The Micro Aethalometer : an enabling technology for new applications in measuring Aerosol Black Carbon

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1 A&WMA International Specialty Conference: Leapfrogging Opportunities for Air Quality Improvement Xi an, Shaanxi Province, China May 10-14, 2010 The Micro Aethalometer : an enabling technology for new applications in measuring Aerosol Black Carbon Anthony D. A. Hansen, Magee Scientific, California Griša Močnik, Aerosol d.o.o., Slovenia

2 Aerosol Black Carbon : Soot Formed in all combustion of carbon fuels Small particle size ( typically < 0.3 µm) Graphitic microstructure is black (~10 m 2 /gram) Inert : not destroyed by in-atmosphere processes: removed from the atmosphere only by deposition Active Surface may be highly porous and covered with chemically-active functional groups and toxics May act as a condensation nucleus and interact with cloud nucleation and precipitation 2

3 Aerosol Black Carbon : Sources & Emissions BC emission factors can be very different (factor 10 6 ) : emissions depend on quality of combustion BC not directly related to CO 2 emission Climate forcing depends on both CO 2 and BC Local BC concentrations that affect public health can be highly variable BC emissions can not be predicted: must be measured Both Climate and Health require more data in all dimensions - BC ( X, Y, Z, t ) 3

4 Aerosol Black Carbon : Global Measurements WORST : Asia, BC = 10 ~ 100 µg/m³. Exposure of 2 x 10 9 people 4

5 Aerosol Black Carbon : Global Measurements BEST : Antarctica, BC ~ 100 pg/m³. Exposure of 200 people 5

6 Aerosol Black Carbon covers continents Picture taken at ~ 1000 m. altitude over New Delhi, India: early morning. City is invisible: solar radiation reaching the ground is reducing ~ 5% per decade over the entire country. ~ 12% of Delhi population ( > 3 million people) have respiratory disease. 6

7 Climate Change Effects of Aerosols Climate Effects of Black Carbon Aerosols in China and India S. Menon, J. Hansen et al. Science 27 Sep 02: Haze over Asia: up to 40% of sunlight absorbed. Agriculture affected ; local rainfall changed. 7

8 Air Pollution Economic Effects 8

9 Optical Analysis Method for Black Carbon Instantaneous Non-destructive Mobile / Portable Added dimension - time Added dimension - wavelength Reference I 0 BC Sensing I Light Source Light Detectors Filter with Sample 9

10 Analytical Instrument : Aethalometer Collect sample continuously Measure optical absorption continuously May use multiple wavelengths 370 nm ~ 950 nm. Convert optical absorption to mass of BC Determine increment of mass in each time period Measure air flow rate; convert mass to concentration. Real-time data: 1 second / 1 minute Dynamical, real-time measurement, updated each period 10

11 Real-Time Optical Absorption Analysis 11

12 Analytical Instrument : Aethalometer Large : 19-inch rack mount chassis 12

13 Fixed stations for air-quality monitoring Measurements at a fixed point Analyze data patterns to determine source contributions Different locations can have different temporal patterns London Europe China 13

14 Micro Aethalometer : same principle.. but smaller size 14

15 Micro Aethalometer applications Personal exposure monitoring Vertical profile balloons, aircraft Indoor monitoring in special locations Direct measurement of source emissions

16 Mobile measurements Barcelona, Spain 2009 Micro Aethalometer model AE51 Nadine Kubesch, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL) Barcelona 16

17 Mobile measurements Barcelona street study Micro Aethalometer data : streets of Barcelona, Spain. Raw 1-second data exactly as recorded 300, ,000 SN ,000 BC, ng/m3 150, ,000 50, :35 11:40 11:45 11:50 11:55 12:00 12:05 12:10 12:15 12:20 12:25 12:30-50,000 Local Time, 11-June-09 Data courtesy of Audrey de Nazelle, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona; Dane Westerdahl; Scott Fruin, Univ. Southern California. 17

18 Vertical profiling California - idea Italy tethered balloon Colorado, USA released balloon 18

19 Vertical profiling - results Altitude above ground level, m BC, ng/m3 Tethered balloon Milan, Italy December 2008 Released balloon Colorado, USA December Balloon operations courtesy of Dr. L. Ferrero & Prof. E. Bolzzachini,. Dept. of Environmental Science, University of Milano Bicocca, Italy Data courtesy of R. C. Schnell, E. Hall, A. Jordan NOAA/GMD Boulder CO 19

20 Measurements in commercial aircraft estimates of BC at 10 ~ 12km. altitude 300 BC measurement in cabin of commercial aircraft: SFO-NYC Jay Turner BC ng/m depart from San Francisco at 12 km. altitude in air-traffic zone over Chicago approach New York 0 9:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 Wednesday 2-Dec-09

21 Infiltration monitoring in museum Indoor/Outdoor Monitoring of BC Infiltration Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie (Refectory), Milan 20,000 Outdoors Indoors Relative Scale x Griša Močnik Outdoor BC concentration 15,000 10,000 5, Indoor BC Concentration Feb 0 24-Feb Feb 0 25-Feb Feb 0 26-Feb Feb 0 Data courtesy of Dane Westerdahl, Univ. Southern California

22 Direct measurement of source emissions Diesel engine - raw exhaust Optical BC, thermal EC vs. engine load 100,000 80,000 AE91 Optical BC NIOSH 5040 Thermal EC BC, ug/m3 100,000 AIT Gasifier 10,000 1, Stove Emissions Testing AITCC Bangkok, 17-Nov-09 AIT Gasifier Top Load Up Draft Biolite Biolite RHGS RHGS BC, EC ug/m3 60,000 40,000 20, % 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Engine Load 1 AIT Gasifier AIT Gasifier Top Load Up Draft Biolite Biolite RHGS RHGS

23 Summary Black Carbon has serious effects on Health and Climate BC is highly variable and must be measured Large Aethalometers are suitable for fixed stations The Micro Aethalometer allows for measurements On individual people On balloons and aircraft In special indoor locations Of direct source emissions BC ( X, Y, Z, t ) 23

24 Thank you for your attention, 24

25 I ll be happy to answer any questions. 25

26 µaeth => BC ( X, Y, Z, t ) for further information: www. MageeScientific. com 26

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