Cellular Respiration. Sylvia S. Mader BIOLOGY. Chapter 8: pp Insert figure 8.2 here. 10th Edition

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1 Chapter 8: pp BIOLOGY 10th Edition Cellular Respiration Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Insert figure 8. here and Cytoplasm e F ADH Mitochondrion Sylvia S. Mader glucose Glycolysis pyruvate Preparatory reaction Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis ADP ADP 4 ADP 4 total net gain ADP 3 ADP 3 or 34 or 34 PowerPoint Lecture Slides are prepared by Dr. Isaac Barjis, Biology Instructor 1 Copyright The McGraw Hill Companies Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display

2 Outline Cellular Respiration NAD+ and FAD Phases of Cellular Respiration Glycolysis Fermentation Preparatory Reaction Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport System Metabolic Pool Catabolism Anabolism

3 Cellular Respiration A cellular process that breaks down carbohydrates and other metabolites with the concomitant buildup of Consumes oxygen and produces carbon dioxide (CO ) Cellular respiration is aerobic process. Usually involves breakdown of glucose to CO and water Energy extracted from glucose molecule: Released step-wise Allows to be produced efficiently Oxidation-reduction enzymes include NAD + and FAD as coenzymes 3

4 Glucose Breakdown: Summary Reaction Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Oxidation C 6 H 1 O 6 + 6O 6CO + 6HCO + energy glucose Reduction Electrons are removed from substrates and received by oxygen, which combines with H+ to become water. Glucose is oxidized and O is reduced 4

5 NAD + and FAD NAD + (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) Called a coenzyme of oxidation-reduction. It can: Oxidize a metabolite by accepting electrons Reduce a metabolite by giving up electrons Each NAD + molecule used over and over again FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) Also a coenzyme of oxidation-reduction Sometimes used instead of NAD + Accepts two electrons and two hydrogen ions (H + ) to become FADH 5

6 Cellular Respiration Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. H O O and glucose enter cells, which release H O and CO. CO intermembrane space cristae Mitochondria use energy from glucose to form from ADP + P. ADP + P E. & P. Bauer/ zefa/ Corbis; (Bread, wine, cheese, p. 139): The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc./ John Thoeming, photographer; (Yogurt, p. 139): The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc./ Bruce M. Johnson, photographer 6

7 Phases of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration includes four phases: Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate Occurs in cytoplasm is formed Does not utilize oxygen Transition (preparatory) reaction Both pyruvates are oxidized and enter mitochondria Electron energy is stored in Two carbons are released as CO (one from each pyruvate) 7

8 Phases of Cellular Respiration Citric acid cycle Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion and produces and FADH In series of reaction releases 4 carbons as CO Turns twice (once for each pyruvate) Produces two immediate molecules per glucose molecule Electron transport chain Extracts energy from & FADH Passes electrons from higher to lower energy states Produces 3 or 34 molecules of 8

9 Glucose Breakdown: Overview of 4 Phases Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Cytoplasm and FADH Mitochondrion glucose Glycolysis pyruvate Preparatory reaction Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis 4 ADP 4 total net gain AD P 3 ADP 3 or 34 or 34 9

10 Glucose Breakdown: Glycolysis Occurs in cytoplasm outside mitochondria Energy Investment Steps: Two are used to activate glucose Glucose splits into two G3P molecules Energy Harvesting Steps: Oxidation of G3P occurs by removal of electrons and hydrogen ions Two electrons and one hydrogen ion are accepted by NAD + resulting two Four produced by substrate-level phosphorylation Net gain of two Both G3Ps converted to pyruvates 10

11 Glycolysis: Inputs and Outputs Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display inputs glucose NAD + Glycolysis outputs pyruvate ADP 4 ADP + 4 P 4 total net gain 11

12 Substrate-level Synthesis Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. enzyme ADP BPG 3PG 1

13 Glycolysis Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. and FADH glucose Glycolysis pyruvate Preparatory reaction Matrix Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis 4 ADP 4 total net ADP 3 ADP 3 or 34 or 34 NAD + 1. The cycle begins when an acetyl group carried by CoA combines with a C 4 molecule to form citrate. acetyl CoA Co A oxaloacetate C 4 citrate C 6 Citric acid cycle ketoglutarate C5 CO NAD +. Twice over, substrates are oxidized as NAD + is reduced to, and CO is released. 5. Once again a substrate is oxidized, and NAD + is reduced to. NAD + fumarate C4 succinate C4 FAD CO 4. Again a substrate is oxidized, but this time FAD is reduced to FADH. FADH 3. is produced as an energized phosphate is transferred from a substrate to ADP. 13

14 Glycolysis Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. enzyme ADP BPG 3PG 14

15 Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the Normal or Slide Sorter views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at 15

16 Pyruvate Pyruvate is a pivotal metabolite in cellular respiration If O is not available to the cell, fermentation, an anaerobic process, occurs in the cytoplasm. During fermentation, glucose is incompletely metabolized to lactate, or to CO and alcohol (depending on the organism). If O is available to the cell, pyruvate enters mitochondria by aerobic process. 16

17 Fermentation An anaerobic process that reduces pyruvate to either lactate or alcohol and CO passes its electrons to pyruvate Alcoholic fermentation, carried out by yeasts, produces carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol Used in the production of alcoholic spirits and breads. Lactic acid fermentation, carried out by certain bacteria and fungi, produces lactic acid (lactate) Used commercially in the production of cheese, yogurt, and sauerkraut. Other bacteria produce chemicals anaerobically, including isopropanol, butyric acid, proprionic acid, and acetic acid. 17

18 Fermentation Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. glucose A T P ADP G3P NAD + 4 ADP BPG +4 4 pyruvate or (net gain) CO lactate or alcohol 18

19 Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the Normal or Slide Sorter views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at 19

20 Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the Normal or Slide Sorter views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at

21 Fermentation Advantages Provides a quick burst of energy for muscular activity. Disadvantages Lactate is toxic to cells. Lactate changes ph and causes muscles to fatigue. Oxygen debt and cramping Efficiency of Fermentation Two produced per glucose of molecule during fermentation is equivalent to 14.6 kcal. 1

22 Products of Fermentation Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc./Bruce M. Johnson, photographer

23 Products of Fermentation Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc./Bruce M. Johnson, photographer 3

24 Products of Fermentation Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc./Bruce M. Johnson, photographer 4

25 Efficiency of Fermentation Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. inputs glucose Fermentation outputs lactate or alcohol and CO ADP + P net gain 5

26 The Preparatory (Prep) Reaction Connects glycolysis to the citric acid cycle End product of glycolysis, pyruvate, enters the mitochondrial matrix Pyruvate converted to -carbon acetyl group Attached to Coenzyme A to form acetyl-coa Electron picked up (as hydrogen atom) by NAD + CO released, and transported out of mitochondria into the cytoplasm 6

27 Preparatory Reaction Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. NAD + O OH C CoA C O + CoA C O + CO CH pyruvate 3 CH 3 acetyl CoA carbon dioxide pyruvate + CoA acetyl CoA + carbon dioxide 7

28 Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the Normal or Slide Sorter views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at 8

29 Mitochondrion: Structure & Function Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cristae: location of the electron transport chain (ETC) outer membrane inner membrane Matrix: location of the prep reaction and the citric acid cycle intermembrane space matrix cristae 45,000 Dr. Donald Fawcett and Dr. Porter/Visuals Unlimited 9

30 Glucose Breakdown: The Citric Acid Cycle A.K.A. Krebs cycle Occurs in matrix of mitochondria Begins by the addition of a two-carbon acetyl group to a four-carbon molecule (oxaloacetate), forming a six-carbon molecule (citric acid), FADH capture energy rich electrons formed by substrate-level phosphorylation Turns twice for one glucose molecule. Produces 4 CO,, 6 and FADH (per glucose molecule) 30

31 The Citric Acid Cycle Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. and FADH Glycolysis Preparatory reaction glucose pyruvate Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis ADP 4 ADP 4 total net 3 ADP ADP 3 or 34 or 34 NAD + 1. The cycle begins when an acetyl group carried by CoA combines with a C 4 molecule to form citrate. acetyl CoA CoA oxaloacetate C 4 citrate C 6 Citric acid cycle ketoglutarate C 5 CO NAD +. Twice over, substrates are oxidized as NAD + is reduced to, and CO is released. 5. Once again a substrate is oxidized, and NAD + is reduced to. NAD + fumarate C 4 succinate C 4 CO FAD 4. Again a substrate is oxidized, but this time FAD is reduced to FADH. FADH 3. is produced as an energized phosphate is transferred from a substrate to ADP.

32 Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the Normal or Slide Sorter views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at 3

33 Citric Acid Cycle: Balance Sheet Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. inputs acetyl groups 6 NAD + FAD ADP + P Citric acid cycle outputs 4 CO6 FADH

34 Electron Transport Chain Location: Eukaryotes: cristae of the mitochondria Aerobic Prokaryotes: plasma membrane Series of carrier molecules: Pass energy rich electrons successively from one to another Complex arrays of protein and cytochromes Cytochromes are respiratory molecules Complex carbon rings with metal atoms in center Receives electrons from & FADH Produce by oxidative phosphorylation Oxygen serves as a final electron acceptor Oxygen ion combines with hydrogen ions to form water 34

35 Electron Transport Chain The fate of the hydrogens: Hydrogens from deliver enough energy to make 3 s Those from FADH have only enough for s Spent hydrogens combine with oxygen Recycling of coenzymes increases efficiency Once delivers hydrogens, it returns (as NAD + ) to pick up more hydrogens However, hydrogens must be combined with oxygen to make water If O not present, cannot release H No longer recycled back to NAD + 35

36 Electron Transport Chain Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. e e e and e FADH e Glycolysis Preparatory reaction glucose pyruvate Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis 4 ADP 4 ADP total ADP net ADP ADP 3 or ADP 3 or ADP H + e - NAD + + H + -Q reductase P e - made by chemiosmosis coenzyme Q e - FADH e - FAD + H + cytochrome reductase e - cytochrome c ADP + P made by chemiosmosis e - cytochrome oxidase e - H + ADP + P made by chemiosmosis 1 / O H O 36

37 Organization of Cristae Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. and FADH glucose Glycolysis pyruvate Preparatory reaction Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis ADP 4 ADP 4 total net ADP 3 or ADP 3 or34 34 Electron transport chain -Q reductase H + cytochrome reductase coenzyme Q H + cytochrome c cytochrome oxidase H + FADH FAD H + + NAD + H + H + H + H + H + ADP + P H O 1 / O H + Matrix H + H + channel protein H + synthase complex H + H + Chemiosmosis Intermembrane space 37

38 Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the Normal or Slide Sorter views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at 38

39 Glucose Catabolism: Overall Energy Yield Net yield per glucose: From glycolysis From citric acid cycl From electron transport chain 3 Energy content: Reactant (glucose) 686 kcal Energy yield (36 ) 63 kcal Efficiency 39%; balance is waste heat 39

40 Overall Energy Yielded per Glucose Molecule Mitochondrion Cytoplasm Electron transport chain Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. glucose net A T P pyruvate glycolysis 4 or 6 acetyl CoA 6 CO 6 18 Citric acid cycle 4 CO FADH 4 P subtotal 4 6 O 6 H O subtotal 3 or or 38 total 40

41 Metabolic Pool: Catabolism Foods: Sources of energy rich molecules Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins Degradative reactions (Catabolism) break down molecules Tend to be exergonic (release energy) Synthetic reactions (anabolism) build molecules Tend to be endergonic (consume energy) 41

42 The Metabolic Pool Concept Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. proteins carbohydrates fats amino acids glucose glycerol fatty acids Glycolysis pyruvate acetyl CoA Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain C Squared Studios/Getty Images. 4

43 Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the Normal or Slide Sorter views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at 43

44 Metabolic Pool: Catabolism Glucose is broken down in cellular respiration. Fat breaks down into glycerol and three fatty acids. Amino acids break down into carbon chains and amino groups Deaminated (NH removed) in liver Results in poisonous ammonia (NH 3 ) Quickly converted to urea Different R-groups from AAs processed differently Fragments enter respiratory pathways at many different points 44

45 Metabolic Pool: Anabolism All metabolic reactions part of metabolic pool Intermediates from respiratory pathways can be used for anabolism Anabolism (build-up side of metabolism): Carbs: Fats Start with acetyl-coa Basically reverses glycolysis (but different pathway) G3P converted to glycerol Acetyls connected in pairs to form fatty acids Not dietary carbohydrate RARELY converted to fat in humans! 45

46 Metabolic Pool: Anabolism Anabolism (cont.): Proteins: Made up of combinations of 0 different amino acids Some amino acids (11) can be synthesized from respiratory intermediates Organic acids in citric acid cycle can make amino acids Add NH transamination However, other amino acids (9) cannot be synthesized by humans Essential amino acids Must be present in diet or die 46

47 Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration H O O grana membranes O cristae H O ADP NADPH NADP + CO CH O enzymes CH O NAD + CO 47

48 Review Glycolysis Transition Reaction Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport System Fermentation Metabolic Pool Catabolism Anabolism 48

49 Chapter 8: pp BIOLOGY 10th Edition Cellular Respiration Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Insert figure 8. here Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. and Cytoplasm e F ADH Mitochondrion Sylvia S. Mader glucose Glycolysis pyruvate Preparatory reaction Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis ADP ADP 4 ADP 4 total net gain ADP 3 ADP 3 or 34 or 34 PowerPoint Lecture Slides are prepared by Dr. Isaac Barjis, Biology Instructor 49 Copyright The McGraw Hill Companies Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display

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