The authors wish to thank Mr. Bob Fine and especially all of our former students in Azusa, Inglewood, Los Angeles, and Santa Monica, California.

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2 The authors... Janis Marcy and Steve Marcy San ta Monica -Malibu Unified School District Limited Reproduction Permission: Permission to duplicate these materials is limited to the teacher for whom they are purchased. Reproduction for an entire school or school district is unlawful and strictly prohibited. The authors wish to thank Mr. Bob Fine and especially all of our former students in Azusa, Inglewood, Los Angeles, and Santa Monica, California. The illustrations on pages 6, 39, 60, 90, 100, 105, 201, and 21 3 are reprinted with permission of PriceISternlSloan Publishers, from the book DROODLES, and DROODLES #2, The illustration on page 134 is reprinted with permission of PriceISternlSloan Publishers, from the book THE COMPLEAT DROODLES, O Cover by Nimbus Design O 1978, 1996, 2002 Wright GroupIMcGraw-Hill One Prudential Plaza Chicago, IL Printed in the United States of America ISBN: MAL PRE-ALGEBRA WITH PIZZAZZ! i i Q Creative Publications

3 A MESSAGE FROM THE AUTHORS Pre-Algebra With Pizzazz! is a series of enrichment books designed to provide practice with skills and concepts taught in pre-algebra classes. The authors believe that mastery of math skills and concepts requires good teaching and also a great deal of practice. Our goal is to provide puzzle activities that make this practice more effective. We have tried to build into these activities certain characteristics that increase the effectiveness of practice: 1. Motivating Goal for the Student. Each puzzle has a goal that is motivating to students. Students work problems in order to discover the punch line of a joke or riddle, decode a humorous poem or one-liner, create an interesting picture, etc. Thus, the solution is a built-in reward to the student when he or she completes the puzzle. In addition, the variety and novelty of procedures for solving puzzles help capture and maintain student interest. 2. Knowledge of Results. Various devices are used in the puzzles to tell students whether or not their answers are correct. In most of the puzzles, feedback occurs immediately after the student works each exercise. For example, if a particular answer is not in the code or scrambled answer list, the student knows it is incorrect. The student can then try again or ask for help. Additional feedback occurs when the student achieves a puzzle solution that is appropriate. We have found that students greatly appreciate and benefit from this immediate knowledge of results. 3. Focus on a Single, Clear Objective. Though review puzzles are included which involve multiple objectives, most of the puzzles focus on single objectives. The skills and concepts required for each puzzle are limited so that students with different levels of ability, though possibly requiring differing amounts of preliminary instruction, can experience success. In some puzzles, the exercises are sequenced so that students can discover a pattern, generalization, or method for solving a different type of exercise. Our goal is for all students to feel successful when doing mathematics. In addition to these efforts to make the puzzles highly effective, we have tried to make Pre-Algebra With Pizzazz! easy to use. Two lists of objectives-a summary list and a complete list-and the specific puzzles that provide practice for each objective are given on pages v-xix. The major objectives of most pre-algebra textbooks are included within this series. We have tried to arrange the puzzles on a given topic so that each puzzle builds on skills and concepts previously covered. Nearly all Pre-Algebra With Pizzazz! puzzles require only one page. Finally, because the puzzles are self-correcting, they help eliminate the task of correcting assignments. We hope you,enjoy using Pre-Algebra With Pizzazz! as much as we enjoyed writing it. Steve and Janis Marcy PRE-ALGEBRA WITH PIZZAZZ! 8 Creative Publications i i i

4 Suggestions for Using Pre-Algebra With Pizzazz! Pre-Algebra With Pizzazz! puzzles can serve a variety of purposes. They are suitable for classwork or homework practice following introduction of a new skill or concept. They are ideal for an individualized program, as students can work independently on puzzles selected to meet their specific needs. Finally, the'puzzles can be a valuable addition to a math lab. 1. Reproduction. Pre-Algebra With Pizzazz! pages may be removed from the binder and used as blackline masters. The pages are especia,lly accessible and easy to use. 2. Directions. Directions for each puzzle are simple and concise. Most students will have no difficulty getting started on most of the puzzles, though you may occasionally want to work through the first problem with your students, showing where the answers are to go, etc. An overhead transparency of a puzzle may facilitate discussion, especially for puzzles that include geometric figures. Students sometimes get excited and call out the solution, when they solve a puzzle, so you may want to caution your class about this before they begin working. 3. Objectives. Two lists of objectives-a summary list and a complete list (expressed in terms of learner behaviors)-and the specific puzzles that provide practice for each objective are given on pages v-xix. These objectives may be helpful in planning or in writing test items. 4. Showing Work. Though some exercises can be done mentally, many require paper-andpencil (or calculator) computations. If you require the use of paper and pencil, you may wish to have students hand in their scratch paper for each puzzle with the work for each problem identified. If students use calculators, you may want them to hand in a record of computations performed. Requiring students to show their work can help in diagnosing individual strengths and weaknesses. Other Books by Steve and Janis Marcy published by Creative Publications: Middle School Math With Pizzazz! Book A Middle School Math With Pizzazz! Book 6 Middle School Math With Pizzazz! Book C Middle School Math With Pizzazz! Book D Middle School Math With Pizzazz! Book E Algebra With Pizzazz! Operations with whole numbers, basic facts, place value, and numeration Decimals, operations, applications, and problem-solving strategies Fraction concepts and operations, number theory, and relating fractions and decimals Measurement, geometry, area, perimeter, angles, square roots, and right triangles Percent, probability, ratio and proportion, statistics, integers, and equations Practice activities for first-year algebra students. PRE-ALGEBRA WITH PIZZAZZ! IV O Creative Publications

5 PART AA SUMMARY TABLE OF OBJECTIVES 1. Concept of Positive and Negative Numbers Integers Add integers Subtract integers Add and subtract integers Multiply integers Add. subtract. and multiply integers Divide integers Add. subtract. multiply. and divide integers Fractions Find equivalent fractions Add fractions Subtract fractions Add and subtract fractions Multiply fractions...: Find reciprocals Divide fractions Add. subtract. multiply. and divide fractions Decimals Express a fraction as a decimal Add and subtract decimals Multiply decimals Add, subtract. and multiply decimals Multiply and divide decimals by powers of Divide decimals Add, subtract. multiply. and divide decimals Properties of Operations Apply properties of zero and one Apply the commutative and associative properties Apply the distributive property Test of Genius 61 PRE-ALGEBRA WITH PIZZAZZ! O Creative Publications V

6 PART AA COMPLETE TABLE OF OBJECTIVES The student will be able to: 1. Locate a point on the number line Identify numbers greater or less than a given number Use arrow diagrams to represent numbers Add negative integers Determine addition equation represented by arrow diagram Add positive and negative integers Subtract integers Add and subtract integers Multiply a positive integer times a negative integer Multiply positive and negative integers Add. subtract. and multiply integers Divide integers Perform all four operations with integers Reduce a fraction to lowest terms Find a fraction width a given numerator or denominator equivalent to a given fraction Add rational numbers named by fractions with a common denominator Add rational numbers named by fractions with unlike denominators Add rational numbers named by mixed numerals Subtract rational numbers named by fractions and mixed numerals Add and subtract rational numbers named by integers. fractions. and mixed numerals Multiply rational numbers named by integers and fractions Multiply rational numbers named by integers and mixed numerals PRE-ALGEBRA WITH PIZZAZZ! ~i O Creative Publications

7 23. Multiply rational numbers named by integers. fractions. and mixed numerals Find the reciprocal of a fraction or mixed numeral Divide rational numbers named by integers and fractions Divide rational numbers named by integers. fractions. and mixed numerals Perform all four operations with rational numbers named by integers. fractions. and mixed numerals Express a fraction as a decimal Add and subtract rational numbers in decimal form Multiply rational numbers in decimal form Add. subtract. and multiply rational numbers in decimal form Multiply and divide rational numbers in decimal fo.rm by powers of Divide rational numbers in decimal form Perform a.ll four operations with rational numbers in decimal form Solve equations using the properties of zero Solve equations using the properties of one Apply the commutative and/or associative properties to determine whether or not two expressions are equivalent Apply the distributive property to solve equations or problems PRE-ALGEBRA WITH PIZZAZZ! O Creative Publications ~i

8 PART BB SUMMARY TABLE OF OBJECTIVES 1. Exponents Evaluate an expression containing an exponent Operate with powers of Decimals Express a number in expanded notation as a decimal Express a fraction as a decimal Round off a decimal Express a repeating decimal as a fraction Scientific Notation Write a number in scientific notation Operate with numbers in scientific notation Use scientific notation in estimation Introducing Irrational Numbers Ratio. Proportion. and Percent Express a ratio as a fraction in lowest terms Solve a proportion or a problem using a proportion Translate a word expression to a percent Express a percent as a fraction Express a fraction as a percent Estimate a percent of a number Express a percent as a decimal 94 Find a percent of a number Find what percent one number is of another Find a number given a percent of the number Perform all of the above three operations Probability Find the probability of an event Evaluate an expression containing factorial symbols Find the number of permutations or combinations Test of Genius PRE-ALGEBRA WITH PIZZAZZ! vi i i o Creative Publications

9 PART BB COMPLETE TABLE OF OBJECTIVES The student will be able to: 1. Evaluate an expression containing a positive exponent Evaluate an expression containing a negative exponent Multiply powers of Divide powers of Multiply and divide powers of Express as a decimal a number given in expanded notation Write a decimal for a fraction or mixed numeral that has a power of 10 in the denominator Round off a decimal Express a fraction as a decimal rounded off to the nearest thousandth Express a fraction as a repeating decimal Express a fraction as a mixed decimal Express a repeating decimal as a fraction Represent a given decimal numeral in... scientific notation. and conversely Multiply numbers in scientific notation Divide numbers in scientific notation Use scientific notation to estimate a product or quotient Determine whether a decimal names a rational or an irrational number Demonstrate comprehension of basic concepts a.nd vocabulary related to the set of real numbers PRE-ALGEBRA WITH PIZZAZZ! O Creative Publications i~

10 19. Express a ratio as a fraction in lowest terms Solve a proportion Solve problems using proportions Translate a numerical or word expression to a percent Express a percent as a fraction Express a fraction as a percent Select the best estimate for the percent equivalent of a fraction or for a percent of a number Express a percent as a decimal Find a percent of a number Find the cost of a discounted item given the original price. percent discount. and percent sales tax Find the interest on a loan given the principal. interest rate. and time Solve problems involving percents less than 1 Oh or greater than 100% Find what percent one number is of another Find the percent increase or decrease in a variable Find a number given a percent of the number Find a percent of a number; find what percent one number is of another; or find a number given a percent of the number Give the probability of an outcome in a simple... probability experiment Find the probability that either of two mutually exclusive events will occur in one trial of an experiment Find the probability that the union or intersection of two events will occur in one trial of an experiment X PRE-ALGEBRA WITH PIZZAZZ! 63 Creative Publications

11 38. Find the probability of an event when the outcomes are ordered pairs (e.g., two coins, two dice) Find the probability of an outcome resulting from repeated trials of an experiment Evaluate an expression containing factorial symbols Find the number of permutations of n things taken r at a time Find the number of combinations of n things taken r at a time PRE-ALGEBRA WITH PIZZAZZ! O Creative Publications xi

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