PURE WATER REQUIRES PURE SOLUTIONS. Water Treatment Chemicals

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1 PURE WATER REQUIRES PURE SOLUTIONS Water Treatment Chemicals

2 Pure Water Requires Pure Solutions Even wastewater has to meet high quality requirements The Greenlandic language has at least ten words for snow. In western society, we have just as many terms for water drinking water, process water, cooling water, wastewater, and sewage water. All these types of water have one thing in common. The quality has to meet high standards. Pure drinking water is a basic necessity of life; wastewater has to comply with other-equally stringentcriteria before it can be discharged. Industrial processes require clean process and cooling water to ensure expensive installations run smoothly. The quality requirements for all these types of water are rigorous and will become even more so over time. Water purification depends on the quality of the processes and the additives used. For a long time Akzo Nobel has been a reliable supplier of chemicals for water purification. We have been producing these chemicals for years and our track record on product quality and reliability of delivery is second to none. We produce customized products such as iron and aluminum chloride, and Quadrofloc. When it comes to anticipating norms and standards, we are always ahead of the game. European governments, for instance, are planning to introduce tougher thresholds for heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, nickel and antimony in drinking water. Long before they come into force, we ll be complying with these standards. Our aim is to be a sustainable company and we are a leader in the field. Around the world we embrace the Responsible Care principle caring for people and planet. Our water purification products are proof of this. Eco Chemicals Akzo Nobel has an integrated product chain for its raw materials. By using, for example, very pure iron ore or aluminum hydroxide, it is possible to guarantee a high standard of purity in the end product. That is why the water purification products we supply are known as eco chemicals they help to purify the water, do not impact on the environment and, at the same time, comply with government and industry quality requirements. As a result, the sludge that remains after purification contains less heavy metal and can be processed far easier. Together with our employees technical expertise, our products ensure the best possible ecological and micro-economic answer to the demands of customers in the water sector for every given situation. Drinking water has to comply with very tough health standards, both chemically and bacteriologically, and rightly so. Water is literally the source of life and is subject to the same quality requirements as any food. Our products therefore have to meet the same exacting requirements. As a responsible company, we do not wait until the government imposes new standards. We have our own even tougher standards which anticipate future legislation. Our products are already complying with the even more stringent limits which will apply for heavy metals in the future. We regard our products as genuine eco chemicals which contribute to sustainable solutions. Key Operations in Water Treatment Iron and aluminum ions are excellent flocculation and coagulation agents for use in water treatment. They are used in the preparation of drinking water, the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater and the processing of sludge. Because of their reactive properties, these products are also used in the electronic industry as an etching agent. Akzo Nobel products such as ferric chloride, ferric chloride sulfate, ferrochloride, ferrosulfate, poly aluminum chloride (PAC) and Quadroflocs are key to the water purification process. There are three basic reactions in the process: 1. Precipitation 2. Coagulation 3. Flocculation These reactions always occur simultaneously. Akzo Nobel s internal standards are more stringent than those set by authorities in anticipation of official regulation.

3 Approximately 25,000 liters of water are required to keep a family of four supplied with food for one day Examples of Precipitation: 1) The Removal of Phosphate Phosphates are a persistent problem in wastewater and act as nutrients for algae. Thus the less phosphate there is in water, the less algae grow. Phosphates can be effectively removed from water flows by using chemical precipitation. By adding iron or aluminum salts to water, phosphates precipitate and settle together with the biological sludge. 2) Removing Hydrogen Sulfide The presence of sulfur in sewage water is a potential risk and can lead to the formation of highly toxic hydrogen sulfide gas. By adding iron chloride, the sulfide precipitates thus eliminating this potential danger. It is therefore essential in occurring cases to test whether hydrogen sulfide is present. Examples of Coagulation and Flocculation: 1) Drinking Water Preparation Floating particles which do not settle of their own accord can be made to do so by neutralizing the electrical charge. The specific properties of iron and aluminum chlorides play a decisive role in this process. Colloidal particles have a negative charge which is neutralized by the positive charge of the metal ions of iron and aluminum. As a result, the particles coagulate to form flocs which are big enough to settle. The entire process is a combination of the right metal salts, the precise dosage and the ph of the water. Our technical specialists determine the ideal composition of these factors for every type of water, so that the water is purified quickly and efficiently. This is particularly important for the purification of drinking water. 2) Avoiding Bulking Sludge Bulking sludge is a serious problem in waste water purification. If conditions allow, threadlike micro-organisms such as the frequently occurring Microthrix Parvicella can grow in sludge. If this is the case, an intelligent response is required as these bacteria can seriously hamper the settling process, the sludge floats and cannot settle. Quadrofloc which is a combination of salts containing aluminum or iron or both offers a solution and makes it possible to treat the various forms of bulking sludge and foam. Some bacteria are sensitive to aluminum, and the iron salts then ensure that precipitation occur, allowing the sludge to settle. For every type of water, our technical specialists advice the optimum combination of metal salts, dosage and the ph-value People in the western world use approximately 125 liters of water every day

4 An average of 36 liters of water is used everyday to flush the toilet Broad Expertise of all Water Types Akzo Nobel supplies both chemicals for water purification, and provides technical expertise on water purification processes. Our specialists have a long experience of dealing with every type of water used in a wide variety of industries and installations. They are able to provide the best possible advice on all water purification issues and can determine which chemicals will produce the best results. They also have mobile pumps and storage tanks on hand so that on site and no matter what the conditions they can do full scale tests in order to select the best method for a particular type of water. They also think in terms of the most ecological and economic solutions. As a company, we attach great importance to sustainability. Transport Akzo Nobel uses various means of transport. We have special containers for transporting our eco chemical solutions. For long distances, transport is by rail. For short distance, road transport is used. This keeps CO 2 emissions from the transport of our products to a minimum. Trained personnel and expert supervision guarantee all safety requirements are met during the loading and unloading of the tankers. Solutions Serving the water sector optimally requires more than the use of the right chemicals. It is a delicate process in which all the links must work together in unison people, products and resources. For Akzo Nobel, the quality of individual and combined components is a top priority. This enables us to offer solutions for all our customers many diverse requirements. Forty percent of the water used in the west is in the bathroom Akzo Nobel Akzo Nobel is a multicultural company. We are market-driven and technologybased, serving customers throughout the world with healthcare products, coatings and chemicals. Headquartered in Arnhem, the Netherlands, Akzo Nobel conducts its diversified activities through decentralized business units. The company embraces the Responsible Care program and has a proactive environmental policy with regard to both its products and its production processes. Base Chemicals Akzo Nobel Base Chemicals provides the basic products for many chemical reactions. It produces raw materials and additives, including chlorine, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium hypochlorite. A thorough knowledge of these product s properties and how to handle them is essential for optimal application and to ensure the right safety measures are taken. Akzo Nobel Base Chemicals makes its expertise available to its customers and thus contributes to the responsible use and completion of the product cycle. Base Chemicals headquarters are in Amersfoort, the Netherlands. It has production sites in the Netherlands, Germany and Sweden.

5 Akzo Nobel Base Chemicals bv Stationsstraat MH Amersfoort P.O. Box AE Amersfoort The Netherlands Akzo Nobel Base Chemicals GmbH Haupstrasse 47 D Ibbenbüren Germany Akzo Nobel Base Chemicals AB P.O. Box Skoghall Sweden

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