Discriminative stimulus cue to specific response for reinforcement

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1 Links to Objectives DEFINITION OF LEARNING LO 5.1 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING LO 5.2 Study of and important elements LO 5.3 Conditioned emotional response OPERANT CONDITIONING (Part 1) LO 5.4, Skinner and Thorndike LO 5.5 Important concepts LO 5.6 ment problems LO 5.7 ment schedules OPERANT CONDITIONING (Part 2) LO 5.8 ling behavior and resistance LO 5.9 Behavior modification COGNITIVE LEARNING LO 5.10 Latent learning, helplessness and insight OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING LO 5.11 Observational learning theory Conditioning Stimuli Behavior 5.8 How do operant stimuli control behavior? Discriminative stimulus cue to specific response for reinforcement 1

2 Biological Constraints Instinctive drift animal s conditioned behavior reverts to genetic patterns e.g., raccoon washing, pig rooting Application of operant conditioning to effect change ehavior modification Behavior Modification 5.9 What is behavior modification? Use of operant techniques to change behavior Tokens Time out Applied Behavior Analysis 2

3 Shaping 1 Small steps Effective reinforcement Heavy early reinforcement 2 3 less and less Incorporate Harder steps 4 5 Bio and Neurofeedback Neurofeedback modifying behavior via brainscanning and feedback about brain activity Biofeedback controlling involuntary responses (e.g., blood pressure) via biological feedback 3

4 Theory 5.10 How do latent learning, learned helplessness and insight relate to cognition? Early days of learning focus on behavior 1950s and 1960s increased focus on mental events (cognition) Edward Tolman early cognitive scientist Tolman s Rats & Latent 5.17 What was Tolman s classic study on latent learning? Learned ness Learned helplessness - tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures I know some people who live in a horrible situation but won t leave. Is this the same thing? 4

5 : Rapid Perception of Relationships Although Thorndike and other early learning theorists believed that animals could not demonstrate insight, Kohler s work seems to demonstrate that insight requires a sudden coming together of all the elements of a problem in a kind of aha moment that is not predicted by traditional animal learning studies. -Page 208 (Ciccarelli & White) Observational bservational learning 5

6 Bandura s Bobo Doll Experiment 5.21 What was Bandura s classic Bobo doll study? Two conditions aggressive and non-aggressive model viewers of aggression played more aggressively model s behavior imitated even in absence of reward vs. Performance can occur without performance Steps In Observational To learn through observation, must first attend to model 6

7 Steps In Observational Learner must be able to retain what was observed Steps In Observational Learner must be able to reproduce actions of model Steps In Observational Learner must be motivated to reproduce observed behaviors 7

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