain observed properties of complexes: Variation of some physical properties across a period:

Crystal Field theory to explain observed properties of complexes: Variation of some physical properties across a period: Crystal Field theory to explain observed properties of complexes: Variation of some physical properties across a period: IITD 2015 L2 S26 1. Lattice energy of transition metal ions in a complex 2. Ionic

More information

Name Date Class CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296)

Name Date Class CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296) 10 CHEMICAL QUANTITIES SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296) This section defines the mole and explains how the mole is used to measure matter. It also teaches you how to calculate

More information

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Sixth Edition by Charles H. Corwin Chapter 9 The Mole Concept by Christopher Hamaker 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 9 1 Avogadro s Number Avogadro

More information

TOPIC 8. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS II: % composition, empirical formulas.

TOPIC 8. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS II: % composition, empirical formulas. TOPIC 8. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS II: % composition, empirical formulas. Percentage composition of elements in compounds. In Topic 1 it was stated that a given compound always has the same composition by

More information

Name Date Class CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296)

Name Date Class CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296) Name Date Class 10 CHEMICAL QUANTITIES SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296) This section defines the mole and explains how the mole is used to measure matter. It also teaches

More information

Liquids and Solids. AP Chemistry Chapter 10. 9/20/2009 Jodi Grack; Wayzata High School; images used with permission from Zumdahl

Liquids and Solids. AP Chemistry Chapter 10. 9/20/2009 Jodi Grack; Wayzata High School; images used with permission from Zumdahl Liquids and Solids AP Chemistry Chapter 10 Liquids and Solids Gases are much easier to study because molecules move independent of each other. In liquids and solids forces between molecules become very

More information

CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS IN 3D

CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS IN 3D CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS IN 3D Andrew Baczewski PHY 491, October 7th, 2011 OVERVIEW First - are there any questions from the previous lecture? Today, we will answer the following questions: Why should we care

More information

Experiment: Crystal Structure Analysis in Engineering Materials

Experiment: Crystal Structure Analysis in Engineering Materials Experiment: Crystal Structure Analysis in Engineering Materials Objective The purpose of this experiment is to introduce students to the use of X-ray diffraction techniques for investigating various types

More information

AS Chemistry Revision Notes Unit 1 Atomic Structure, Bonding And Periodicity

AS Chemistry Revision Notes Unit 1 Atomic Structure, Bonding And Periodicity AS Chemistry Revision Notes Unit Atomic Structure, Bonding And Periodicity Atomic Structure. All atoms have a mass number, A (the number of nucleons), and a proton number, Z (the number of protons). 2.

More information

The Mole Notes. There are many ways to or measure things. In Chemistry we also have special ways to count and measure things, one of which is the.

The Mole Notes. There are many ways to or measure things. In Chemistry we also have special ways to count and measure things, one of which is the. The Mole Notes I. Introduction There are many ways to or measure things. In Chemistry we also have special ways to count and measure things, one of which is the. A. The Mole (mol) Recall that atoms of

More information

The Mole Concept. The Mole. Masses of molecules

The Mole Concept. The Mole. Masses of molecules The Mole Concept Ron Robertson r2 c:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 final slides for web\mole concept.docx The Mole The mole is a unit of measurement equal to 6.022 x 10 23 things (to 4 sf) just like there

More information

Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles

Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS REVIEW 8B Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS 8B READINESS Use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample TEKS_TXT of material. Vocabulary

More information

MAE 20 Winter 2011 Assignment 2 solutions

MAE 20 Winter 2011 Assignment 2 solutions MAE 0 Winter 0 Assignment solutions. List the point coordinates of the titanium, barium, and oxygen ions for a unit cell of the perovskite crystal structure (Figure.6). In Figure.6, the barium ions are

More information

Chapter 3. Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Composition

Chapter 3. Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Composition Chapter 3 Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Composition Elements and Compounds Elements combine together to make an almost limitless number of compounds. The properties of the compound are totally different

More information

8/19/2011. Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures. Review PERIODIC Table

8/19/2011. Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures. Review PERIODIC Table Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures Chapter 11 Review PERIODIC Table Recall, Mendeleev and Meyer organized the ordering the periodic table based on a combination of three components: 1. Atomic Number

More information

CHEMISTRY. Ionic Bonding

CHEMISTRY. Ionic Bonding CHEMISTRY Ionic Bonding 1 Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonds: Give and take! Ions and Ionic Bonds Atoms with five, six, or seven valence electrons usually become more stable when this number increases to eight.

More information

Exam 1 Chem 111, Section 2 (Martin, 10:10am) Fall 1998

Exam 1 Chem 111, Section 2 (Martin, 10:10am) Fall 1998 This test is closed book, closed notes, and closed neighbors. A periodic table and other useful information is available at the end of the test. When told to begin, read through the entire exam, and decide

More information

Simple vs. True. Simple vs. True. Calculating Empirical and Molecular Formulas

Simple vs. True. Simple vs. True. Calculating Empirical and Molecular Formulas Calculating Empirical and Molecular Formulas Formula writing is a key component for success in chemistry. How do scientists really know what the true formula for a compound might be? In this lesson we

More information

Chapter 7. Chapter 7. Chemical Formulas Express Composition. Chapter 7 MARCH REVIEW SLIDES LISTEN AND UPDATE MISSING NOTES

Chapter 7. Chapter 7. Chemical Formulas Express Composition. Chapter 7 MARCH REVIEW SLIDES LISTEN AND UPDATE MISSING NOTES REVIEW Express A compound s chemical formula tells you which elements, & how much of each, are present in a compound. Formulas for covalent compounds show the elements and the number of atoms of each element

More information

A. X-ray diffraction B. elemental analysis C. band gap energy measurement based on absorption of light D. none of the above

A. X-ray diffraction B. elemental analysis C. band gap energy measurement based on absorption of light D. none of the above LED Review Questions 1. Consider two samples in the form of powders: sample A is a physical mixture comprising equal moles of pure Ge and pure Si; sample B is a solid solution of composition Si0.5Ge0.5.

More information

Electroceramics Prof. Ashish Garg Department of Material Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur.

Electroceramics Prof. Ashish Garg Department of Material Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. Electroceramics Prof. Ashish Garg Department of Material Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Lecture - 3 Okay, so in this third lecture we will just review the last lecture,

More information

TEST NAME: Chemistry ES 1.3 TEST ID: GRADE:11 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom

TEST NAME: Chemistry ES 1.3 TEST ID: GRADE:11 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom TEST NAME: Chemistry ES 1.3 TEST ID: 61960 GRADE:11 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom Chemistry ES 1.3 Page 1 of 10 Student: Class: Date: 1. The electron configuration of an

More information

CHAPTER 4 IMPERFECTIONS IN SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER 4 IMPERFECTIONS IN SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 4-1 CHAPTER 4 IMPERFECTIONS IN SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Vacancies and Self-Interstitials 4.1 In order to compute the fraction of atom sites that are vacant in copper at 1357 K, we must employ Equation

More information

Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds

Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds How do we represent molecules? In pictures In formula In name Ionic compounds Molecular compounds On the course website, you will find a list of ions that I would like

More information

100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals.

100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals. 2.21 Ionic Bonding 100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals. Forming ions Metal atoms lose electrons to form +ve ions. Non-metal

More information

305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS

305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer. Use GEOLOGIC VOCABULARY where APPLICABLE!

More information

Chapter 3. 1. 3 types of materials- amorphous, crystalline, and polycrystalline. 5. Same as #3 for the ceramic and diamond crystal structures.

Chapter 3. 1. 3 types of materials- amorphous, crystalline, and polycrystalline. 5. Same as #3 for the ceramic and diamond crystal structures. Chapter Highlights: Notes: 1. types of materials- amorphous, crystalline, and polycrystalline.. Understand the meaning of crystallinity, which refers to a regular lattice based on a repeating unit cell..

More information

Chapter 7. Bellringer. Table of Contents. Chapter 7. Chapter 7. Objectives. Avogadro s Number and the Mole. Chapter 7. Chapter 7

Chapter 7. Bellringer. Table of Contents. Chapter 7. Chapter 7. Objectives. Avogadro s Number and the Mole. Chapter 7. Chapter 7 The Mole and Chemical Table of Contents Chemical Formulas Bellringer List as many common counting units as you can. Determine how many groups of each unit in your list are present in each of the following

More information

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements INTRODUCTION Primary substances, called elements, build all the materials around you. There are more than 109 different elements known today. The elements

More information

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding 6.1 Organizing the Elements I. The Periodic Law A. The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers B. Elements

More information

Chemistry I: Using Chemical Formulas. Formula Mass The sum of the average atomic masses of all elements in the compound. Units are amu.

Chemistry I: Using Chemical Formulas. Formula Mass The sum of the average atomic masses of all elements in the compound. Units are amu. Chemistry I: Using Chemical Formulas Formula Mass The sum of the average atomic masses of all elements in the compound. Units are amu. Molar Mass - The mass in grams of 1 mole of a substance. Substance

More information

NaCl Lattice Science Activities

NaCl Lattice Science Activities NaCl Lattice Science Activities STEM: The Science of Salt Using a Salt Lattice Model Teacher Notes Science Activities A Guided-Inquiry Approach Using the 3D Molecular Designs NaCl Lattice Model Classroom

More information

Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information

Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Goal is to understand and become proficient at working with: 1. Chemical equations (Balancing REVIEW) 2. Some simple patterns of reactivity 3. Formula weights (REVIEW) 4. Avogadro's

More information

CSUS Department of Chemistry Experiment 2 Chem. 1A

CSUS Department of Chemistry Experiment 2 Chem. 1A Name: Lab Section: EXPERIMENT 2: HYDRATE PRE LABORATORY ASSIGNMENT Score: /10 (To be completed prior to lab, read the experiment before attempting) 1. A student obtains the following data: Mass of test

More information

ANSWER KEY. Energy Levels, Electrons and IONIC Bonding It s all about the Give and Take!

ANSWER KEY. Energy Levels, Electrons and IONIC Bonding It s all about the Give and Take! ANSWER KEY Energy Levels, Electrons and IONIC Bonding It s all about the Give and Take! From American Chemical Society Middle School Chemistry Unit: Chapter 4 Content Statements: Distinguish the difference

More information

Chapter 5 Chemical Compounds. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 5 Chemical Compounds. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter 5 Chemical Compounds An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Element: A substance that cannot be chemically converted into simpler substances;

More information

Chapter 8 How to Do Chemical Calculations

Chapter 8 How to Do Chemical Calculations Chapter 8 How to Do Chemical Calculations Chemistry is both a qualitative and a quantitative science. In the laboratory, it is important to be able to measure quantities of chemical substances and, as

More information

Chemistry 1210 AU13 Checklist

Chemistry 1210 AU13 Checklist Chemistry 1210 AU13 Checklist Before the first lecture you need to register for the following programs: Mastering Chemistry Learning Catalytics Lecture #1: August 22 nd, 2013 Syllabus overview, course

More information

A crystalline solid is one which has a crystal structure in which atoms or ions are arranged in a pattern that repeats itself in three dimensions.

A crystalline solid is one which has a crystal structure in which atoms or ions are arranged in a pattern that repeats itself in three dimensions. CHAPTER ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING. Define a crstalline solid. A crstalline solid is one which has a crstal structure in which atoms or ions are arranged in a pattern that repeats itself in three dimensions..2

More information

Chapter 4. Chemical Composition. Chapter 4 Topics H 2 S. 4.1 Mole Quantities. The Mole Scale. Molar Mass The Mass of 1 Mole

Chapter 4. Chemical Composition. Chapter 4 Topics H 2 S. 4.1 Mole Quantities. The Mole Scale. Molar Mass The Mass of 1 Mole Chapter 4 Chemical Composition Chapter 4 Topics 1. Mole Quantities 2. Moles, Masses, and Particles 3. Determining Empirical Formulas 4. Chemical Composition of Solutions Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

Chapter 4 Chemical Composition. Moles of Various Elements and Compounds Figure 4.8

Chapter 4 Chemical Composition. Moles of Various Elements and Compounds Figure 4.8 Chapter 4 Chemical Composition Mole Quantities Moles, Masses, and Particles Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas Chemical Composition of Solutions 4-1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

More information

Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies

Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies Without consulting Table 8.2, arrange the following ionic compounds in order of increasing lattice energy: NaF, CsI, and CaO. Analyze: From the formulas

More information

12.524 2003 Lec 17: Dislocation Geometry and Fabric Production 1. Crystal Geometry

12.524 2003 Lec 17: Dislocation Geometry and Fabric Production 1. Crystal Geometry 12.524 2003 Lec 17: Dislocation Geometry and Fabric Production 1. Bibliography: Crystal Geometry Assigned Reading: [Poirier, 1985]Chapter 2, 4. General References: [Kelly and Groves, 1970] Chapter 1. [Hirth

More information

Theory of X-Ray Diffraction. Kingshuk Majumdar

Theory of X-Ray Diffraction. Kingshuk Majumdar Theory of X-Ray Diffraction Kingshuk Majumdar Contents Introduction to X-Rays Crystal Structures: Introduction to Lattices Different types of lattices Reciprocal Lattice Index Planes X-Ray Diffraction:

More information

Molarity is used to convert between moles of substance and liters of solution.

Molarity is used to convert between moles of substance and liters of solution. Appendix C Molarity C.1 MOLARITY AND THE MOLE The molar mass is the mass of a mole of a pure substance while the molarity, M, is the number of moles of a pure substance contained in a liter of a solution.

More information

Chapter 4 Chemical Composition

Chapter 4 Chemical Composition Chapter 4 Chemical Composition 4.1 (a) mole; (b) Avogadro s number; (c) empirical formula; (d) solute; (e) molarity; (f) concentrated solution 4. (a) molar mass; (b) percent composition by mass; (c) solvent;

More information

305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS

305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer. Use GEOLOGIC VOCABULARY where APPLICABLE!

More information

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Key Skills: Balance chemical equations Predict the products of simple combination, decomposition, and combustion reactions. Calculate formula weights Convert grams to moles and

More information

Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure

Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure There are three types of strong bonds: Ionic Covalent Metallic Some substances contain both covalent and ionic bonding or an intermediate. 4.1 Ionic bonding Ionic

More information

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Insert picture from First page of chapter. Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Insert picture from First page of chapter. Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 Chapter 3 Insert picture from First page of chapter Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 3.1 Molecular and Formula Masses Molecular mass - (molecular weight) The mass in amu

More information

Solid Type of solid Type of particle

Solid Type of solid Type of particle QUESTION (2015:3) Complete the table below by stating the type of solid, the type of particle, and the attractive forces between the particles in each solid. Solid Type of solid Type of particle Cu(s)

More information

Ionic Formula Writing. Video Notes

Ionic Formula Writing. Video Notes Ionic Formula Writing Video Notes In this lesson, you will: Learn to write formulas for a variety of ionic compounds. Chemical Formula Tells the relative number of atoms of each element in a compound.

More information

Formula Stoichiometry. Text pages

Formula Stoichiometry. Text pages Formula Stoichiometry Text pages 237-250 Formula Mass Review Write a chemical formula for the compound. H 2 CO 3 Look up the average atomic mass for each of the elements. H = 1.008 C= 12.01 O = 16.00 Multiply

More information

Mole Notes.notebook. October 29, 2014

Mole Notes.notebook. October 29, 2014 1 2 How do chemists count atoms/formula units/molecules? How do we go from the atomic scale to the scale of everyday measurements (macroscopic scale)? The gateway is the mole! But before we get to the

More information

The questions in the Periodic Table Live! (PTL!) are divided into five categories:

The questions in the Periodic Table Live! (PTL!) are divided into five categories: Questions Periodic Table Live! can help students answer. The questions in the Periodic Table Live! (PTL!) are divided into five categories: 1. Introductory questions are meant to familiarize users with

More information

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Goal is to understand and become proficient at working with: 1. Avogadro's Number, molar mass and converting between mass and moles (REVIEW). 2. empirical formulas from analysis.

More information

EXPERIMENT 4: Electron Configuration of elements

EXPERIMENT 4: Electron Configuration of elements Material: laboratory display of the elements and a wall periodic table is required. Objective: To learn the use of periodic table for writing electron configuration of elements. INTRODUCTION Basic building

More information

Relevant Reading for this Lecture... Pages 83-87.

Relevant Reading for this Lecture... Pages 83-87. LECTURE #06 Chapter 3: X-ray Diffraction and Crystal Structure Determination Learning Objectives To describe crystals in terms of the stacking of planes. How to use a dot product to solve for the angles

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS Periodic Table: an arrangement of elements in horizontal rows (Periods) and vertical columns (Groups) exhibits periodic repetition of properties First Periodic Table: discovered

More information

10 The Mole. Section 10.1 Measuring Matter

10 The Mole. Section 10.1 Measuring Matter Name Date Class The Mole Section.1 Measuring Matter In your textbook, read about counting particles. In Column B, rank the quantities from Column A from smallest to largest. Column A Column B 0.5 mol 1.

More information

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL (Student Instructions) Determination of the Formula of a Hydrate A Greener Approach Objectives To experimentally determine the formula of a hydrate salt. To learn to think in terms

More information

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds A. Ionic Bonding 1. Electrons are transferred 2. Metals react with nonmetals 3. Ions paired have lower energy

More information

Simple vs. True Calculating Empirical and Molecular Formulas

Simple vs. True Calculating Empirical and Molecular Formulas 17 Calculating Empirical and Molecular Formulas OBJECTIVE Students will learn to calculate empirical and molecular formulas and practice applying logical problemsolving skills. LEVEL Chemistry NATIONAL

More information

How much does a single atom weigh? Different elements weigh different amounts related to what makes them unique.

How much does a single atom weigh? Different elements weigh different amounts related to what makes them unique. How much does a single atom weigh? Different elements weigh different amounts related to what makes them unique. What units do we use to define the weight of an atom? amu units of atomic weight. (atomic

More information

Success criteria You should be able to write the correct formula for any ionic compound

Success criteria You should be able to write the correct formula for any ionic compound Chemical Formulas and Names of Ionic Compounds WHY? Going back to pre-historic times, humans have experimented with chemical processes that helped them to make better tools, pottery and weapons. In the

More information

Unit 5 Chemical Quantities & The Mole

Unit 5 Chemical Quantities & The Mole Unit 5 Chemical Quantities & The Mole Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a substance. Molar Mass Other names for molar mass include *formula mass *gram formula mass *molecular weight Molar Mass One

More information

neutrons are present?

neutrons are present? AP Chem Summer Assignment Worksheet #1 Atomic Structure 1. a) For the ion 39 K +, state how many electrons, how many protons, and how many 19 neutrons are present? b) Which of these particles has the smallest

More information

Covalent Bonding and Intermolecular Forces

Covalent Bonding and Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular forces are electromagnetic forces that hold like molecules together. Strong intermolecular forces result in a high melting point and a solid state at room temperature. Molecules that are

More information

1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products?

1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? 1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? 1 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + _3 C(s) 2 Fe(s) + _3 CO(g) a) 5 b) 6 c) 7 d) 8 e) 9 2. Which of the following equations

More information

Chapter 5. Quantities in Chemistry

Chapter 5. Quantities in Chemistry Chapter 5 Quantities in Chemistry REMEMBER: You are required to use dimensional analysis whenever possible, which is almost all of the time in chemistry! If you choose not to use dimensional analysis,

More information

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise Example Exercise 9.1 Atomic Mass and Avogadro s Number Refer to the atomic masses in the periodic table inside the front cover of this textbook. State the mass of Avogadro s number of atoms for each of

More information

Exam # 1 CH 100, Introductory Chemistry, Fall, 2003 Name

Exam # 1 CH 100, Introductory Chemistry, Fall, 2003 Name Exam # 1 CH 100, Introductory Chemistry, Fall, 2003 Name Be sure to show your set up for all mathematical problems. Your answers must have the correct number of significant digits and the correct units.

More information