1/21/2009. ATP PC system Immediate source of ATP

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1 Scott K. Powers Edward T. Howley Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance SEVENTH EDITION Chapter Presentation prepared by: Brian B. Parr, Ph.D. University of South Carolina Aiken Copyright 2009 The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display outside of classroom use. ATP PC system Immediate source of ATP PC + ADP Creatine kinase ATP + C Glycolysis l Glucose 2 pyruvic acid or 2 lactic acid Energy investment phase Requires 2 ATP Energy generation phase Produces 4 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvate or 2 lactate Depletion of PC may limit short term, highintensity exercise Creatine monohydrate supplementation Increasedmuscle PC stores Some studies show improved performance in short term, high intensity exercise Inconsistent results may be due to water retention and weight gain Increased strength and fat free mass with resistance training Creatine supplementation does not appear to pose healthrisks 1

2 Terms lactic acid and lactate used interchangeably Lactate is the conjugate base of lactic acid Lactic acid is produced in glycolysis Rapidly disassociates to lactate and H + The ionization of lactic acid forms the conjugate base called lactate Figure 3.12 Figure 3.13 Figure

3 Figure 3.15 Figure 3.15 Transport hydrogens and associated electrons To mitochondria for ATP generation (aerobic) To convert pyruvic acid to lactic acid (anaerobic) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) NAD + 2H + NADH + H + Flavin FAD + adenine 2H dinucleotide (FAD) + FADH 2 3

4 NADH produced in glycolysis must be converted back to NAD By converting pyruvic acid to lactic acid By shuttling H + into the mitochondria A specific transport tsystem shuttles H + across the mitochondrial membrane Located in the mitochondrial membrane The addition of two H + to pyruvic acid forms NAD and lactic acid Figure 3.16 The immediate source of energy for muscular contraction is the high energy phosphate ATP. ATP is degraded via the enzyme ATPase as follows: ATP ADP + P i + Energy ATPase Formation of ATP without the use of O 2 is termed anaerobic metabolism. In contrast, the production of ATP using O 2 as the final electron acceptor is referred to as aerobic metabolism. 4

5 Exercising skeletal muscles produce lactic acid. However, once produced in the body, lactic acid is rapidly converted to its conjugate base, lactate. Muscle cells can produce ATP by any one or a combination of three metabolic pathways: (1) ATP PC system, (2) glycolysis, (3) oxidative ATP production. The ATP PC system and glycolysis are two anaerobic metabolic pathways that are capable of producing ATP without O 2. Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) Pyruvic acid (3 C) is converted to acetyl CoA (2 C) CO 2 is given off Acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate (4 C) to form citrate (6 C) Citrate is metabolized to oxaloacetate Two CO 2 molecules given off Produces three molecules of NADH and one FADH Also forms one molecule of GTP Produces one ATP Figure

6 Figure 3.18 Fats Triglycerides glycerol and fatty acids Fatty acids acetyl CoA Beta oxidation Glycerolis notan important muscle fuelduring exercise Protein Broken down into amino acids Converted to glucose, pyruvic acid, acetyl CoA, and Krebs cycle intermediates Figure

7 Electron transport chain Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the mitochondria Electrons removed from NADH and FADH are passed along a series of carriers (cytochromes) to produce ATP Each NADH produces 2.5 ATP Each FADH produces 1.5 ATP Called the chemiosmotic hypothesis H + from NADH and FADH are accepted by O 2 to form water Electron transport chain results in pumping of H + ions across inner mitochondrial membrane Results in H + gradient across membrane Energy released to form ATP as H + ions diffuse back across the membrane Figure

8 Breakdown of triglycerides releases fatty acids Fatty acids must be converted to acetyl CoA to be used as a fuel Activated fatty acid (fatty acyl CoA) into mitochondrion Fatty acid chopped into 2 carbon fragments forming acetyl CoA Acetyl CoA enters Krebs cycle and is used for energy Figure 3.21 Oxidative phosphorylation or aerobic ATP production occurs in the mitochondria as a result of a complex interaction between the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. The primary role of the Krebs cycle is to complete the oxidation of substrates and form NADH and FADH to enter the electron transport chain. The end result of the electron transport chain is the formation of ATP and water. Water is formed by oxygen accepting electrons; hence, the reason we breathe oxygen is to use itas the final acceptor of 8

9 Aerobic ATP Tally Historically, 1 glucose produced 38 ATP Recent research indicates that 1 glucose produces 32 ATP Energy provided by NADH and FADH also used to transport ATP out of mitochondria. 3 H + must pass through H + channels to produce 1 ATP Another H + needed to move the ATP across the mitochondrial membrane Aerobic ATP Tally Metabolic Process High-Energy Products ATP from Oxidative Phosphorylation ATP Subtotal Glycolysis 2 ATP 2NADH 5 2 (if anaerobic) 7 (if aerobic) Pyruvic acid to acetyl-coa 2 NADH 5 12 Krebs cycle 2 GTP 14 6 NADH FADH 3 32 Grand Total 32 Efficiency of Oxidative Phosphorylation One mole of ATP has energy yield of 7.3 kcal 32 moles of ATP are formed from one mole of glucose Potential energy released from one mole of glucose is 686 kcal/mole l 32 moles ATP/mole glucose x 7.3 kcal/mole ATP 686 kcal/mole glucose x 100 = 34% Overall efficiency of aerobic respiration is 34% 66% of energy released as heat 9

10 Efficiency of Oxidative Phosphorylation The aerobic metabolism of one molecule of glucose results in the production of 32 ATP molecules, whereas the aerobic yield for glycogen breakdown is 33 ATP. The overall efficiency of aerobic of aerobic respiration is approximately 34%, with the remaining 66% of energy being released as heat. Control of Rate limiting enzymes An enzyme that regulates the rate of a metabolic pathway Modulators of rate limiting enzymes Levels of ATP and ADP+P P i High levels of ATP inhibit ATP production Low levels of ATP and high levels of ADP+P i stimulate ATP production Calcium may stimulate aerobic ATP production Control of Metabolism is regulated by enzymatic activity. An enzyme that regulates a metabolic pathway is termed a rate limiting enzyme. The rate limiting enzymefor glycolysis is phosphofructokinase, while the rate limiting enzymes for the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain are isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase, respectively. In general, cellular levels of ATP and ADP+P i regulate the rate of metabolic pathways involved in the production of ATP. High levels of 10

11 Interaction Between Aerobic/Anaerobic ATP Production Energy to perform exercise comes from an interaction between aerobic and anaerobic pathways Effect of duration and intensity Short term, high intensity h i i activities iii Greater contribution of anaerobic energy systems Long term, low to moderate intensity exercise Majority of ATP produced from aerobic sources Interaction Between Aerobic/Anaerobic ATP Production Figure

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