Battles and Fronts of WWI Text, Maps, Text Dependent Questions. Standards Alignment Text & Maps Text Dependent Questions

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1 Battles and Fronts of WWI Text, Maps, Text Dependent Questions Standards Alignment Text & Maps Text Dependent Questions

2 Standards Alignment California State Standards for Grade Students analyze the causes and course of the First World War. Analyze the arguments for entering into war presented by leaders from all sides of the Great War and the role of political and economic rivalries, ethnic and ideological conflicts, domestic discontent and disorder, and propaganda and nationalism in mobilizing the civilian population in support of total war. Examine the principal theaters of battle, major turning points, and the importance of geographic factors in military decisions and outcomes (e.g., topography, waterways, distance, climate). Explain how the Russian Revolution and the entry of the United States affected the course and outcome of the war. Understand the nature of the war and its human costs (military and civilian) on all sides of the conflict, including how colonial peoples contributed to the war effort. Common Core Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Science for Grades 9 & 10 Students: RH 1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information. RH 3 - Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them. RH 4 - Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social studies. Common Core Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Science for Grades 9 & 10 Students: WHST 2 - Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. b. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience s knowledge of the topic. d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.

3 Battles and Fronts of WWI Gallipoli On April 24th, 1915, an amphibious force of British, French, Australian, and New Zealand troops began landing on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli. Their aim, to knock Germany's ally, Turkey, out of the war. Only a small Turkish force awaited them on the cliffs overlooking the shore. However, the Gallipoli landing was a disaster caused by inadequate intelligence, insufficient attention to the terrain, an underestimation of the enemy's strength and resilience in defense of their native soil. Nine months after landing, the allies withdrew after incurring over 250,000 casualties, including over 46,000 dead. The Battle of Verdun German General Erich von Falkenhayn developed a battle plan for attacking Verdun, France, a city protected by a ring of underground forts. Begun in mid-february 1916, and ending in December, the battle of Verdun symbolized for the French the strength and fortitude of their armed forces and the solidarity of the entire nation. After a few short weeks, the battle took on a life of its own, with small groups of men on both sides fighting local battles in constant struggle for their lives, and protection of the territory they occupied. Verdun is still considered by many military historians as the 'greatest' and most demanding battle in history. In the end, the front lines were nearly the same as when the battles started while over 300,000 French and Germans were killed and over 750,000 were wounded. The Battle of the Somme One hundred and twenty-five miles northwest of Verdun, the British and French armies joined at the Somme River. A Franco-British offensive was planned here for 1916 to relieve pressure on the French at Verdun. British General Douglas Haig ordered a massive bombardment of the German lines that would last a week and could be heard across the Channel in England. But the German troops were deeply dug in and the bombardment did not reach them. Once the shelling was over, of the 100,000 British troops who attacked the German lines July 1, 1916, 20,000 were killed and over 40,000 were wounded. It was the single worst day in deaths and casualties in British military history. Eventually this battle, which did not change the front line trenches much at all, involved over 2 million men along a 30 mile front. British and French losses numbered nearly three-quarters of a million men. Gallipoli The Battle of Verdun The Battle of the Somme

4 The Third Battle of Ypres British General Douglas Haig often believed his army was on the verge of a breakthrough. His optimism resulted in a plan in 1917 to attack the German lines just outside of Ypres, Belgium. This would be the third battle at Ypres, the other two having taken place in 1914, and Once Haig's army broke through, he envisioned it sweeping across the low plains and swinging north to the sea. On the morning of June 7, 1917, the Allies set off a series of nineteen giant mines dug over eighteen months under the German lines south-east of Ypres. Together with a sophisticated counter-battery operation, this stroke completely disrupted and disorganized German defensive positions. The initial advance ended successfully, but then weeks passed before the British troops were ordered to continue by which time the wettest fall in years had set in. In this three-month battle, men, animals and equipment were swallowed up in mud that was often like quicksand, Haig's ambitious plan became yet another failure. The Western Front in 1918 Over a four-month period in 1918, the German army launched five major assaults at different parts of the allied line. The new campaign was based on new tactics: squads of elite storm-troopers, armed with automatic rifles, light machine guns and flame-throwers, were supported with a creeping barrage of artillery fire. Initially the plan worked. The British Fifth Army collapsed. The allies gave ground. But for every allied trench captured, there was always another for the Germans to take. Within a week the advance had ground to a halt. Soon the elite German storm troopers were a spent force. The allies, having stemmed the German advance, now reversed it. The whole front was ablaze. The climatic battles of September 1918 saw the rupture of the Hindenburg Line, and on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, the armistice went into effect.

5 Battle/Front Battles and Fronts of World War I Description the Battle Gallipoli 1915 When did British, French, Australian, and New Zealand troops begin landing on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli? What was their aim? List 3 reasons why the Gallipoli landing was a disaster. How long did it take for the Allies to withdraw from Gallipoli? How big was the Turkish force that awaited them? What is the name of the German general that developed a battle plan for attacking Verdun? What is Verdun still considered by many military historians? Battle of Verdun In what country is Verdun? Summarize in your own words what the Battle of Verdun symbolized? In the end, what were the front lines like? How many French and Germans were killed and wounded? In what country is Somme? Why didn t the bombardment reach the Germans? Battle of Somme What did British general Douglas Haig order at Somme? Where could the bombardment be heard? Of the 100,000 British troops who attacked the German lines, how many were killed and wounded? Did this battle change the front line trenches? Third Battle Of Ypres In what country is Ypres? When did the other two battles of Ypres take place? Once British General Haig s army broke through, what did he envision? What did the Allies set off on the morning of June 7 th, 1917? In the three-month battle, men, animals, and equipment were swallowed up in what? Was Haig s ambitions plan a success? How many major assaults on the Allied lines did the German army launch in 1918? How many major assaults on the Allied lines did the German army launch in 1918? Western Front 1918 What was the new German campaign based on? Did the plan initially work? What were the allies able to do having stemmed the German advance? What happened on the 11 th hour of the 11 th day of the 11 th month in 1918?

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