The Atom. Unit 3 Atomic Structure And Nuclear Chemistry. Ancient Ideas of the Atom. Ancient Ideas of the Atom. Ancient Ideas of the Atom

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Atom. Unit 3 Atomic Structure And Nuclear Chemistry. Ancient Ideas of the Atom. Ancient Ideas of the Atom. Ancient Ideas of the Atom"

Transcription

1 1 The Atom Unit 3 Atomic Structure And Nuclear Chemistry What are the basic parts of an atom? How is an atom identified? What is nuclear chemistry? How is a nuclear equation written? Atom Smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element As small as ~0.5Å (angstroms) 5 x m Microscopes cannot see much inside the atom Ancient Ideas of the Atom Democritus Ancient Greece 400 B.C. First person credited with idea of atom Ancient Ideas of the Atom Democritus ideas: All matter made of Atoms: Move through empty space Solid, homogeneous, indestructible, and indivisible Different atoms have different shapes and sizes Size, shape, and movement determine properties Ancient Ideas of the Atom Aristotle Greek philosopher Everything made of 4 elements: Fire Hot Air light Earth cool, heavy Water wet Blend those 4 in different proportions Ancient Ideas of the Atom No scientific evidence to back up either Democritus or Aristotle People believed Aristotle based on reputation Aristotle s theory persisted for 2,000 years

2 2 John Dalton 1803 Summarized results of his experiments and those of others 1. All matter made of tiny indivisible atoms 2. Atoms of same element are identical, atoms of different elements are different 3. Atoms of different elements combine in whole number ratios to form compounds 4. Chemical reactions involve rearrangement of atoms No atoms created or destroyed Billiard Ball Model 1 st model of the atom John Dalton Atoms are small, solid spheres Law of Definite Proportions Joseph Proust All compounds contain the same elements in the same ratio Law of Multiple Proportions John Dalton Same atoms can make different compounds Ex: CO 2 vs. CO Law of Conservation of Mass Antoine Lavoisier Matter is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions

3 3 Parts of Atoms Parts of Atoms Electron Cathode Ray Tube Experiment J. J. Thomson 1897 Passed current through vacuum tube All air has been pumped out Discovered Electrons Negatively-charged particles Plum Pudding Model JJ Thomson 1904 Negatively charged electrons reside in uniform positive charge Like chocolate chips in a cookie Uniform Positive Charge Proton Ernest Rutherford 1919 Positively charged pieces 1840 times heavier than the electron Parts of Atoms Neutron James Chadwick 1932 No charge Same mass as a proton Parts of Atoms Rutherford s Experiment Gold Foil Experiment Ernest Rutherford 1910 Tested the plum pudding model Rutherford s Experiment Gold Foil Experiment Shot Alpha Particles at gold foil Positively charged pieces Helium atoms minus electrons Screen glows when particles hit

4 4 Rutherford s Experiment Gold Foil Experiment Hypothesis: Particles will pass through without much direction change Atom s positive charge is spread out evenly and has little effect on particles Rutherford s Experiment Gold Foil Experiment Results: Most particles passed through Some particles moved a lot Positive pieces were heavy Nucleus Dense, positively charged center of atom Later found to have protons and neutrons Nuclear Atomic Model Nuclear Atomic Model Rutherford 1911 Mostly empty space Dense, positive nucleus at center Surrounded by electrons Bohr Model Bohr s Ring Model AKA: Planetary Model Niels Bohr 1913 Nucleus at center Electrons are in circular energy levels in the atom Calculated energy released when electrons drop energy levels Only works for hydrogen The Quantum Mechanical Model Quantum Mechanical Model Erwin Schrödinger Electron location is described as probability Current model More in Unit #4 Proton Neutron Electron Atoms Relative Name Symbol Charge mass p + n 0 e Location in Atom Nucleus Nucleus Electron Cloud

5 5 Atoms Atomic Number Number of protons in nucleus All protons are alike Same as number of electrons in neutral atom Determines atom s identity Atoms Mass Number Protons + Neutrons Essentially all mass of atom Note: DO NOT ROUND NUMBER ON PERIODIC TABLE! Will be given to you or determined from problem Atoms Protons Equal to Atomic Number Neutrons Mass Number Atomic Number Electrons Equal to atomic number in neutral atom Isotopes Isotopes Atoms of the same element with: Different numbers of neutrons Different mass numbers Describe one specific atom with a specific mass Isotopes Isotopes Isotopes To name: Always include mass number Put mass number after name of element Carbon 12, Carbon 14, etc. Element Symbols Symbol of the element from table Note: second letter is ALWAYS lowercase Mass number on top Atomic number on bottom Optional unless complete symbol Mass Number Atomic Number X

6 6 Ions What if atoms aren t neutral? Ions Charged atoms Result from loss or gain of electrons Charge = p + e - Ions Anion Negatively charged ion Result from gaining electrons Add charge to electron total (ignore negative sign) Ions Cation Positively charged ion Result from loss of electrons Subtract charge from electron total Atomic Mass Atomic Mass Decimal numbers on the periodic table Weighted average of all isotopes of an element Based on abundance of each isotope in nature Atomic Mass Atomic Mass Too small to be measured in grams Atomic Mass Unit (amu) Mass of 1 proton or 1 neutron 1/12 th the mass of a 12 C atom Atomic Mass Atomic Mass - Calculating Unless told otherwise, mass of isotope is mass number in amu Convert percent abundance to decimal Divide by 100 Multiply isotope mass by decimal for each isotope, then add the results

7 7 Isotopes Different numbers of NEUTRONS Some isotopes more stable than others Band of Stability Shows ratios of protons to neutrons in a stable nucleus Radioisotope Isotope with unstable nucleus /Radioactive Decay Spontaneous change radioisotopes undergo to become stable Shown in nuclear equation Mass and atomic numbers MUST balance on both sides Parent is original atom, daughter atom is result /Radioactive Decay Atoms release particle and/or electromagnetic radiation (EMR) ALWAYS results in a more stable nucleus ALWAYS results in a new element Transmutation The change in identity of the element after it undergoes radioactive decay Alpha particle (α) Helium nucleus 2 protons, 2 neutrons Release makes nucleus smaller Relatively low energy, heavy particles Easily shielded by paper or clothing Beta Particle (β) Result of a neutron breaking down 1 neutron is converted to 1 proton and 1 electron Proton stays in nucleus Beta particle is the electron More energy than alpha, but still easily shielded by Al foil or wood Gamma Radiation (γ) High energy radiation No mass or charge Released along with alpha or beta particles Must be shielded using lead or concrete

8 8 Half Life All radioisotopes decay at a constant rate No two radioisotopes decay at the same rate Half Life (t 1/2 ) Time required for half the atoms of radioisotope to decay Can be a few seconds to billions of years Radiation Detection Film Badges Exposure of film measures radiation exposure Geiger Counters Detect radiation through electric pulses in ionized gas Scintillation Counters Measure radiation from substances that emit visible light when energy is absorbed Uses of Radioactive Dating Determine approximate age of a fossil Medical Field Detect and kill cancerous cells X-Rays Disinfect Foods (Food Irradiation) Smoke Detectors Nuclear Fusion Fusion Nuclei combine to make nucleus with greater mass Releases a LOT of energy Energy produced by the sun Nuclear Fission Fission Radioisotope bombarded by neutrons Splits into smaller pieces Releases large amount of energy Less than fusion Can result in a chain reaction Criticality Nuclear Energy Nuclear Power Plant Fission creates heat, which boils water Steam spins turbines, creating electricity Water is then cooled off Same process in nuclear submarines Nuclear Fission produces about 20% of energy in US

History of the Atom & Atomic Theory

History of the Atom & Atomic Theory Chapter 5 History of the Atom & Atomic Theory You re invited to a Thinking Inside the Box Conference Each group should nominate a: o Leader o Writer o Presenter You have 5 minutes to come up with observations

More information

NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom

NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom Chemistry is the study of matter and its properties. Those properties can be explained by examining the atoms that compose the matter. An atom is the smallest particle

More information

CHEMISTRY Matter and Change

CHEMISTRY Matter and Change CHEMISTRY Matter and Change Chapter 4: The Structure of the Atom CHAPTER 4 Section 4.1 Section 4.2 Section 4.3 Section 4.4 Table Of Contents Early Ideas About Matter Defining the Atom How Atoms Differ

More information

Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1

Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1 Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1 DEFINING THE ATOM Early Models of the Atom In this chapter, we will look into the tiny fundamental particles that make up matter. An atom

More information

Aristotle. Lived 384 B.C. to 348 B.C. in ancient Greece. Proposed matter was made of 4 elements, earth, air, water, and fire

Aristotle. Lived 384 B.C. to 348 B.C. in ancient Greece. Proposed matter was made of 4 elements, earth, air, water, and fire Aristotle Lived 384 B.C. to 348 B.C. in ancient Greece Proposed matter was made of 4 elements, earth, air, water, and fire Each of those were also described as being a combination of either cold or hot

More information

The Structure of the Atom

The Structure of the Atom The Structure of the Atom Section 4.1 Early Ideas About Matter Section 4.2 Defining the Atom Section 4.3 How Atoms Differ Section 4.4 Unstable Nuclei and Radioactive Decay Click a hyperlink or folder tab

More information

Atomic Structure Timeline

Atomic Structure Timeline Atomic Structure Timeline Use the following information to fill out your foldable. You will be responsible for the information found on this PowerPoint presentation. Democritus (400 B.C.) Proposed that

More information

CHAPTER 4: ATOMIC STRUCTURE. Intro Video! (nothing about Bohr, I promise)

CHAPTER 4: ATOMIC STRUCTURE. Intro Video! (nothing about Bohr, I promise) CHAPTER 4: ATOMIC STRUCTURE Intro Video! (nothing about Bohr, I promise) I. HISTORY OF ATOMIC THEORY A. Highlights: 1. Democritus: suggested matter was made of tiny indivisible particles 2. Aristotle:

More information

Theories of Matter Composition

Theories of Matter Composition Chapter 2 Theories of Matter Composition Democritus (5 th 4 th century BC) ATOMISM Aristotle (4 th 5 th century BC) CONTINUOUS MATTER FOUR ELEMENTS Earth, Air, Fire, Water Boyle (17 th century) Reintroduced

More information

AIM: Models of the Atom DO NOW:

AIM: Models of the Atom DO NOW: AIM: Models of the Atom DO NOW: HW: ON A SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER MAKE A TIMELINE OF THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ATOM. INCLUDE: 1. DALTON S MODEL, J. J. THOMPSON S MODEL, RUTHERFORD MODEL, BOHR MODEL,

More information

History of Atomic Theory

History of Atomic Theory History of Atomic Theory Alchemy ~ Before 400 B.C. Experiment: Pseudoscience concerned with: Changing metal to gold Finding an eternal life elixir Aristotle Beliefs: All matter was made up of a combination

More information

Name Date Period. Chemistry: Unit 3 - Atoms Test Review KEY

Name Date Period. Chemistry: Unit 3 - Atoms Test Review KEY Name Date Period Concepts to know for the Unit 3 test: Chemistry: Unit 3 - Atoms Test Review KEY 1. Summarize the major experimental evidence that led to the development of various atomic models, both

More information

AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3

AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3 AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3 This achievement standard involves demonstrating understanding of atomic and nuclear physics. Assessment typically

More information

SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table

SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table Lesson Topics Covered SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 1 Note: History of Atomic Theory progression of understanding of composition of matter; ancient Greeks and

More information

5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure. Chapter Outline. Dalton s Model of the Atom. Dalton s Model of the Atom. Dalton s Model of the Atom 10/2/2013

5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure. Chapter Outline. Dalton s Model of the Atom. Dalton s Model of the Atom. Dalton s Model of the Atom 10/2/2013 5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure Chapter Outline 5.1 5.2 Electric Charge A. Discovery of Ions 5.3 Subatomic Parts of the Atom Lightning occurs when electrons move to neutralize charge difference between

More information

Atomic Calculations. 2.1 Composition of the Atom. number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number

Atomic Calculations. 2.1 Composition of the Atom. number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number 2.1 Composition of the Atom Atomic Calculations number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number number of neutrons = mass number - number of protons number of protons = number of electrons IF positive

More information

Chapter 2. Atomic Theory

Chapter 2. Atomic Theory Chapter 2 Atomic Theory 400 B.C.E. atomists 1804 C.E. Dalton 1903 Thompson A History of Atomic Models 1932 Chadwick 1913 Bohr 1911 Rutherford Early Philosophy of Matter Some early philosophers believed

More information

HISTORY OF THE ATOM ATOMA

HISTORY OF THE ATOM ATOMA HISTORY OF THE ATOM 460 BC Democritus develops the idea of atoms he pounded up materials in his pestle and mortar until he had reduced them to smaller and smaller particles which could not be divided and

More information

Early History of Atomic Theories

Early History of Atomic Theories ATOMIC THEORY Early History of Atomic Theories Greek Philosophers Proposed that all matter was made up of four basic particles: Air Earth Fire Water Empedocles Democritus Proposed that matter was made

More information

9/13/2013. However, Dalton thought that an atom was just a tiny sphere with no internal parts. This is sometimes referred to as the cannonball model.

9/13/2013. However, Dalton thought that an atom was just a tiny sphere with no internal parts. This is sometimes referred to as the cannonball model. John Dalton was an English scientist who lived in the early 1800s. Dalton s atomic theory served as a model for how matter worked. The principles of Dalton s atomic theory are: 1. Elements are made of

More information

Chapter 5 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table. Section 5.1 Atoms

Chapter 5 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table. Section 5.1 Atoms Chapter 5 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Section 5.1 Atoms OBJECTIVES: Summarize Dalton s atomic theory. Describe the size of an atom. Adapted from notes by Stephen L. Cotton History of the atom

More information

Atomic Theory. Chapter 3. History of the Atom. Structure & Models of Atoms

Atomic Theory. Chapter 3. History of the Atom. Structure & Models of Atoms Chapter 3 Atoms Atomic Theory As early as 400 BC scientists have believed in an atomic theory thanks to Democritus. Atoms were the building blocks of matter. 2000 years later we can see the atom! History

More information

The Models of the Atom

The Models of the Atom The Models of the Atom All life, whether in the form of trees, whales, mushrooms, bacteria or amoebas, consists of cells. Similarly, all matter, whether in the form of aspirin, gold, vitamins, air or minerals,

More information

The History of the Atom

The History of the Atom The History of the Atom Timeline: 400 BC Scientist: Democritus (Greek Philosopher) Democritus was a Greek philosopher who was the first person to use the term atom (atomos: meaning indivisible). atom.

More information

1) Scientific law = a generalization of scientific observations that describes what happens (does not explain)

1) Scientific law = a generalization of scientific observations that describes what happens (does not explain) I. Law vs. Theory 1) Scientific law = a generalization of scientific observations that describes what happens (does not explain) 2) Theory (model) = a set of assumptions used to explain observations and

More information

Unit 1 Practice Test. Matching

Unit 1 Practice Test. Matching Unit 1 Practice Test Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. a. proton d. electron b. nucleus e. neutron c. atom 1. the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of

More information

The Structure of the Atom

The Structure of the Atom The Structure of the Atom Section 4.1 Early Ideas About Matter In your textbook, read about the philosophers, John Dalton, and defining the atom. For each statement below, write true or false. 1. Ancient

More information

Chemistry 101 Chapter 2 ATOMIC MODEL. atoms (Carbon atoms in diamond) molecules (H 2 O molecules in water) ions (Na + and Cl ions in sodium chloride)

Chemistry 101 Chapter 2 ATOMIC MODEL. atoms (Carbon atoms in diamond) molecules (H 2 O molecules in water) ions (Na + and Cl ions in sodium chloride) ATOMIC MODEL All forms of matter are made up of PARTICLES These PARTICLES may be: atoms (Carbon atoms in diamond) molecules (H 2 O molecules in water) ions (Na + and Cl ions in sodium chloride) The particulate

More information

Atoms, Molecules, Formulas, and Subatomic Particles

Atoms, Molecules, Formulas, and Subatomic Particles Introduction to Chemistry Chapter 5 1 Atoms, Molecules, Formulas, and Subatomic Particles The Atom: The smallest particle of an element that can exist and still have the properties of the element building

More information

Atomic Structure Model Timeline. Dalton Thomson Rutherford Bohr Cloud

Atomic Structure Model Timeline. Dalton Thomson Rutherford Bohr Cloud Atomic Structure Model Timeline Dalton Thomson Rutherford Bohr Cloud 1803 1897 1911 1913 1926 Dalton s Model (p.161) Dalton proposed the first model of atoms; he thought atoms were a solid sphere Dalton

More information

Quick Review Concept Map

Quick Review Concept Map Quick Review - Scientific Method - qualitative and quantitative observations. - Hypothesis - possible explanation for an observation. - Theory vs. a Law - SI units and prefixes (memorize) - Significant

More information

Structure and Properties of Atoms

Structure and Properties of Atoms PS-2.1 Compare the subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons) of an atom with regard to mass, location, and charge, and explain how these particles affect the properties of an atom (including identity,

More information

Name Class Date ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS

Name Class Date ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS Atomic Structure ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS 4.1 Defining the Atom Essential Understanding Atoms are the fundamental building blocks of matter. Lesson Summary Early Models of the Atom The scientific

More information

ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39)

ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39) ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39) THE ATOM All elements listed on the periodic table are made up of atoms.

More information

Atomic Structure Practice Test

Atomic Structure Practice Test Atomic Structure Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. If 6.0 g of element K combine with 17 g of element L, how many grams of

More information

Atomic Theory. Democritus was known as The Laughing Philosopher. Democritus s version of the atom

Atomic Theory. Democritus was known as The Laughing Philosopher. Democritus s version of the atom Democritus (460 B.C.E.) and the Greek Philosophers Before we discuss the experiments and evidence that have convinced scientists matter is made up of atoms, it is only fair to credit the man who proposed

More information

CHAPTER 5: MODELS OF THE ATOM

CHAPTER 5: MODELS OF THE ATOM CHAPTER 5: MODELS OF THE ATOM Problems: 1, 5, 7,11,13,15,17,19,21,25, 37,39,41,61,67,69,71,73, 77ab,79ab,81,83,87,89 1981 - STM (scanning tunneling microscope) used to "see" atoms STM Images - Web sites:

More information

Radioactivity & Particles

Radioactivity & Particles Radioactivity & Particles Introduction... 2 Atomic structure... 2 How are these particles arranged?... 2 Atomic notation... 4 Isotopes... 4 What is radioactivity?... 5 Types of Radiation: alpha, beta and

More information

REVIEW NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3

REVIEW NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3 1. Given the equation representing a nuclear reaction in which X represents a nuclide: Which nuclide is represented by X? 2. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least

More information

Chemistry I Study Guideline Unit Three Atomic Structure

Chemistry I Study Guideline Unit Three Atomic Structure Chemistry I Study Guideline Unit Three Atomic Structure By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe the nature and significance of scientific modeling in general and several of the atoms

More information

Page 1. Atomic Theory

Page 1. Atomic Theory About 440 B.C. Empedocles stated that all matter was composed of four "elements" earth, air, water, and fire. Democritus (460-370 BC) Theorized that all matter is composed of small indivisible particles

More information

UNIT 4 ATOMIC THEORY

UNIT 4 ATOMIC THEORY UNIT 4 ATOMIC THEORY 1. Atomic theory: Dalton s model Thomson s model Rutherford s model Bohr s model Electron cloud model 2. Particles inside the atom Atomic number Mass number 3. Ions Cations Anions

More information

Final Semester 1 Review Sheet

Final Semester 1 Review Sheet Final Semester 1 Review Sheet Chapter 1&3 What is Chemistry Matter Mass Weight Scientific method o Observation Observation vs. inference (know the difference) Qualitative data Quantitative data o Hypothesis

More information

Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements

Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements C h e m i s t r y 1 2 C h 4 : A t o m s a n d E l e m e n t s P a g e 1 Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements Bonus Problems: 27, 29, 33, 35, 45, 51, 53, 67, 69, 73, 83, 87, 93, 95, 107, 109 Early Ideas on Matter:

More information

Chapter 5: Early Atomic Theory and Structure. 5.1 Early Thoughts. In the year 440 B.C., believed that all matter was made of 4 elements (list them):

Chapter 5: Early Atomic Theory and Structure. 5.1 Early Thoughts. In the year 440 B.C., believed that all matter was made of 4 elements (list them): Chapter 5: Early Atomic Theory and Structure Name: 5.1 Early Thoughts In the year 440 B.C., believed that all matter was made of 4 elements (list them): Around 370 B.C., proposed that all matter was composed

More information

Nuclear Terminology. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Reactions. Types of Radioactivity 9/1/12

Nuclear Terminology. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Reactions. Types of Radioactivity 9/1/12 Nuclear Chemistry Up to now, we have been concerned mainly with the electrons in the elements the nucleus has just been a positively charged thing that attracts electrons The nucleus may also undergo changes

More information

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Level 2

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Level 2 Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard 91172 Level 2 This exemplar supports assessment against: Achievement Standard 91172 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics An annotated exemplar

More information

Atomic Model Timeline.

Atomic Model Timeline. Atomic Model Timeline http://www.cs.utah.edu/~draperg/cartoons/jb/bohring.gif 400BC Democritus Democritus found that atoms are not all the same, they are eternal, and always moving. He made a theory on

More information

Early Atomic Theory and Structure. Beginning Days (Theory of an Atom) Beginning Days 8/14/2011. Chapter 5

Early Atomic Theory and Structure. Beginning Days (Theory of an Atom) Beginning Days 8/14/2011. Chapter 5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure Chapter 5 Beginning Days (Theory of an Atom) 5 th century B.C., Greek philosophers Empedocles and Democritus proposed their own theories about an atom. Empedocles stated

More information

For convenience, we may consider an atom in two parts: the nucleus and the electrons.

For convenience, we may consider an atom in two parts: the nucleus and the electrons. Atomic structure A. Introduction: In 1808, an English scientist called John Dalton proposed an atomic theory based on experimental findings. (1) Elements are made of extremely small particles called atoms.

More information

Investigating Atoms and Atomic Theory

Investigating Atoms and Atomic Theory Investigating Atoms and Atomic Theory Students should be able to: Describe the particle theory of matter. PS.2a Use the Bohr model to differentiate among the three basic particles in the atom (proton,

More information

A Brief History of. Atomic Theory

A Brief History of. Atomic Theory A Brief History of Atomic Theory The man of science does not want to discover in order to know - he wants to know in order to discover. - Alfred Whitehead 2007 - Douglas Gilliland Honors Physical Science

More information

b. How is the modern periodic table arranged? In order of increasing atomic number

b. How is the modern periodic table arranged? In order of increasing atomic number Unit 3 Review Chapters 4 (Atomic Structure) & 6 (Periodic Table) Part 1: Answer the following questions. 1. a. Which scientist created the first modern atomic theory? John Dalton b. What was his theory?

More information

UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY

UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY VOCABULARY: Allotrope Anion Atom Atomic Mass Atomic Mass unit (a.m.u.) Atomic number Bohr model Cation Compound Electron Electron Configuration Element Excited state Ground state

More information

The Beginnings of Atomic Theory

The Beginnings of Atomic Theory Atoms Section 1 The Beginnings of Atomic Theory Who came up with the first theory of atoms? In the fourth century BCE, the Greek philosopher Democritus suggested that the universe was made of indivisible

More information

Are Atoms Indivisible?

Are Atoms Indivisible? Activity 4 Are Atoms Indivisible? Activity 4 Are Atoms Indivisible? GOALS In this activity you will: Observe the behavior of a cathode ray in the presence of a magnet. Discuss Thomson s conclusions from

More information

Introduction to Atoms

Introduction to Atoms Introduction to Atoms What is the smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance? A. electron B. neutron C. proton D. atom What is the smallest particle into which

More information

Chapter 4 Radioactivity and Medicine. A CT scan (computed tomography) of the brain using X-ray beams

Chapter 4 Radioactivity and Medicine. A CT scan (computed tomography) of the brain using X-ray beams Chapter 4 Radioactivity and Medicine A CT scan (computed tomography) of the brain using X-ray beams A radioactive isotope has an unstable nucleus; it emits radiation to become more stable and can be one

More information

A) B) C) D) Which particle is represented by the letter X?

A) B) C) D) Which particle is represented by the letter X? 1. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least penetrating power? an alpha particle a beta particle a neutron a positron 2. Which equation represents alpha decay? 3. An unstable nucleus

More information

5.1 Evolution of the Atomic Model

5.1 Evolution of the Atomic Model 5.1 Evolution of the Atomic Model Studying the atom has been a fascination of scientists for hundreds of years. Even Greek philosophers, over 2500 years ago, discussed the idea of there being a smallest

More information

History of the Atomic Model. Bohr s Model of the Atom

History of the Atomic Model. Bohr s Model of the Atom Bohr s Model of the Atom Niels Bohr (93) was the first to propose that the periodicity in the properties of the elements might be explained by the electronic structure of the atom Democritus (400 B.C.)

More information

Chapter Two Study Guide Answers

Chapter Two Study Guide Answers Chapter Two Study Guide Answers Concepts 1. Know the law of conservation of mass 2. Know about the structure of the atom and who did what including Thomson, Rutheford, Millikan, Bohr 3. Know the three

More information

Atom The Discovery of. Atom. Rutherford s Model of the Atom. Particles. Isotopes. Chapter 8: Composition of the

Atom The Discovery of. Atom. Rutherford s Model of the Atom. Particles. Isotopes. Chapter 8: Composition of the Chapter 8: Composition of the Atom The Discovery of Subatomic Particles Rutherford s Model of the Atom Atomic Number and Isotopes Chapter 8: Composition of the Atom The Discovery of Subatomic Particles

More information

Regular Chemistry - Atoms & Elements Practice Test

Regular Chemistry - Atoms & Elements Practice Test Regular Chemistry - Atoms & Elements Practice Test Mr. Matthew Totaro MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following statements

More information

Section 1: Development of the Atomic Theory Pages 82-87

Section 1: Development of the Atomic Theory Pages 82-87 Study Guide Chapter 4 Atomic Theory and The Atom Section 1: Development of the Atomic Theory Pages 82-87 THE BEGINNING OF ATOMIC THEORY 1. What does the word atom mean? a. dividable b. invisible c. hard

More information

Name Date Class ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Name Date Class ATOMIC STRUCTURE Name Date Class 4 ATOMIC STRUCTURE SECTION 4.1 DEFINING THE ATOM (pages 101 103) This section describes early atomic theories of matter and provides ways to understand the tiny size of individual atoms.

More information

Chemistry: Nuclear Reactions Guided Inquiry

Chemistry: Nuclear Reactions Guided Inquiry Chemistry: Nuclear Reactions Guided Inquiry Nuclear reactions change the nucleus of an atom. Chemical Reactions vs. Nuclear Reactions Atoms and molecules are striving to achieve the most stable arrangement.

More information

The Structure of the Atom

The Structure of the Atom Before You Read Review scientific law Define the following terms describes a relationship in nature that is supported by many experiments theory an explanation supported by many experiments; is still subject

More information

Development of the Atomic Theory

Development of the Atomic Theory Development of the Atomic Theory Atom The smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance. Element A pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances

More information

VO Atomic bombs, nuclear power plants, and the sun are powered as the result of releasing of nuclear energy.

VO Atomic bombs, nuclear power plants, and the sun are powered as the result of releasing of nuclear energy. Physics and Chemistry 1501 Nuclear Science Part I Atomic bombs, nuclear power plants, and the sun are powered as the result of releasing of nuclear energy. (Read objectives on screen.) In this program,

More information

The Structure of the Atom

The Structure of the Atom The Structure of the Atom Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Section 4. Early Ideas About Matter pages 02 05 Section 4. Assessment page 05. Contrast the methods

More information

4.01 Evolution of the Atomic Theory

4.01 Evolution of the Atomic Theory 4.01 Evolution of the Atomic Theory The Events Leading to the Discovery of the Building Block of Matter Dr. Fred Omega Garces Chemistry 152 Miramar College 1 401 Atomic Evolution Idea of the Atom How did

More information

3.02 Evolution of the Atomic Theory

3.02 Evolution of the Atomic Theory 3.02 Evolution of the Atomic Theory The Events Leading to the Discovery of the Building Block of Matter Dr. Fred Omega Garces Chemistry 100 Miramar College 1 3.02 Atomic Evolution Idea of the Atom How

More information

7.1 Atoms and Isotopes

7.1 Atoms and Isotopes 7.1 Atoms and Isotopes The history of atomic discovery begins with the ancient Greeks, when, around 400 BCE, philosopher Democritus asserted that all material things are composed of extremely small irreducible

More information

1 Development of the Atomic Theory

1 Development of the Atomic Theory CHAPTER 11 1 Development of the Atomic Theory SECTION Introduction to Atoms BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is the atomic theory? How has

More information

A technician using a scanner to monitor the uptake of radioactive iodine in a patient s thyroid. P.48

A technician using a scanner to monitor the uptake of radioactive iodine in a patient s thyroid. P.48 A technician using a scanner to monitor the uptake of radioactive iodine in a patient s thyroid. P.48 Rodioactivity In the late nineteenth century scientists discovered that certain elements produce high-energy

More information

Introduction to Atoms

Introduction to Atoms CHAPTER 11 VOCABULARY & NOTES WORKSHEET Introduction to Atoms By studying the Vocabulary and Notes listed for each section below, you can gain a better understanding of this chapter. CHAPTER 11 SECTION

More information

Elements, Atoms & Ions

Elements, Atoms & Ions Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FOURTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of Illinois Elements, Atoms & Ions Chapter 4 1 2 Elements Aims: To learn about the relative abundances of the elements,

More information

Name Honors Chemistry / /

Name Honors Chemistry / / Name Honors Chemistry / / History of the Atom Democritus 470-380 B.C. Democritus was known as the "Laughing Philosopher" because of his joyous spirit. First to suggest the idea of atoms (atomos - Greek

More information

Chapter 2. Atoms and Elements

Chapter 2. Atoms and Elements Chapter 2. Atoms and Elements John Dalton Robert Millikan J.J. Thomson Ernest Rutherford The Components of Matter Elements, Compounds, Mixtures Dalton s Atomic Theory Modern Atomic Theory Atomic and Mass

More information

Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry NOTE PACKET. Unit 2: Atomic Theory

Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry NOTE PACKET. Unit 2: Atomic Theory *STUDENT* *STUDENT* Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry NOTE PACKET Unit 2: Atomic Theory 1 *STUDENT* UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY *STUDENT* VOCABULARY: Allotrope Anion Atom Atomic Mass Atomic Mass unit (a.m.u.) Atomic

More information

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER SUBAREA I. ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER COMPETENCY 1.0 UNDERSTAND THE VARIOUS MODELS OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE, THE PRINCIPLES OF QUANTUM THEORY, AND THE PROPERTIES AND INTERACTIONS OF SUBATOMIC

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Name: Class: _ Date: _ ID: A Chapter 4 Assessment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. One of the first people to state that matter is made

More information

What Are The Parts Of An Atom and How Are They Arranged?

What Are The Parts Of An Atom and How Are They Arranged? What Are The Parts Of An Atom and How Are They Arranged? The student will: explain the observations that led to Thomson's discovery of the electron. describe Thomson's plum-pudding model of the atom. draw

More information

Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry

Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 2: Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Reactions vs. Chemical Reactions There are some very distinct differences between a nuclear reaction and a chemical reaction. in a chemical reaction bonds break, atoms

More information

22.1 Nuclear Reactions

22.1 Nuclear Reactions In the Middle Ages, individuals called alchemists spent a lot of time trying to make gold. Often, they fooled people into believing that they had made gold. Although alchemists never succeeded in making

More information

Learning Objectives. Success Criteria. Chemistry Matter and Change pp Chemistry the Central Science p

Learning Objectives. Success Criteria. Chemistry Matter and Change pp Chemistry the Central Science p Nuclear Chemistry Why? Nuclear chemistry is the subdiscipline of chemistry that is concerned with changes in the nucleus of elements. These changes are the source of radioactivity and nuclear power. Since

More information

Nuclear Fission and Fusion

Nuclear Fission and Fusion CHAPTER 0 2 SECTION Nuclear Changes Nuclear Fission and Fusion KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What holds the nucleus of an atom together? What happens when the nucleus

More information

Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Activity.

Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Activity. Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Activity. Atomic Structure Introduction dabe page 1 Atoms & Elements Part 0: Atomic Structure

More information

Lecture 4 - Observations that Led to the Nuclear Model of the Atom. Chem 103, Section F0F Unit I - An Overview of Chemistry Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - Observations that Led to the Nuclear Model of the Atom. Chem 103, Section F0F Unit I - An Overview of Chemistry Lecture 4 Chem 103, Section F0F Unit I - An Overview of Chemistry Lecture 4 Some observations that led to the nuclear model for the structure of the atom The modern view of the atomic structure and the elements

More information

Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom

Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom 1. For most elements, an atom has A. no neutrons in the nucleus. B. more protons than electrons. C. less neutrons than electrons. D. just as many electrons as protons.

More information

1. A release of energy is a sign that. 5. The substance that is formed in a chemical reaction is called the. A. a physical change gust occurred

1. A release of energy is a sign that. 5. The substance that is formed in a chemical reaction is called the. A. a physical change gust occurred 1. A release of energy is a sign that A. a physical change gust occurred B. a chemical change is taking place 5. The substance that is formed in a chemical reaction is called the A. reactant B. product

More information

Name: KEY Block: Date: Unit 2 Test Review

Name: KEY Block: Date: Unit 2 Test Review Name: KEY Block: Date: Unit 2 Test Review Matter and Atomic Structure Complete the following problems to help prepare you for you Unit 2 Test. You more than likely will want to answer these questions on

More information

CHM1 Exam 4 Review. Topics. 1. Structure of the atom a. Proton nucleus + 1 amu b. Neutron nucleus 0 1 amu c. Electron orbits - 0 amu 2.

CHM1 Exam 4 Review. Topics. 1. Structure of the atom a. Proton nucleus + 1 amu b. Neutron nucleus 0 1 amu c. Electron orbits - 0 amu 2. Topics 1. Structure of the atom a. Proton nucleus + 1 amu b. Neutron nucleus 0 1 amu c. Electron orbits - 0 amu 2. Atomic symbols Mass number (protons + neutrons) 4+ charge 126C atomic number (# protons)

More information

Radioactivity Review

Radioactivity Review Science Section 7- Name: Block: Radioactivity Review. Complete the following table: Isotope Mass Number Atomic Number (number of protons) Number of Neutrons nitrogen-5 5 7 8 sulfur-3 3 6 neon- magnesium-5

More information

4.1 Studying Atoms 4.1 Studying Atoms Ancient Greek Models of Atoms

4.1 Studying Atoms 4.1 Studying Atoms Ancient Greek Models of Atoms Studying the structure of atoms is a little like studying wind. Because you cannot see air, you must use indirect evidence to tell the direction of the wind. Atoms pose a similar problem because they are

More information

Nuke review. Figure 1

Nuke review. Figure 1 Name: Tuesday, June 10, 2008 Nuke review The radioisotopes carbon-14 and nitrogen-16 are present in a living organism. Carbon-14 is commonly used to date a once-living organism. Figure 1 A sample of wood

More information

4.1 Studying Atoms Ancient Greek Models of Atoms

4.1 Studying Atoms Ancient Greek Models of Atoms Studying the structure of atoms is a little like studying wind. Because you cannot see air, you must use indirect evidence to tell the direction of the wind. Atoms pose a similar problem because they are

More information

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE 5 ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problem-solving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core

More information

Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 28 Assignment & Problem Set

Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 28 Assignment & Problem Set Nuclear Chemistry Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Nuclear Chemistry 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the definition

More information