Chapter 3: Bioenergetics

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1 Chapter 3: Bioenergetics Introduction Metabolism: total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules Catabolic reactions Breakdown of molecules Bioenergetics Converting foodstuffs (fats, proteins, carbohydrates) into energy Objectives Discuss the function of cell membrane, nucleus, & mitochondria Define: endergonic, exergonic, coupled reactions & bioenergetics Describe how enzymes work Discuss nutrients used for energy Identify high-energy phosphates 1

2 Objectives Discuss anaerobic & aerobic production of ATP Describe how metabolic pathways are regulated Discuss the interaction of anaerobic & aerobic ATP production during exercise Identify the rate limiting enzymes Cell Structure Cell membrane Protective barrier between interior of cell and extracellular fluid Nucleus Contains genes that regulate protein synthesis Cytoplasm Fluid portion of cell Contains organelles (mitochondria) Structure of a Typical Cell Fig 3.1 2

3 Cellular Chemical Reactions Endergonic reactions Require energy to be added Exergonic reactions Release energy Coupled reactions Liberation of energy in an exergonic reaction drives an endergonic reaction The Breakdown of Glucose: An Exergonic Reaction Fig 3.3 Coupled Reactions Fig 3.4 3

4 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation: removing an electron Reduction: addition of an electron Oxidation and reduction are always coupled reactions In cells often involve the transfer of hydrogen atoms rather than free electrons Hydrogen atom contains one electron A molecule that loses a hydrogen also loses an electron, and therefore is oxidized Enzymes Catalysts that regulate the speed of reactions Lower the energy of activation Factors that regulate enzyme activity Temperature ph Interact with specific substrates Lock and key model Enzymes Lower the Energy of Activation Fig 3.6 4

5 Enzyme- Substrate Interaction Fig 3.7 (c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fuels for Exercise Carbohydrates Glucose Stored as glycogen Fats Primarily fatty acids Stored as triglycerides Proteins Not a primary energy source during exercise High-Energy Phosphates Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Consists of adenine, ribose, and three linked phosphates Formation ADP + P i ATP Breakdown ATP ATPase ADP + P i + Energy 5

6 Structure of ATP Fig 3.8 Model of ATP as the Universal Energy Donor Fig 3.9 Bioenergetics Formation of ATP Phosphocreatine (PC) breakdown Degradation of glucose and glycogen (glycolysis) Oxidative formation of ATP Anaerobic pathways Do not involve O 2 PC breakdown and glycolysis Aerobic pathways Require O 2 Oxidative phosphorylation 6

7 Anaerobic ATP Production ATP-PC system Immediate source of ATP PC + ADP Creatine kinase ATP + C Glycolysis Energy investment phase Requires 2 ATP Energy generation phase Produces ATP, NADH (carrier molecule), and pyruvate or lactate The Two Phases of Glycolysis Fig 3.10 Glycolysis Energy Investment Phase Fig

8 Glycolysis Energy Generation Phase Fig 3.11 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation Molecule accepts electrons (along with H + ) Reduction Molecule donates electrons Nicotinomide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) NAD + 2H + NADH + H + Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) FAD + 2H + FADH 2 Production of Lactic Acid Normally, O 2 is available in the mitochondria to accept H + (and electrons) from NADH produced in glycolysis In anaerobic pathways, O 2 is not available H + and electrons from NADH are accepted by pyruvic acid to form lactic acid 8

9 Conversion of Pyruvic Acid to Lactic Acid Fig 3.12 Aerobic ATP Production Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) Completes the oxidation of substrates and produces NADH and FADH to enter the electron transport chain Electron transport chain Oxidative phosphorylation Electrons removed from NADH and FADH are passed along a series of carriers to produce ATP H + from NADH and FADH are accepted by O 2 to form water The Three Stages of Oxidative Phosphorylation Fig

10 The Krebs Cycle Fig 3.14 Relationship Between the Metabolism of Proteins, Fats, and Carbohydrates Fig 3.15 Electron Transport Chain Fig

11 The Chemiosmotic Hypothesis of ATP Formation Electron transport chain results in pumping of H + ions across inner mitochondrial membrane Results in H + gradient across membrane Energy released to form ATP as H + diffuse back across the membrane The Chemiosmotic Hypothesis of ATP Formation Fig 3.16 Aerobic ATP Tally Metabolic Process High-Energy Products ATP from Oxidative Phosphorylation ATP Subtotal Glycolysis 2 ATP 2 NADH Pyruvic acid to acetyl-coa 2 NADH 5 12 Krebs cycle 2 GTP 6 NADH 2 FADH Grand Total (if anaerobic) 7 (if aerobic) 2.5 ATP per NADH 1.5 APT per FADH Table

12 Efficiency of Oxidative Phosphorylation Aerobic metabolism of one molecule of glucose Yields 32 ATP Aerobic metabolism of one molecule of glycogen Yields 33 ATP Overall efficiency of aerobic respiration is 34% 66% of energy released as heat Control of Bioenergetics Rate-limiting enzymes An enzyme that regulates the rate of a metabolic pathway Levels of ATP and ADP+P i High levels of ATP inhibit ATP production Low levels of ATP and high levels of ADP+P i stimulate ATP production Calcium may stimulate aerobic ATP production Action of Rate-Limiting Enzymes Fig

13 Control of Metabolic Pathways Pathway Rate-Limiting Enzyme Stimulators Inhibitors ATP-PC system Creatine kinase ADP ATP Glycolysis Phosphofructokinase AMP, ADP, Pi, ph ATP, CP, citrate, ph Krebs cycle Isocitrate dehydrogenase ADP, Ca ++, NAD ATP, NADH Electron transport chain Cytochrome Oxidase ADP, Pi ATP Table 3.2 ATP-PC System PC + ADP 1 Control of Bioenergetics C + ATP Glycogen Glucose Rate Limiting Enzymes 1. Creatine kinase 2. Phosphofructokinase 3. Iscitrate dehydrogenase 4. Cytochrome oxidase Glycerol Glucose 6-phosphate 2 Phosphoglyceraldehyde Glycolysis Triglycerides Lactic Acid Pyruvic Acid Fatty acids β-ox Acetyl CoA Amino Acids Proteins Table 3.2 Ketone bodies C 4 C 6 Urea Kerb s Cycle NADH 3 ETS C FADH 5 4 Interaction Between Aerobic and Anaerobic ATP Production Energy to perform exercise comes from an interaction between aerobic and anaerobic pathways Effect of duration and intensity Short-term, high-intensity activities Greater contribution of anaerobic energy systems Long-term, low to moderate-intensity exercise Majority of ATP produced from aerobic sources 13

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