# Naming Compounds, Chemical Reactions, and Balancing Chemical Equations. IPS Semester 2 Unit 1.3 Name Teacher Hour

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1 24 Naming Compounds, Chemical Reactions, and Balancing Chemical Equations IPS Semester 2 Unit 1.3 Name Teacher Hour

2 Big Ideas in the packet 39 Naming Chemical Formulas Counting atoms Subscript and coefficient What goes in must come out: A balancing activity Types of reactions Reaction rate

3 40 NAMING CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS Now that you know how to write the formulas of compounds, you need to know how to NAME them. If you follow these guidelines and use the oxidation numbers on the back of your periodic table, you should start to see a pattern in how to name them. Rule 1 Metal and Non-Metal, No Polyatomic Ions: If a metal and a non-metal are combining and there are no polyatomic ions in the formula, (example 1: BeCl 2 ) 1. Name the metal (the + element): BeCl 2 = beryllium 2. Name the base of the non-metal (the - element): BeCl 2 = chlor 3. Add the ending ide to the non-metal: BeCl 2 = chloride BeCl 2 = beryllium chloride Example 2: Al 2 S 3 = aluminum + sulf + ide = aluminum sulfide Note: Certain metals such as copper, iron, or chromium, have more than one type of ion. (Example: iron (II), iron (III) etc.) Therefore, you need to tell which one is in the compound you re naming. Look at the subscript (small #) of the 2 nd element. That subscript will be the oxidation number (roman numeral) of the first element. FeCl 2 = iron (II) chloride FeCl 3 = iron (III) chloride CuCl = copper (I) chloride Now, practice with these compounds: Rule 1 1. MgO 2. CaI 2 3. NaCl 4. AuO 5. Cr 2 O 3 6. Mn 3 N 2 7. Potassium Phosphide 8. Zinc Bromide 9. Mercury II Iodide 10. Aluminium Oxide

4 41 Rule 2 Metal and Polyatomic Ion: If you have a metal combined with a polyatomic ion (one of the italicized ions from your oxidation number table) then: Examples: 1. Name the element in the metal (+) position. 2. Name the polyatomic (-) ion. Na 2 CO 3 = sodium carbonate Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 = calcium phosphate AgNO 3 = silver nitrate Rule 2 1. Na(NO 3 ) 2. Ni(ClO 3 ) 2 3. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 4. (NH 4 )P 5. Ba(Cr 2 O 7 ) 6. Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 7. Silver hydroxide 8. Ammonium Acetate 9. Iron III sulfate 10. Lead phosphate

5 42 Rule 3 Two Non-Metals: If two non-metals have combined into a compound (remember where to find nonmetals on the periodic table?) 1. Name the non-metal that s in the first (+) position. 2. Use a prefix to indicate how many atoms there are of the second (-) element. 3. Name the base of the second (-) non-metal 4. Add the ide ending. Prefixes: 1 = mono 2 = di 3 = tri 4 = tetra 5 = penta 6 = hexa 7 = hepta Examples: CO = carbon + mono + ox + ide = carbon monoxide CO 2 = carbon + di + ox + ide = carbon dioxide CCl 4 = carbon + tetra + chlor + ide = carbon tetrachloride Rule 3 1. SO 2 2. CO 2 3. CF 4 4. CO 7 5. NF 3 6. carbon monofluoride 7. carbon trichloride 8. silicon hexaoxide

6 43 A visual for naming compounds You might want to use the following concept map that summarizes all three rules fro naming compounds. You could also create your own concept map. Metal + Non-Metal Name of element One type of atom Name the anion Base + ide Specify with roman number which ion for: Cu I or Cu II Fe II or Fe III Cr II or Cr III Polyatomic (more than one type of atom) Look for name in the table for common oxidation numbers Non-metal + non-metal Name of element Specify number of anion atoms: mono di tri tetra penta hexa Name the anion Base + ide

7 44 Naming Chemical Compounds More Practice For the following problems identify the rule you need to follow and write the appropriate name or chemical formula. 1. K 3 N Rule: Name: 9. C I 4 Rule: Name: 2. Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3 Rule: Name: 10. Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 Rule: Name: 3. Sn(Cr 2 O 7 ) Rule: Name: 11. BaCl 2 Rule: Name: 4. (NH 4 ) 2 (SO 4 ) Rule: Name: 12. Cs 3 P 2 Rule: Name: 5. Ag 2 (SO 3 ) Rule: Name: 13. Sr(NO 2 ) 2 Rule: Name: 6. NO 3 Rule: Name: 7. Li(OH) Rule: Name: 14. Cr(SO 4 ) Rule: Name: 15. Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Rule: Name: 8. SF 6 Rule: Name: 16. Cu 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Rule: Name:

8 Subscripts and Coefficients p. 45 We have been looking at chemical formulas for compounds. We will now look at chemical formulas for reactions. Look at the following chemical formula written for water: 3H 2 O 1. What does the number 3 tell you? 2. What does the number 2 tell you? 3. Draw your interpretation of the formula. Use a circle for every atom that you draw, and label the circle with the atomic symbol of the element. Connect with lines the atoms in the same molecule: 4. There are atoms of oxygen and of hydrogen in the formula There are two important numbers to consider when writing chemical formulas: o Subscript: is the small number written below the lower right side of an element. The subscript indicates the number of atoms of a given element present in one molecule. A. H 2 O 2 atoms of H and one atom of O in one molecule H 2 O H O H B. CO 2 1 atom of C and 2 atoms of O in one molecule CO 2. Draw the formula: C. Mg 3 P 2 atoms of Mg and atoms of P in one molecule of Mg 3 P 2 Draw the formula:

9 p. 46 o Coefficient: is the big number in front of a pure substance (compound or element) that tells us the number of molecules of a compound, or the number of atoms of a single element. For example: A. 4 C 4 atoms of carbon (not connected). C C C C B. 2 NaCl 2 molecules of NaCl. 2 atoms of Na and 2 atoms of Cl. Na Na Na Na C. 3 H 2 O molecules of H 2 O. 6 atoms of H and 3 atoms of O. Draw the formula: D. 2Be 3 As 2 molecules of Be 3 As 2. atoms of Be and of As Draw the formula: Based on your results, how do you know the number of atoms of a certain element if both, the coefficient and the subscripts are present? You multiply them! What do you think you will need to do if you want to know the number of atoms for a particular element in a formula that has a polyatomic ion? Try this one: Magnesium phosphate: 3Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Explain here how do you think you could figure out the number of atoms for a particular element: Has molecules for a total of atoms of magnesium, atoms of phosphorus and of oxygen.

10 p. 47 To find the number of atoms of oxygen, you need to multiply the coefficient by the subscript for the element, and then by the subscript for the polyatomic ion when applicable (the subscript for the polyatomic is the subscript outside of the parenthesis). For example, fro 3Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Coefficient 3 Subscript for oxygen 4 3 x 4 x 2 = 24 atoms of oxygen Parenthesis subscript 2 Let us do this in a table. For all elements in 3Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 : Element Coefficient Element subscript Polyatomic subscript total Mg P O Find the number of atoms for each element in the following formulas: 1. 6Al 2 S 3 Element Coefficient Element subscript Polyatomic subscript total Al S 2. 9B 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Element Coefficient Element subscript Polyatomic subscript total B S O 3. 7(NH) 2 (NO 3 ) Be careful with the Nitrogen atoms for this one! Element Coefficient Element subscript Polyatomic subscript total N H O

11 4. Counting atoms when adding formulas. Fill in the table and pay attention to the + sign. p. 48 Atoms Example: Na Name(s) of atoms/compounds Number of Atoms Sodium Na 1 2 Na O 2 Na + O 2 Na + O Na 2 O 4 Na 2 O

12 p. 49 Explore the Elements Computer Activity 1) Type in this internet address: 2) Go to the periodic table and click on any element symbol you choose. 3) Find the following information about the element that you chose and write it in the appropriate place on the chart. 4) Go to one of the other web sites listed below and look for the same information. If you find something different on that website, include it on the chart. Element name & symbol Discoverer & Year of discovery Atomic Number Element # Element # Element # Uses Where it is found/made Other interesting facts Other websites you may look at: The Visual Elements Periodic Table tm The Periodic Table of Comic Books Environmental Chemistry ml#names The Chemical Elements eriodic.html Discovery and the Origins of their Names ml A Periodic Table of the Elements at Los Alamo

13 What goes in Must Come Out a balancing activity We can represent the atoms and compounds that take part in chemical reactions by writing them out in a chemical equation. In a chemical reaction, the atoms and compounds you start with are called reactants, and are written to the left of the reaction arrow. The products are always written on the right side of the arrow and show what was produced in the reaction. We say an equation is balanced when all the atoms of the reactants on the left side of the arrow are equal to the numbers of atoms in the products on the right side of the arrow. p. 50 For example: 2Na + Cl 2 (reactants) 2NaCl (products) When reading the reaction equation, we say, yields when we come to an arrow. Remember that the big number 2 in front of the Na on the reactant side is known as a coefficient, and means that there are 2 atoms of Na. The big 2 coefficient in front of NaCl on the product side means that there are 2 molecules of NaCl produced, and each molecule is made of one atom of Na and one atom of Cl, for a total of 2 atoms of each. Notice then that there are 2 atoms of Na and 2 atoms of Cl on each side of the equation. This equation is balanced. In this activity, you will build reactants out of wooden balls and represent the bonds between atoms and ions with wooden bars. (Make sure to use a separate color of ball for each different atom you need). You will then determine the number of products you can produce from your reactants you built. Remember, each reactant must be accounted for as a product, because matter is not created, nor is it destroyed in a reaction. Reactants Products ZnCl 2 + H 2 HCl + Zn Balanced Equation: Equation in words: _

14 p. 51 Reactants Products 2 KCl + Br 2 KBr + Cl 2 Balanced Equation: Equation in words: _ Reactants Products F NaCl NaF + Cl 2 Balanced Equation: Equation in words: _

15 p. 52 Reactants Products 2 H 2 O H 2 + O 2 Balanced Equation: Equation in words: _ Reactants Products 2 HgO Hg + O 2 Balanced Equation: Equation in words: _

16 IPS Balancing Chemical Equations Practice p. 53 This sheet will help you practice how to balance chemical equations. Remember that when you are balancing a reaction, you can only write a coefficient in front of the compound or atom to show that you have more than one of them. Do not try to place a subscript in between atoms of a compound! For Example: The equation Al + CuCl 2 AlCl 3 + Cu is not balanced. Right now there are three different kinds of atoms in this equation. Check the table below to see how many reactants and products there are: Number of atoms on Elements Number of atoms on the Reactant Side the Product Side 1 Al 1 1 Cu 1 2 Cl 3 You should notice that there are unequal numbers of the Cl atom on each side of the arrow. Therefore, you need to put a coefficient in front of the compounds to get the Cl to be equal on both sides. In this case, we will use a 3 on the left and a 2 on the right so that when these are multiplied by the coefficient, there will be a total of 6 atoms of Cl on each side. Al + 3 CuCl 2 2 AlCl 3 + Cu Notice that now the Cl atoms are equal, but the coefficients changed the amounts of aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) on both sides. If we check amounts now, we have: Number of atoms on Elements Number of atoms on the Reactant Side the Product Side 1 Al 2 3 Cu 1 6 Cl 6 Finally, put coefficients in front of the Al and Cu atoms to get them to be equal. So overall the balanced equation looks like this: All reactants and products are 2Al + 3 CuCl 2 2AlCl 3 + 3Cu balanced! Using the method you did with the marshmallows, draw the reactants and products for each of the problems on the next page and figure out how many of each product you will get in the end. This time, you will not have marshmallows so just use labeled circles to represent the atoms and write the balanced equation in the end. Remember, use coefficients to balance!

17 Practice Balancing Chemical Equations p. 54 Reactants Products 4Fe + 3O 2 Fe 2 O 3 Number of Atoms: Fe O Number of Atoms: Fe O Balanced Equation: Equation in words: _ Reactants Products 2 CuO 2 Cu + O 2 Number of Atoms: Cu O Number of Atoms: Cu O Balanced Equation: Equation in words: _

18 Reactants Products p. 55 Cl 2 + 2KBr KCl + Br 2 Number of Atoms: Cl K Br Number of Atoms: Cl K Br Balanced Equation: Equation in words: _ Reactants Products Mg(OH) HCl H 2 O + MgCl 2 Number of Atoms: Mg O H Cl Balanced Equation: Number of Atoms: Mg O H Cl Equation in words: _

19 Use coefficients to balance the reactants and products on each side of the arrow in the following equations: p. 56 1) F 2 + NaCl NaF + Cl 2 = F = = Na = = Cl = 2) K(ClO 3 ) KCl + O 2 = K = = Cl = = O = 3) U + F 2 UF 6 = U = = F = 4) CaO + SO 2 Ca(SO 3 ) = Ca = = S = = O = 5) (CH 3 )(OH) CO + H 2 = C = = H = = O = 6) Al + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Pb + Al(NO 3 ) 3 = Al = = Pb = = NO 3 =

20 IPS - Chemical Change Lab - Five Fabulous Reactions! p. 57 Purpose: To make observations about what happens when different chemicals are combined. Materials and Procedure: Students will work in lab groups and rotate from one station to another and follow the instructions at each station. Observations and data should be recorded in the data table below. Lab Basics 1. Wearing safety goggles (on your eyes) the entire time you are in the lab area is required! The chemicals you are working with are dangerous to your eyes! 2. No horseplay whatsoever will be tolerated! This is your only warning. 3. Tie long hair back we will be using fire and don t want your hair to become part of the reactions! 4. Wash all glassware before and after using it. Then return it to its proper place. 5. Put no solids into the sink. Unless your teacher tells you otherwise, only rinse liquids down the sink. Paper towels go into the trash (not into the recycling bin) when you are finished. Use the fewest paper towels that you can. Data and Observations: Station 1A Reaction: Mg + O 2 MgO Observations: Appearance of Reactants (BEFORE reaction occurs) What happened DURING the reaction? Appearance of Products (AFTER reaction occured) Reaction Type:

21 Station 1B p. 58 Reaction: Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O 3 Observations: Appearance of Reactants (BEFORE reaction occurs) What happened DURING the reaction? Appearance of Products (AFTER reaction occured) Reaction Type: Station 2A Reaction: Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + NaCl PbCl 2 + Na(NO 3 ) Observations: Appearance of Reactants (BEFORE reaction occurs) What happened DURING the reaction? Appearance of Products (AFTER reaction occured) Reaction Type:

22 Station 2B p. 59 Reaction: Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + KI PbI 2 + K(NO 3 ) Observations: Appearance of Reactants (BEFORE reaction occurs) What happened DURING the reaction? Appearance of Products (AFTER reaction occured) Reaction Type: Station 3A Reaction: (NH 4 )Cl + Na 2 (CO 3 ) (NH 4 ) 2 (CO 3 ) + NaCl Observations: Appearance of Reactants (BEFORE reaction occurs) What happened DURING the reaction? Appearance of Products (AFTER reaction occured) Reaction Type:

23 Station 3B p. 60 Reaction: CaCl 2 + Na 2 (CO 3 ) Ca(CO 3 ) + NaCl Observations: Appearance of Reactants (BEFORE reaction occurs) What happened DURING the reaction? Appearance of Products (AFTER reaction occured) Reaction Type: Station 4 Reaction: Cu + Ag(NO 3 ) Ag + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 Observations: Appearance of Reactants (BEFORE reaction occurs) What happened DURING the reaction? Appearance of Products (AFTER reaction occured) Reaction Type:

24 Station 5 p. 61 Reaction: C 6 H 14 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Observations: Appearance of Reactants (BEFORE reaction occurs) What happened DURING the reaction? Appearance of Products (AFTER reaction occured) Reaction Type: Ideas to Discuss after doing the lab: Chemical Change Reaction Endothermic Reaction Exothermic Reaction

25 Types of Reactions p. 62 Combination: Two atoms (or polyatomic ions) come together to form a compound Examples: 2H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O Decomposition: A compound or polyatomic ion is broken down into its individual elements Examples: CO 2 C + O 2 Single Replacement: An atom replaces the cation (+ part) of a compound to form a new compound and an element. Examples: Zn + 2 HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2 Double Replacement: This reaction starts with two compounds as reactants and yields two new compounds as products. Each of the cations changes places and recombines with the anion of the other compound. Examples: AlCl Li(OH) Al(OH) LiCl Combustion of a Hydrocarbon: A hydrocarbon is a compound made of only carbon and hydrogen atoms. When a hydrocarbon is burnt, it combines with oxygen from the air and always forms water and carbon dioxide as products. Examples: CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O

26 IPS Balancing Equations/Reaction Types Practice p. 63 Balance the following equations and identify each type of chemical reaction you may use the following abbreviations C = combination, D = decomposition, SR = single replacement, DR = double replacement, COH = combustion of a hydrcarbon. Type of Reaction 1. Al + S Al 2 S 3 2. Au 2 O 3 Au + O 2 3. H 2 + N 2 NH 3 4. NaF Na + F 2 5. C 5 H 12 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 6. Ca 3 N 2 Ca + N 2 7. Zn + HNO 3 H 2 + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 8. LiOH + H 2 SO 4 Li 2 SO 4 + H 2 O 9. Cl 2 + NaI NaCl + I Al + N 2 AlN 11. K + H 2 O KOH + H AgNO 3 + AlCl 3 AgCl + Al(NO 3 ) CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 14. Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3 Fe 2 O 3 + CO Cr + H 2 SO 4 H 2 + Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Tough Ones: If you want a challenge, try these four. Don t spend more than 10 minutes on any one. These are hard!! 16. MnO 2 + HI MnI 2 + I 2 + H 2 O 17. H 3 AsO 4 + HCl Cl 2 + H 2 O + As 4 O H 3 PO 4 + HCl P 4 + HOCl + H 2 O 19. NaI + H 2 SO 4 H 2 S + H 2 O + I 2 + Na 2 SO 4

28 p. 65 Group Data Table: My Group # Paired group # Time (seconds) 1 st Trial volume (ml) 2 nd Trial volume (ml) Total of trial 1 and trial 2 AVERAGE of trial 1 and trial 2 ( total by 2) Paired group average (ml) Analysis of Data: Make a graph showing the volume of gas produced (in ml) on the y-axis and the time (in seconds) on the x-axis for both your data and that of your paired group. Afterward, you should be ready to compare your results with the other group and present your overall results to the rest of the class using a whiteboard.

29 Questions 1. Define the term VARIABLE: p Explain what the variables were in your particular Alka-Seltzer experiment and in the other group s experiment. 3. Define the term RATE OF REACTION: 4. How does the rate of the reaction of your Alka-Seltzer compare with the data from the other group? (list any patterns you notice). Patterns in Data: 5. What explanation might you have about these results? (think about what the particles are doing)

30 p. 67 Application Questions: Use your knowledge of Reaction Rates and Types to answer the following questions 4. On the following graph, label the lines with the following labels and explain why you labeled the lines like you did. 100 ASAAA 5 grams Alka-Seltzer grams Alka-Seltzer ml 10 grams Alka-Seltzer CO Time in seconds Based on what you learned in the reaction rates lab and what you know about particles answer the following questions: 5. Why do some reactions require heat for them to occur? 6. What do you think would happen in the Alka-Seltzer lab if you used ice water? Talk about what the particles are doing when you explain your answer. 7. How do you know when a chemical reaction has happened?

31 p. 68 IPS Balancing and Types of Reactions Practice For numbers 1-5, balance the chemical equations and identify the reaction type. 1. Na + Cl NaCl Type 2. C 2 H 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Type 3. Ca(CO 3 ) + Al Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 + Ca Type 4. HCl + Na(OH) NaCl + H 2 O Type 5. Na 2 (CO 3 ) C + Na + O 2 Type 6. Explain how you identify each of the following types of reactions when you see them: a. Combination b. Decomposition c. Single Replacement d. Double Replacement e. Combustion of a Hydrocarbon

32 p. 69 Unit Review 1. Write the appropriate name of the following compounds below in the second blank, write the rule you used to determine the name. a. H(OH) b. (NH 4 )(NO 3 ) c. Ca(CO 3 ) d. Cr I 3 e. Be 3 (PO 4 ) 2 f. Fe(SO 3 ) g. Fe 2 (SO 3 ) 3 h. CBr 4 i. Ag 2 (SO 3 ) j. NO 3 2. Write the correct formulas for the following compounds: a. Silver nitrate b. Iron III oxide c. Calcium peroxide d. Chromium II sulfide e. Chromium III sulfide f. Arsenic pentafluoride g. Sulfur trioxide h. Strontium phosphate i. Lithium peroxide

33 p. 70 j. Aluminum sulfate 3. The 3 in the compound, Na 3 (PO 4 ), is called 4. The 4 in 4 NaCl is called 5. For the following, indicate the number of each of the following elements in each case. Beware of any coefficients! a. _2_C 6 H 12 O 6 C H O b. _5_Br 2 Br c. _4_P 2 O 5 P O d. _1_H 3 (PO 4 ) H P O e. _5_Co(NO 2 ) 2 Co N O f. _1_(NH 4 ) 2 (CO 3 ) N H C O g. _4_Sr(OH) 2 Sr O H h. _3_(NH 4 ) 2 (NS) 3 N H S 6. Explain how you would recognize the following types of reactions: a. Single replacement: b. Decomposition c. Combustion of a hydrocarbon

34 p. 71 d. Double replacement e. Combination 7. Using circles with labels, draw diagrams in the empty boxes showing the reactants and the number of products for the following equations. a. Cl 2 + H 2 HCl b. Mg(OH) 2 + H 3 PO 4 Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + H 2 O 8. For the following equations, if they are balanced correctly, write the word correct in the blank. If they are not balanced correctly, write in the coefficient(s) that would make it correct. a. _1_C 3 H 6 + _5_O 2 _3_CO 2 + _8_H 2 O b. _2_Na 2 CO 3 _2_C + _4_Na + _3_O 2 c. _3_CaCl 2 + _2_Cu 3 N _6_CuCl + _3_Ca 3 N 2 d. _2_H 3 PO 4 + _3_Ca(OH) 2 _6_H 2 O + _1_Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 9. Balance the following equations and identify the type of reaction.

35 p. 72 a. C 7 H 16 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O b. Ba(NO 3 ) 2 + Na NaNO 3 + Ba c. CaBr 2 + Al 2 O 3 CaO + AlBr 3 d. P 4 + O 2 P 2 O 5 e. C 3 H 7 OH C + H 2 + O 2

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