Regulation of Metabolism. Enzymes and Cellular Energy

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Regulation of Metabolism. Enzymes and Cellular Energy"

Transcription

1 Regulation of Metabolism Local (intrinsic) Control Mechanisms Enzymes and Cellular Energy Cellular metabolism consists of: Catabolism: the breakdown of organic molecules Anabolism: the synthesis of organic molecules 2

2 Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions break and form chemical bonds. Breakdown and synthesis of organic molecules is accomplished through chemical reactions. The substance (or substances) initially involved in a biochemical reactions are called reactants. Chemical reactions are usually characterized by a chemical change, and they yield one or more products, which usually have properties different from the reactants. Products are formed as the chemical reaction progresses toward chemical equilibrium at a certain reaction rate 3 Chemical Reaction Rate

3 Reversible and Irreversible Reactions Law of Mass Action The direction of a chemical reaction is determined in part by the concentrations of reactant and product. If a reaction is in equilibrium, it can be accelerated by adding reactance or removing products Adding glucose to a cell accelerates glycolysis Removing lactate accelerates lactate formation 6

4 Metabolic Pathways Metabolic pathways are series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. In each pathway, a principal chemical is modified by a series of chemical reactions. Enzymes catalyze these reactions Additional dietary minerals, vitamins, and cofactors are often required for pathway to function properly. Numerous distinct metabolic pathways coexist within a cell. Metabolic Pathways The metabolic pathway involves the step bystep modification of an initial molecule to form another product. The resulting product can be used in one of three ways: (1) used immediately, as the end product of a metabolic pathway (2) used to initiate another metabolic pathway (3) stored by the cell

5 Metabolic Pathways A reactant molecule called a substrate enters a metabolic pathway Depending on the activity of the cell and the availability of the substrate, the pathway can speed or slow The product of one reaction in the pathway is a substrate for the next reaction An increase in concentration of intermediates and/or end products may influence the metabolic rate for that particular pathway. Metabolic Pathways Each metabolic pathway consists of a series of biochemical reactions that are connected by their intermediates: the products of one reaction are the substrates for subsequent reactions, and so on.

6 Metabolic Pathways Metabolic pathways are often considered to flow in one direction. Although all chemical reactions are technically reversible, conditions in the cell are often such that it is thermodynamically more favorable for flux to flow in one direction of a reaction. One pathway may be responsible for the synthesis of a product; the breakdown may usually occur via a separate and distinct pathway. Enzymes and Cellular Energy Cellular metabolism consists of: Catabolism: the breakdown of organic molecules Anabolism: the synthesis of organic molecules Anabolic and catabolic often occur independently of each other, separated either physically by compartmentalization within organelles or separated biochemically by the requirement of different enzymes and co factors.

7 Regulation of Metabolic Pathways using Enzyme Mediated Reactions Metabolic pathways are regulated by three major factors: Substrate Concentration Enzyme Concentration (induce or inhibit protein enzyme formation slow) Enzyme Activity Alter enzyme shape Allosteric modulation Alter ph Alter temperature in which enzyme functions 14

8 Regulation of Metabolic Pathways End Product Regulation Accumulation of an end product of allosterically directly alters activity of a rate limiting enzyme Occurs early in pathway A form of intrinsic negative feedback control Examples Presence of ADP increases activity of PFK in glycolysis Presence of ATP decreases activity PFK in glycolysis Presence of NADH increases activity of isocitric dehydrogenase in the Krebs Cycle Krebs cycle regulation The regulation of the TCA cycle is largely determined by substrate availability and product inhibition. NADH, a product of all dehydrogenases in the TCA cycle with the exception of succinate dehydrogenase, inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, α ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and also citrate synthase. Acetyl coa inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase Succinyl CoA inhibits alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase. When tested in vitro with TCA enzymes ATP inhibits citrate synthase and α ketoglutarate dehydrogenase Citrate is used for feedback inhibition, as it inhibits phosphofructokinase, an enzyme involved in glycolysis that catalyses formation of fructose 1,6 bisphosphate,a precursor of pyruvate. This prevents a constant high rate of flux when there is an accumulation of citrate and a decrease in substrate for the enzyme.

9 Ca++ regulation of metabolic pathways Krebs Cycle: Ca++ activates pyruvate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. Glycogen breakdown to glucose Ca++ stimulates glycogen phosphorylase which catalyzes reaction: glycogen glycogen + glucose 1 phosphate Extrinsic Regulation of Pathways Hormones and neurotransmitters influence substrate availability Adrenalin stimulates glycogen phosphorylase activity: glycogen glycogen + glucose 1 phosphate

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name Advanced Biology Enzyme and Cellular Respiration Test Part I Multiple Choice (75 points) MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The

More information

BIOCHEMISTRY. Glycolysis

BIOCHEMISTRY. Glycolysis BIOCHEMISTRY Glycolysis 1 Regulation of Glucose Metabolism Regulation of Glucose Metabolism 2 3 Phosphofructokinase Key enzyme in the control of glycolysis Allosteric regulation Allosteric regulation of

More information

Pyruvate Oxidation and the Krebs Cycle. Courtney, Chelsey, Morgan, GSchilbeG, Tessa

Pyruvate Oxidation and the Krebs Cycle. Courtney, Chelsey, Morgan, GSchilbeG, Tessa Pyruvate Oxidation and the Krebs Cycle Courtney, Chelsey, Morgan, GSchilbeG, Tessa Pyruvate Oxidation Pyruvate Oxidation Pyruvate is a glucose molecule cut in half Pyruvate oxidation is the second stage

More information

Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle

Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle Bởi: OpenStaxCollege If oxygen is available, aerobic respiration will go forward. In eukaryotic cells, the pyruvate molecules produced at the end of glycolysis

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

More information

Pyruvate dehydrogenase

Pyruvate dehydrogenase Metabolism: Citric acid cycle Hand-out for the CBT version November 2011 This module is based on Chapter 17: Citric Acid Cycle of 'Biochemistry' by Berg, Tymoczko and Stryer, seventh edition (2011). The

More information

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. Section C: Related Metabolic Processes

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. Section C: Related Metabolic Processes CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY Section C: Related Metabolic Processes 1. Fermentation allows some cells to produce ATP without the help of oxygen 2. Glycolysis and the Krebs

More information

Chapter 3: Bioenergetics

Chapter 3: Bioenergetics Chapter 3: Bioenergetics Introduction Metabolism: total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules Catabolic reactions Breakdown of molecules Bioenergetics

More information

Citric Acid Cycle. in a manner that conserves the liberated free energy for ATP production

Citric Acid Cycle. in a manner that conserves the liberated free energy for ATP production What is it? Series of rxns that oxidize acetyl CoA to 2CO 2 in a manner that conserves the liberated free energy for ATP production Breakdown products of glc, fats and amino acids are all oxidized via

More information

2- The conversion of 1 mol of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to 2 mol of pyruvate by the glycolytic pathway results in a net formation of:

2- The conversion of 1 mol of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to 2 mol of pyruvate by the glycolytic pathway results in a net formation of: Section 8 Key 1- During strenuous exercise, the NADH formed in the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction in skeletal muscle must be reoxidized to NAD + if glycolysis is to continue. The most

More information

THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE. aka Krebs cycle or Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle

THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE. aka Krebs cycle or Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE aka Krebs cycle or Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle Overview of Citric Acid Cycle Feed to cycle is the acetyl group note that this is already partially oxidized In this cycle, we will

More information

1. Enzymes. Biochemical Reactions. Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism. 1. Enzymes. 2. ATP Production. 3. Autotrophic Processes

1. Enzymes. Biochemical Reactions. Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism. 1. Enzymes. 2. ATP Production. 3. Autotrophic Processes Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism 1. Enzymes 2. ATP Production 3. Autotrophic Processes 1. Enzymes Biochemical Reactions All living cells depend on biochemical reactions to maintain homeostasis. All of the

More information

Ch 4: Energy and Cellular Metabolism

Ch 4: Energy and Cellular Metabolism Ch 4: Energy and Cellular Metabolism Energy as it relates to Biology Chemical reactions Enzymes and how they speed rxs Metabolism and metabolic pathways Catabolism (ATP production) Anabolism (Synthesis

More information

What affects an enzyme s activity? General environmental factors, such as temperature and ph. Chemicals that specifically influence the enzyme.

What affects an enzyme s activity? General environmental factors, such as temperature and ph. Chemicals that specifically influence the enzyme. CH s 8-9 Respiration & Metabolism Metabolism A catalyst is a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. An enzyme is a catalytic protein. Hydrolysis of sucrose by

More information

Gluconeogenesis. Anabolic pathway that makes glucose from pyruvate Net result = reverse of glycolysis

Gluconeogenesis. Anabolic pathway that makes glucose from pyruvate Net result = reverse of glycolysis Anabolic pathway that makes glucose from pyruvate Net result = reverse of glycolysis Three topics: 1. Thermodynamics 2. Enzymes 3. Regulation 1. Thermodynamics Reversing glycolysis requires energy to pump

More information

The diagram below summarizes the effects of the compounds that cells use to regulate their own metabolism.

The diagram below summarizes the effects of the compounds that cells use to regulate their own metabolism. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism Intracellular metabolic regulators Each of the control point steps in the carbohydrate metabolic pathways in effect regulates itself by responding to molecules that

More information

Metabolism. Metabolism. Total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body. Bioenergetics. 1. Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules

Metabolism. Metabolism. Total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body. Bioenergetics. 1. Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules Metabolism Metabolism Total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body 1. Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules 2. Catabolic reactions Breakdown of molecules Bioenergetics Converting foodstuffs

More information

Human Biology Higher Homework: Topic Human Cells. Sub-topic3: Cell Metabolism

Human Biology Higher Homework: Topic Human Cells. Sub-topic3: Cell Metabolism Human Biology Higher Homework: Topic Human Cells Sub-topic3: Cell Metabolism 1. During which of the following chemical conversions is A T P produced? A B C D Amino acids protein Glucose pyruvic acid Haemoglobin

More information

Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle

Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle OpenStax-CNX module: m44433 1 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the

More information

Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle

Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle OpenStax-CNX module: m47334 1 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle Robert Bear David Rintoul Based on Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle by OpenStax College This work is produced

More information

Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second

More information

Lecture: 4 Biochemistry Anwar J Almzaiel. Citric acid cycle

Lecture: 4 Biochemistry Anwar J Almzaiel. Citric acid cycle Citric acid cycle Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle) is a series of reactions in mitochondria that bring about the catabolism of acetyl residues, liberating hydrogen equivalents,

More information

2. Give the formula (with names) for the catabolic degradation of glucose by cellular respiration.

2. Give the formula (with names) for the catabolic degradation of glucose by cellular respiration. Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture.

More information

PG1005. Lecture 12. Kreb s Citric Acid Cycle

PG1005. Lecture 12. Kreb s Citric Acid Cycle PG1005 Lecture 12 Kreb s Citric Acid Cycle Dr. Neil Docherty My Teaching Objectives To discuss the transition from pyruvate generation in the cytosol to the establishment of electron harvesting reactions

More information

To get from intermembrane space to matrix involves pyruvate translocase (symporter that also moves H + into matrix).

To get from intermembrane space to matrix involves pyruvate translocase (symporter that also moves H + into matrix). 1 Chapter 12 - The Citric Acid Cycle Summary: Yields reduced coenzymes (NADH and QH 2 ) and some ATP (2). Preparative step is oxidative decarboxylation involving coenzyme A. Occurs in eucaryotic mitochondrion

More information

Energy & Enzymes. Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy.

Energy & Enzymes. Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy. Energy & Enzymes Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy. 1 Energy exists in two forms - potential and kinetic. Potential

More information

The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP

The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP ATP drives endergonic reactions by phosphorylation, transferring a phosphate group to some other molecule, such as a reactant The recipient molecule is now called a

More information

The matrix contains Pyruvate Dehydrogenase, enzymes of Krebs Cycle, and other pathways, e.g., fatty acid oxidation & amino acid metabolism.

The matrix contains Pyruvate Dehydrogenase, enzymes of Krebs Cycle, and other pathways, e.g., fatty acid oxidation & amino acid metabolism. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol of cells. matrix Pyruvate enters the mitochondrion to be metabolized further. cristae intermembrane space Mitochondrial Compartments: inner membrane mitochondrion outer

More information

Energy Concepts. Study Objectives:

Energy Concepts. Study Objectives: Energy Concepts Study Objectives: 1. Define energy 2.Describe the 1 st law of thermodynamics Compare kinetic and potential energy, be able to give or recognize examples of each 3. Describe the major forms

More information

What s the point? ATP! Electron Transport Chain ATP

What s the point? ATP! Electron Transport Chain ATP http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcpnk92uswy What s the point? Cellular Respiration The point Stage 4: is to make ATP! Electron Transport Chain ATP 2013-2014 Cellular respiration ATP accounting so far Even

More information

LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS First Law: E cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed. Second Law: When E is transformed, some cannot be used for work

LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS First Law: E cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed. Second Law: When E is transformed, some cannot be used for work ENERGY, ENZYMES AND METABOLISM CHAPTER 8 Lecture Objectives What Physical Principles Underlie Biological Energy Transformations? What Is the Role of ATP in Biochemical Energetics? What Are Enzymes? How

More information

The Citric Acid Cycle

The Citric Acid Cycle Mary K. Campbell Shawn O. Farrell http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/campbell Chapter 19 The Citric Acid Cycle Paul D. Adams University of Arkansas Major pathways of glucose utilization 1 2 4 3 C 6

More information

Citric Acid cycle or Tricarboxylic Acid cycle or Krebs Cycle Overview and brief history

Citric Acid cycle or Tricarboxylic Acid cycle or Krebs Cycle Overview and brief history Citric Acid cycle or Tricarboxylic Acid cycle or Krebs Cycle Overview and brief history Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDC) and its control Reactions of TCA cycle or CAC Amphibolic nature of TCA cycle

More information

Fall 2016 Due November 22. Bi/Ch110 Problem Set 4

Fall 2016 Due November 22. Bi/Ch110 Problem Set 4 Bi/Ch110 Problem Set 4 Problem 1: Overview of metabolism (33 points) a. (12 points) Metabolic pathways often reuse reaction motifs to perform the necessary transformations required. List six major reaction

More information

Chapter 16. The Citric Acid Cycle

Chapter 16. The Citric Acid Cycle Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle 1 Catabolic Fates of Pyruvate Fig. 14.3 2 Overview: The Three Stages of Cellular Respiration Stage 1: Acetyl-CoA [ 乙醯輔酶 A] Production from Glucose Fatty Acids Amino Acids

More information

Chapter 22. Structure and Function. Structure of Acetyl CoA Conversion of. Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA The Mitochondria

Chapter 22. Structure and Function. Structure of Acetyl CoA Conversion of. Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA The Mitochondria Copyright! The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 22.1 The Mitochondria Denniston Topping Caret 5 th Edition Chapter 22 Aerobic Respiration and Energy Production

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 23 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 23.1 The digestion of polysaccharides takes place in stage 1. 23.2 In stage 3, small molecules are converted to CO 2, H 2 O, and energy for ATP synthesis. 23.3

More information

Chapter 13 (part 1) Additional Pathways in Carbohydrate Metabolism

Chapter 13 (part 1) Additional Pathways in Carbohydrate Metabolism Chapter 13 (part 1) Additional Pathways in Carbohydrate Metabolism Metabolism of Tissue Glycogen But tissue glycogen is an important energy reservoir - its breakdown is carefully controlled Glycogen consists

More information

Chapter 16 Homework Assignment

Chapter 16 Homework Assignment Chapter 16 Homework Assignment The following problems will be due once we finish the chapter: 1, 3, 7, 10, 16, 19, 20 Additional Problem: Write out the eight reaction steps of the Citric Acid Cycle, using

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Most components of energy conversion systems evolved very early; thus, the most fundamental aspects of energy metabolism tend to be: A. quite different among a diverse group

More information

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Two Forms of Energy

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Two Forms of Energy Module 2D - Energy and Metabolism Objective # 19 All living organisms require energy for survival. In this module we will examine some general principles about chemical reactions and energy usage within

More information

An Introduction to Metabolism. Chapter 8

An Introduction to Metabolism. Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism Chapter 8 METABOLISM I. Introduction All of an organism s chemical reactions Thousands of reactions in a cell Example: digest starch use sugar for energy and to build new

More information

Ch. 20 Tricarboxylic acid cyle. TCA cycle (Kreb s cycle) or citric acid cycle: Generates 2/3 of ATP

Ch. 20 Tricarboxylic acid cyle. TCA cycle (Kreb s cycle) or citric acid cycle: Generates 2/3 of ATP Chapt. 20 TCA cycle Ch. 20 Tricarboxylic acid cyle Student Learning Outcomes: Describe relevance of TCA cycle Acetyl CoA funnels products Describe reactions of TCA cycle in cell respiration: 2C added,

More information

The citric acid cycle is the final common pathway of the oxidation of fuel molecules. Most fuel molecules enter the pathway as Acetyl CoA:

The citric acid cycle is the final common pathway of the oxidation of fuel molecules. Most fuel molecules enter the pathway as Acetyl CoA: ATP The citric acid cycle is the final common pathway of the oxidation of fuel molecules. Most fuel molecules enter the pathway as Acetyl CoA: Citric acid cycle=krebs cycle=tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle

More information

The process by which cells break down organic molecules (food) to make ATP is called cellular respiration

The process by which cells break down organic molecules (food) to make ATP is called cellular respiration Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Photosynthesis makes O 2 and organic molecules (like sugars and proteins), which are used in cellular respiration Cells use chemical energy

More information

Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism

Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism 1. Discuss energy conversions and the 1 st and 2 nd law of thermodynamics. Be sure to use the terms work, potential energy, kinetic energy, and entropy. 2. What are Joules

More information

16.2 Reactions of the Citric Acid Cycle

16.2 Reactions of the Citric Acid Cycle 16.2 Reactions of the Citric Acid Cycle The Sequence of Reactions in the Citric Acid Cycle Make Chemical Sense Acetyl CoA, an intermediate of the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, must be

More information

The Chemical Reactions in Glycolysis

The Chemical Reactions in Glycolysis 12.4 Glycolysis From Hydrolysis Products to Common Metabolites The Chemical Reactions in Glycolysis In the body, energy must be transferred in small amounts to minimize the heat released in the process.

More information

Chapter 11 Catabolism of Hexoses. Glucose is the focal point of carbohydrate breakdown.

Chapter 11 Catabolism of Hexoses. Glucose is the focal point of carbohydrate breakdown. hapter 11 atabolism of Hexoses Glucose is the focal point of carbohydrate breakdown. Glycolysis: A pathway made up of 10 steps in which glucose ( 6 H 12 6 ) is transformed into 2 molecules of pyruvate

More information

Unit 3 Lecture 11 METABOLISM

Unit 3 Lecture 11 METABOLISM Unit 3 Lecture METABOLISM Anabolism is defined as the chemical reactions that combine simple substances into more complex molecules (requires energy). Examples of anabolism include glycogenesis (conversion

More information

Intro to Metabolism Campbell Chapter 8

Intro to Metabolism Campbell Chapter 8 Intro to Metabolism Campbell Chapter 8 http://ag.ansc.purdue.edu/sheep/ansc442/semprojs/2003/spiderlamb/eatsheep.gif http://www.gifs.net Section 8.1 An organism s metabolism transforms matter and energy,

More information

1. A covalent bond between two atoms represents what kind of energy? a. Kinetic energy b. Potential energy c. Mechanical energy d.

1. A covalent bond between two atoms represents what kind of energy? a. Kinetic energy b. Potential energy c. Mechanical energy d. 1. A covalent bond between two atoms represents what kind of energy? a. Kinetic energy b. Potential energy c. Mechanical energy d. Solar energy A. Answer a is incorrect. Kinetic energy is the energy of

More information

Unit 2 Metabolism and Survival Summary

Unit 2 Metabolism and Survival Summary Unit 2 Metabolism and Survival Summary 1 Metabolism pathways and their control (a) Introduction to metabolic pathways This involves integrated and controlled pathways of enzymecatalysed reactions within

More information

Citric Acid Cycle. Cycle Overview. Metabolic Sources of Acetyl-Coenzyme A. Enzymes of the Citric Acid Cycle. Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle

Citric Acid Cycle. Cycle Overview. Metabolic Sources of Acetyl-Coenzyme A. Enzymes of the Citric Acid Cycle. Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle Citric Acid Cycle Cycle Overview Metabolic Sources of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Enzymes of the Citric Acid Cycle Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle The Amphibolic Nature of the Citric Acid Cycle Cycle Overview

More information

Microbiology - Problem Drill 05: Microbial Metabolism

Microbiology - Problem Drill 05: Microbial Metabolism Microbiology - Problem Drill 05: Microbial Metabolism No. 1 of 10 1. Anabolism is a metabolic process where are turned into molecules. (A) Complex, simple (B) Simple, ATP (C) Simple, ATP (D) Simple, complex

More information

Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism

Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism Name Period Concept 8.1 An organism s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics 1. Define metabolism. 2. There are two types of reactions in metabolic pathways: anabolic

More information

8/13/2009. Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Summary of Cellular Respiration. Aerobic Cellular respiration

8/13/2009. Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Summary of Cellular Respiration. Aerobic Cellular respiration Metabolism Cellular Metabolism Consists of all of the chemical reactions that take place in a cell Biol 105 Lecture 6 Read Chapter 3 (pages 63 69) Cellular Metabolism Aerobic cellular respiration requires

More information

19. The Citric Acid Cycle

19. The Citric Acid Cycle 19. The Citric Acid Cycle 19.1 The Central Role of Citric Acid Cycle Play in Metabolism Evolution of aerobic metabolism - Nutrients are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. - Organisms can obtain far

More information

Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy. Cellular Respiration Is the main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP

Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy. Cellular Respiration Is the main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Standard 1.g. Cellular Respiration Is the main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP Is an aerobic process Yields The Relationship

More information

THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE TRICARBOXYLIC ACID(TCA) CYCLE KREBS CYCLE

THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE TRICARBOXYLIC ACID(TCA) CYCLE KREBS CYCLE THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE TRICARBOXYLIC ACID(TCA) CYCLE KREBS CYCLE Production of Acetyl-CoA Reactions of the citric acid cycle Regulation of the citric acid cycle Sir Hans Adolf Krebs A medical doctor and

More information

Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle

Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is not true of the reaction catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? A) Biotin participates in the decarboxylation.

More information

Bioenergetics. Free Energy Change

Bioenergetics. Free Energy Change Bioenergetics Energy is the capacity or ability to do work All organisms need a constant supply of energy for functions such as motion, transport across membrane barriers, synthesis of biomolecules, information

More information

Learning Objectives. Learning Objectives (cont.) Chapter 6: Metabolism - Energy & Enzymes 1. Lectures by Tariq Alalwan, Ph.D.

Learning Objectives. Learning Objectives (cont.) Chapter 6: Metabolism - Energy & Enzymes 1. Lectures by Tariq Alalwan, Ph.D. Biology, 10e Sylvia S. Mader Lectures by Tariq Alalwan, Ph.D. Learning Objectives Define energy, emphasizing how it is related to work and to heat State and apply two energy laws to energy transformations.

More information

A) citrate to isocitrate. B) fumarate to malate. C) malate to oxaloacetate. D) succinate to fumarate. E) succinyl-coa to succinate

A) citrate to isocitrate. B) fumarate to malate. C) malate to oxaloacetate. D) succinate to fumarate. E) succinyl-coa to succinate Section 9 Key 1- There is reciprocal regulation of glycolytic and gluconeogenic reactions interconverting fructose-6-phosphate and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Which one of the following statements about

More information

THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE

THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE Introduction In this Cbse Biology Notes on the Citric Acid Cycle, also called the Krebs Cycle, we will pick up where we left off in the last section with the aerobic product of glycolysis,

More information

Lecture 11. Krebs Cycle Reactions. Overview of Stage II of Catabolism. Beginning of Stage III: The Krebs Cycle. Acetyl-CoA

Lecture 11. Krebs Cycle Reactions. Overview of Stage II of Catabolism. Beginning of Stage III: The Krebs Cycle. Acetyl-CoA Overview of Stage II of Catabolism Lecture 11 Chapter 24: Metabolism and Energy Krebs Cycle, Cellular Respiration and Muscle Power! In Stage II- specific metabolic pathways, for amino acids, simple sugars,

More information

1. Explain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration.

1. Explain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration. : Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture. Photosynthesis and cellular

More information

AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration

AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the term used for the metabolic pathway in which

More information

Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Un-lecture!

Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Un-lecture! Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Un-lecture! Numbers correspond to the slides, which are in your lecture notes and also posted on-line on the announcements page. 1. Characteristics of enzymes.we went over

More information

Biochemistry of muscle

Biochemistry of muscle Biochemistry of muscle Department of Animal Science and Food Sciences Advance Meat Science and Muscle Biology The ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the ultimate source of energy for: The contractile process.

More information

Biochemistry -I Prof. S. Dasgupta Department of Chemistry Indian Institute of Chemistry, Kharagpur Lecture # 25 Metabolism - I

Biochemistry -I Prof. S. Dasgupta Department of Chemistry Indian Institute of Chemistry, Kharagpur Lecture # 25 Metabolism - I Biochemistry -I Prof. S. Dasgupta Department of Chemistry Indian Institute of Chemistry, Kharagpur Lecture # 25 Metabolism - I The final chapter of this course deals with metabolism. In metabolism we need

More information

Anabolic and Catabolic Reactions are Linked by ATP in Living Organisms

Anabolic and Catabolic Reactions are Linked by ATP in Living Organisms Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism Microbial Metabolism Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions that occur within a living a living organism. These chemical reactions are generally of two types: Catabolic:

More information

Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways

Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Enzyme characteristics Made of protein Catalysts: reactions occur 1,000,000 times faster with enzymes Not part of reaction Not changed or affected by reaction Used over and

More information

: The Body s Energy Shuttles. *The body s energy shuttles NADH, FADH 2

: The Body s Energy Shuttles. *The body s energy shuttles NADH, FADH 2 Chapter 8 Metabolism Chapter Outline I. Energy: Fuel for Work. *Energy is necessary to do any kind of work. The body converts chemical energy from food sources carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into a

More information

Chapter 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Chapter 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION HARVESTING FREE ENERGY Photosynthesis takes free energy and puts it into carbohydrates/sugars Carbohydrates can be stored for later use; light can not and neither can ATP

More information

Summary of Metabolic Pathways (Ch 21,23 and 25)

Summary of Metabolic Pathways (Ch 21,23 and 25) Summary of Metabolic Pathways (Ch 21,23 and 25) 21.1 Energy and Life Energy can be converted from one form to another, but can t be created or destroyed. -A consequence of this is that we need a constant

More information

Chapter 19 Enzymes and Vitamins

Chapter 19 Enzymes and Vitamins 1.! What are enzymes? Be able to describe the chemical nature of enzymes and their function in biochemical reactions.! 2.! How do enzymes work, and why are they so specific? Be able to provide an overview

More information

1/21/2009. ATP PC system Immediate source of ATP

1/21/2009. ATP PC system Immediate source of ATP Scott K. Powers Edward T. Howley Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance SEVENTH EDITION Chapter Presentation prepared by: Brian B. Parr, Ph.D. University of South Carolina Aiken Copyright 2009

More information

CHAPTER 16 - CITRIC ACID CYCLE

CHAPTER 16 - CITRIC ACID CYCLE HAPTE 6 - ITI AID YLE Introduction: - Glycolysis and other catabolic pathways are oxidative. Electrons are stripped from a fuel substrate (e.g., glucose) and passed to the appropriate electron acceptor,

More information

7/20/2015. Energy. Lecture 4 Outline (Ch. 8) Energy. What is Energy?

7/20/2015. Energy. Lecture 4 Outline (Ch. 8) Energy. What is Energy? Lecture 4 Outline (Ch. 8) I. Overview II. Thermodynamics III. Metabolism and IV. Cellular (ATP) and coupled reactions V. Enzymes and Regulation VI. Summary What is? Where does our (humans) energy come

More information

Energy and Life. Energy= the ability to do work. Autotrophs= use sunlight, CO 2, and water to make their own food (sugars) PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Energy and Life. Energy= the ability to do work. Autotrophs= use sunlight, CO 2, and water to make their own food (sugars) PHOTOSYNTHESIS Energy and Life Energy= the ability to do work Autotrophs= use sunlight, CO 2, and water to make their own food (sugars) PHOTOSYNTHESIS Heterotrophs= can t make their own food, they have to eat autotrophs

More information

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture.

More information

Name Student Activity

Name Student Activity Open the TI-Nspire document Cellular_Respiration.tns. All living things require energy to stay alive. Most of this energy comes from food, often in the form of glucose. Cells share common pathways to metabolize

More information

Define the term energy and distinguish between potential and kinetic energy.

Define the term energy and distinguish between potential and kinetic energy. Energy and Chemical Reactions Objective # 1 All living organisms require energy for survival. In this topic we will examine some general principles about energy usage and chemical reactions within cells.

More information

Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism

Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism Sep 7 9:07 PM 1 Metabolism=all of the chemical reactions within an organism metabolic pathways are chemical reactions that change molecules in a series of steps

More information

Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Synthesis takes place in the cytosol Intermediates covalently linked to acyl carrier protein Activation of each acetyl CoA. acetyl CoA + CO 2 Malonyl CoA Four-step repeating cycle, extension by 2-carbons

More information

Enzymes and Metabolism

Enzymes and Metabolism Enzymes and Metabolism AP Biology Chapter 8 Metabolism Metabolism are all the chemical reactions in an organism Forming bonds between molecules dehydration synthesis synthesis of new muscle tissue by linking

More information

monosaccharides fatty acids amino acids

monosaccharides fatty acids amino acids Cellular Energy In order to sustain life (steady state), cells constantly expend energy in the form of ATP hydrolysis the hydrolysis of ATP yields a molecule of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and a Phosphate

More information

Chem 454 Regulatory Mechanisms in Biochemistry Review for Exam I - Spring 2003 Chapter 14 Metabolism: Basic Concepts and Design Classify organisms based on their source of energy. Describe the energy requirements

More information

Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism

Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism Name Period Concept 8.1 An organism s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics 1. Define metabolism. The totality of an organism

More information

2. Now examine aspects of the last stage in greater detail

2. Now examine aspects of the last stage in greater detail IX. Metabolism and Energy Production A. Introduction Slide 1. R `ism a. Stage I: Breakdown of macromolecules into their building blocks (1) Proteins amino acids (2) Polysaccharides, disaccharides monosaccharides

More information

Exam 3. If I cannot read your writing I will not grade the answer and it will be assigned 0 points.

Exam 3. If I cannot read your writing I will not grade the answer and it will be assigned 0 points. Chemistry 326 Fall 2009 Name Check Section: Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Exam 3 If I cannot read your writing I will not grade the answer and it will be assigned 0 points. 1. Multiple Choice (choose the

More information

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline I. How cells get energy. A. Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration includes the various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other

More information

An Introduction to Metabolism

An Introduction to Metabolism Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism Overview: The Energy of Life The living cell is a miniature chemical factory where thousands of reactions occur The cell extracts energy and applies energy to perform

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Slide 1 Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley

More information

Chapter 15 Homework Assignment

Chapter 15 Homework Assignment Chapter 15 Homework Assignment The following problems will be due once we finish i the chapter: 3, 5, 6, 8, 9 Chapter 15 1 Chapter 15 Principles of Metabolic Regulation 1 Regulation of Metabolic Pathways

More information

Chapter 15 Principles of Metabolic Regulation

Chapter 15 Principles of Metabolic Regulation Required assignment at end of chapter Chapter 15 Principles of Metabolic Regulation A good chapter that shows the interplay in regulation needed to make an organism work. Unfortunately I think we need

More information

Lecture 4 Enzymes Catalytic proteins. Enzymes. Enzymes 10/21/10. What enzymes do therefore is:

Lecture 4 Enzymes Catalytic proteins. Enzymes. Enzymes 10/21/10. What enzymes do therefore is: Lecture 4 Catalytic proteins Are a type of protein that acts as a catalyst-speeding up chemical reactions A catalyst is defined as a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed

More information

Metabolism - Part 1 Glycolysis & Respiration

Metabolism - Part 1 Glycolysis & Respiration Metabolism - Part 1 Glycolysis & Respiration Cells harvest chemical energy from foodstuffs in a series of exergonic reactions. The harvested energy can then be used to power energy demanding processes

More information

Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase

Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase Pyruvic Acid Dehydrogenase Complex Pyruvate to ACETYL coa CC CoA + CO 2 Mitochondria 3 carbon Pyruvate to 2 carbon ACETYL Coenzyme A Pyruvate Acetyl CoA + CO 2 + NADH + H + CO2

More information