: The Body s Energy Shuttles. *The body s energy shuttles NADH, FADH 2

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1 Chapter 8 Metabolism Chapter Outline I. Energy: Fuel for Work. *Energy is necessary to do any kind of work. The body converts chemical energy from food sources carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into a form usable by cells. A. Transferring food energy to cellular energy (Figure 8.2) B. What is metabolism (Figure 8.3)? *Anabolic reactions (anabolism) build compounds. These reactions require energy. Catabolic reactions (catabolism) break compounds into smaller units. These reactions produce the energy. C. The cell is the metabolic processing center (Figure 8.4) Key terms: metabolism chemical energy, photosynthesis, metabolite, metabolic pathway, catabolism, anabolism, cell, nucleus, cytoplasm, cytosol, organelle, mitochondria, cofactor, coenzyme II. Who Are the Key Energy Players? A. ATP: The Body s Energy Currency (Figure 8.5). *Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy currency of the body. B. NADH and FADH 2 : The Body s Energy Shuttles. *The body s energy shuttles NADH, FADH 2, and NADPH are important carriers of hydrogen and high-energy electrons. NADH and FADH 2 are used in making ATP, while NADPH is used in biosynthetic reactions. C. NADPH: An Energy Shuttle for Biosynthesis Key terms: ATP, NADH, FADH 2, NADPH, biosynthesis, ADP, pyrophosphate, AMP, GTP, NAD, hydrogen ion, FAD III. Breakdown and Release of Energy. *Cells extract energy from carbohydrate via four main pathways: glycolysis, pyruvate into acetyl CoA, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain. A. Extracting Energy from Carbohydrate (Table 8.1). *The citric acid cycle and electron transport chain require oxygen. Glycolysis does not. 1. Glycolysis 2. Conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA 3. Citric acid cycle 4. Electron transport chain. The electron transport chain produces more ATP than the other catabolic pathways. 5. End products of glucose catabolism B. Extracting energy from fat. *To extract energy from fat, first triglycerides are separated into glycerol and fatty acids. Next, beta-oxidation breaks down the fatty acids to yield acetyl CoA, NADH, and FADH 2. The acetyl CoA enters the citric acid cycle, producing more NADH and FADH 2. The NADH and FADH 2 deliver their high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain to make ATP. 1. Carnitine shuttle 2. Beta-oxidation (Figure 8.14)

2 3. The citric acid cycle and electron transport chain complete fatty acid breakdown (Figure 8.15) C. Fat burns in a flame of carbohydrate D. Extracting energy from protein 1. Carbon skeletons enter pathways at different points. *To extract energy from amino acids, first it is deaminated (the amino acid is removed). Depending on the structure of the remaining carbon skeleton, it enters the catabolic pathways as pyruvate, acetyl CoA, or a citric acid cycle intermediate. The citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain complete the production of ATP. 2. End products of amino acid catabolism. *The liver converts the nitrogen portion of amino acids to urea, which the kidney excretes. Key terms: glycolysis, anaerobic, pyruvate, aerobic, acetyl CoA, coenzyme A, lactate, citric acid cycle, oxaloacetate, Krebs cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport chain, mitochondrial membrane, oxidative phosphorylation, carnitine, beta-oxidation, deamination IV. Alcohol Metabolism A. Metabolizing small amounts of alcohol (Figure 8.18) B. Metabolizing large amounts of alcohol (Figure 8.19) Key terms: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS) V. Biosynthesis and Storage (Figure 8.20). *Tissues differ in their preferred source of fuel. The brain, nervous system, and red blood cells rely primarily on glucose, while other tissues use a mix of glucose, fatty acids, and ketone bodies as fuel sources. A. Making carbohydrate (glucose). *When carbohydrate is available, glucose can be stored as glycogen in liver and muscle tissue. 1. Gluconeogenesis: pathways to glucose (Figure 8.21). *Glucose can be produced from the noncarbohydrate precursors glycerol and some (glucogenic) amino acids, but not from fatty acids. 2. Storage: Glucose to Glycogen B. Making fat (fatty acids) 1. Lipogenesis: pathways to fatty acids 2. Storage: dietary energy to stored triglyceride (Table 8.3) C. Making ketone bodies (Figure 7.20) 1. Ketogenesis: pathways to ketone bodies D. Making protein (amino acids) 1. Biosynthesis: making amino acids Key terms: gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, lipogenesis, ketones, ketogenesis, ketoacidosis, transamination V. Regulation of Metabolism. *The hormone insulin regulates metabolism by favoring anabolic pathways. It promotes the uptake of glucose by cells, thus removing it from the bloodstream. Glucagon, cortisol, and epinephrine stimulate catabolic pathways. These hormones promote the breakdown of glycogen to glucose and of amino acids to make

3 glucose via gluconeogenesis. The breakdown of liver glycogen increases the amount of glucose in the blood. A. Hormones of metabolism B. Special states 1. Feasting (Figure 8.24). *Feasting, or overconsumption of energy, leads to glycogen and triglyceride storage. a. The return to normal 2. Fasting (Figure 8.25). *Fasting, or underconsumption of energy, leads to mobilization of liver glycogen and stored triglycerides. Starvation, the state of prolonged fasting, leads to protein breakdown as well and can be fatal. a. Survival priorities and potential energy sources b. The prolonged fast: in the beginning c. The first few days (Figure 8.26) d. The early weeks e. Several weeks of fasting f. The end is near Classroom Activities ACTIVITY 1: TRIVIA See Activity 1 in Chapter 1 for an explanation on implementing trivia exercises into your classroom. TRIVIA QUESTIONS Name two of the forms of energy in biological systems. ANSWER: heat, mechanical, electrical, and chemical TRIVIA: What is the term for all chemical reactions within organisms that enable them to maintain life? ANSWER: metabolism TRIVIA: What are the two main categories of metabolism? ANSWER: catabolism and anabolism TRIVIA: Photosynthesis involves green plants using radiant energy from the sun to produce this macronutrient. ANSWER: carbohydrate TRIVIA: Name one of the two parts of the basic animal cell. ANSWER: cell nucleus and cytoplasm TRIVIA: What is the name for the powerhouses of cells? ANSWER: mitochondria TRIVIA: What is the fundamental energy molecule used to power cellular functions? ANSWER: adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

4 TRIVIA: How long is the typical lifetime of an ATP molecule? ANSWER: less than 1 minute TRIVIA: Name one out of three pathways cells extract energy from carbohydrates. ANSWER: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain TRIVIA: Triglycerides are broken down into what two components so that energy can be extracted from fat? ANSWER: glycerol and fatty acids TRIVIA: What element does the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain require that glycolysis does not? ANSWER: oxygen TRIVIA: What is the main storage form of glucose? ANSWER: glycogen TRIVIA: What is the nitrogen portion of amino acids converted to? ANSWER: urea TRIVIA: What organ excretes urea? ANSWER: kidneys TRIVIA: What is the preferred energy source for the brain? ANSWER: carbohydrates TRIVIA: True or False? Glucose can be produced from fatty acids. ANSWER: false TRIVIA: What hormone promotes the uptake of glucose by cells, thus removing glucose from the bloodstream? ANSWER: insulin TRIVIA: Name one out of the three hormones that promote the breakdown of glycogen to glucose. ANSWER: glucagon, cortisol, and epinephrine TRIVIA: What is the term for the breakdown of amino acids to make glucose? ANSWER: gluconeogenesis TRIVIA: True or False? Fasting causes the body to use energy more efficiently. ANSWER: true

5 ACTIVITY 2: PROCESSES FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION This activity can be used to help students understand how energy is derived from macronutrients and plants. Students should be asked to put the following steps under each process in the correct order that they happen in energy production. Process Transferring Food Energy to Cellular Energy a. Transfer of energy to a form that cells can use b. Digestion, absorption, and transportation or nutrients c. Break down of the many small molecules to a few key metabolites ANSWERS: b, c, a Process Photosynthesis a. Plants store glucose as starch and release oxygen into the atmosphere. b. Carbon dioxide from the air combines with water from the earth to form a carbohydrate (glucose) and oxygen. c. In the glucose molecules, the chemical bonds between the carbon and hydrogen atoms hold the energy from the sun. ANSWERS: b, a, c Process Extracting Energy from Fat a. NADH and FADH 2 deliver their high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain to make ATP. b. The acetyl CoA enters the citric acid cycle, producing more NADH and FADH. 2 c. Beta-oxidation breaks down the fatty acids to yield acetyl CoA, NADH, and FADH 2. d. Triglycerides are separated into glycerol and fatty acids. ANSWERS: d, c, b, a Process Extracting Energy from Amino Acids a. The amino group is removed (deaminated). b. Depending on the structure of the remaining carbon skeleton, the amino group enters the catabolic pathways as pyruvate, acetyl CoA, or a citric acid cycle intermediate. c. Completion of the production of ATP. d. The citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain become involved in producing ATP. ANSWERS: a, b, d, c

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