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1 Title: Creating Solar heating system as sun shading A research on how is possible to use evacuated solar tube system as sun shading Name: Aysan Khorraminejad Student number: Department: Building Technology Report: Msc Graduation Project Main mentor: Arie Bergsma Second mentor: Arjan van Timmeren 1

2 Preface In November 2010, I started the present project within the chair of façade design group. In the design phase under the topic of CONCEPT HOUSE, I concentrated on thermal energy by water heating system, by means of solar evacuated tubes technology, in combination with sun shading system. During the design stage, different alternatives are proposed and compared. The most efficient alternative was evaluated by building physics rules and calculations and was then developed into the details level. The exterior façade of a building plays a fundamental role in energy regulating system. In future building, façade will play an increasingly large role in energy regulating systems. Therefore, during the process of the design, I looked for an energy generating technology in combination with the façade design to achieve a façade system that can integrate all essential installation components for zeroenergy houses. Key words: energy generating façade, evacuated solar tubes as active solar heating system, sun shading, integration solar system with design 2

3 Preface Introduction...7 Problem statement.. 8 Research objective.. 8 Research Question Key question...8 Sub question... 8 Scope of Study...8 Chapter 1, Passive and active heating methods 10 Introduction. 10 Different types of passive solar systems 11 Direct gain Indirect gain Isolated gain Different types of active solar systems Air-based collector Unglazed perforated plate collector 12 Back-Pass Solar Collector Flat-plate solar collector Evacuated-tube collectors Concentrating solar collector Chapter 2, Evacuated solar tubes.. 15 Introduction What is an Evacuated solar tubes system? How does evacuated solar tubes system work? Suitable climate for solar tubes Appropriate place for installing evacuated solar tubes system 17 Describing rules that maximizes performance of evacuated solar tubes system Angle of evacuated solar tubes system. 17 Deciding Orientation 17 How do Solar Panels work in Netherlands?. 18 Structure of Evacuated solar tubes 19 Properties of solar Evacuated tubes.. 20 Weighs of evacuate solar tubes. 20 Price of evacuated solar system 21 How to prevent excessive summer heat output Light 22 Chapter 3, Sun shading 23 Introduction 24 Control of solar radiation through shading 24 Comparing exterior sun shading and interior sun shading. 24 Sun shading in north, south, east and west4.26 In which season sunshade is needed?. 26 General types for sun shading in north, south, west, east.. 26 Horizontal Shading typology for Southern façade 27 Vertical Shading typology for non Southern façade.27 Sun shading calculation Summary 29 Conclusion.29 Conclusion of chapter 1 and 2 to use in design process 30 Two factors are important in installation of evacuated solar tube. 30 Firs, orientation (direction). 30 3

4 Second, angle of solar tubes Seasonal Changes in Heat Output Prevent Excessive Summer Heat. 30 Angle.. 31 Result. 32 Chapter 4, Design Stage Introduction. 34 Schematic 1 35 Description.. 36 Mechanical function.. 36 Efficiency. 37 Easy moving Maintenance.. 38 Orientation.. 38 Adaptation to design(old and new façade) Schematic 2 39 Description.. 39 Efficiency. 40 Easy moving 40 Schematic 3 41 Description.. 41 Mechanical function Efficiency Easy move.. 44 Adaptation to design. 44 Schematic 4 45 Description. 45 Schematic 5 46 Description.. 46 Mechanical function.. 47 Efficiency. 48 Easy moving Adaptation to design (old and new façade).. 49 Schematic 6 50 Description..50 Integrated Systems Summary. 51 Comparison light in solar shade 1 to Projection of window and skylight in radial diagram 53 Comparison Chart between alternatives 1 to Conclusion.. 61 Chapter 5: Building Physics Calculation.62 Building physics calculation.. 62 Step 1, calculation average amount of water usage for bathroom 63 Step 2, calculation the amount of hot water stored per evacuated solar tubes 64 Step 3, energy output for 40 Evacuated solar tubes 65 Conclusion.. 66 Summery 66 Chapter6: Technical Part...68 Sun shading analysis.68 Horizontal or Vertical. 71 Conclusion.74 4

5 Façade detail design 75 Structure of the CONCEPT HOUSE 75 Summery. 79 Details drawing. 80 Appendix.. 84 Literature. 89 5

6 Introduction 6

7 Introduction: Finding new ways that replace fossil fuels with natural energy is a challenging topic today. A great number of devices are available in market to collect solar energy and change it into other forms of energy such as electricity or heat. One of the most popular equipments that is used in building to produce heat to replace electrical devices is water heating collector. In these systems, the solar energy is gained through collectors and conduct to water and water store in a tank and water use in other applications in a building. In my design, I concentrate on solar water heating systems.solar plates and Evacuated solar tubes are two systems that are used more than other heating systems. Before the invention of evacuated solar tubes, solar plate was used more and many people living in different climates install this system on the rooftops of their houses. When the evacuated solar system was introduced, it turned out to have more advantages than the solar plates. The other important challenge was integrating the Evacuated Solar System with sun shading and having two functions in one system. The solar system is usually installed in a building as an external device and is not integrated into the original design. As a result, solar collecting appears as an external object that is not integrated with a building design concept. Problem statement: Replacing a conventional heating system that consumes electricity with a solar heating systems such as evacuated solar tubes. This replacement can have several benefits.first, avoiding of using the limited source of fossil fuels and replacing it with an unlimited natural sources such as the sun; secondly reducing the high cost of electricity bill. In many countries attempts to replacing old systems with the new ones started. Installation of a solar system can cost a lot and necessities a large expenses at first. Convincing the building residents to pay this expense is a challenge. The other problem is the aesthetic part. Many people do not like to install a solar system because it affects other parts of the building design. As a result, finding a way to integrate the solar heating equipment with other parts of a design and having other functions besides the mere collection of the solar energy could convince people to equip their house with these systems. The approach in the design process is considered as - Installing a solar system to decrease total energy consumption, and energy generating in a way that does not affect exterior façade view by adding an external object to it - Providing two functions in a single system, heat collecting and sun shading - Integration the solar shade system with the structure of CONCEPT HOUSE. In the CONCEPT HOUSE design solar tubes are installed to provide regular heat water such as water usage in bathroom. This system is not integrated with sun shading. Finding a way that integrate two systems, solar tubes and sun shading in one system will be improved quality of design and decrease number of components in façade. 7

8 Research objective: The installation of evacuated solar water heating system as an energy generating system and as providing sunscreens is a main goal in my design. Research Question: Key question: How is possible to use Evacuated solar tubes system as a sun shading in integration with structure of concept house. Sub question: What is solar evacuated system? What are the benefits of using this system to other solar heat collectors like solar panel? Which climate is proper to installing evacuates solar tubes? Is evacuates solar tubes strong enough to use as sun shading on exterior façade? Which face of building is more appropriate to install evacuates solar tubes? What are rules of thumb to increase efficiency of evacuates solar tubes? What is the shape of sun shading in each façade, north, south, east and west? How evacuates solar tubes adapt itself to sun shading in each faces? Scope of Study: The scope of the research is limited to the following aspects: Solar heating systems (Active and passive) Gaining knowledge about evacuated solar tubes as the selected solar heating system for the design Recognition of sun shading, typical shape in each different facade, and calculation of length and width of sunshade Designing 6 alternatives for the integration of Evacuated solar tubes with sunscreen Extracting different charts for each of them and compare pros and cons and select the most efficient one Concentrating on the selected alternatives and drawing related details in integration with the structure of concept house 8

9 1. Passive and active heating methods 9

10 Chapter 1 Passive and active heating methods Introduction: The sun is a gigantic source of energy that has the potential to take the place of other forms of energy. Solar energy applications in a building are so varied from heating inside space to heating usage water and producing electricity. Due to fuel limitation, attempts to invent more efficient systems to collect the energy of the sun will be continued. Sun energy collecting systems are divided in three groups: passive solar heating, active solar heating and integration both active and passive systems. Chapter one is about some customary passive and active solar heating systems. In a passive solar design, two elements should be considered, the first one is a transparent material to let the light comes inside and the second one a material that absorbs the heat. It should be kept in mind that there are different kinds of climate and each design works for a specific climate. Active solar technologies are employed to convert solar energy into usable light, heat, cause airmovement for ventilation or cooling, or store heat for future use. Active solar system uses electrical or mechanical equipments, such as pumps and fans, to increase the usable heat in a system. 10

11 Different types of passive solar systems: Direct gain, indirect gain, Isolated gain Direct gain: In this system, the heat is absorbed by the wall. During night the temperature drops, heat radiates through the space. In this system, some parameters are important, such as site and topography, building location and orientation, building (shape, length and volume) and space use. As a rule, one-half to third of the total area should be used as thermal masonry which will be wall, flooring, ceiling with different materials such as concrete brick, water, etc (Figure 1-1). Figure 1-1, passive direct gain system Indirect gain: In indirect gain, the masonry is set up exactly in front of the window and absorbs heat. In this system, two vents are usually installed in the upper and lower parts of a wall. During day vents will be open to let the cool air enter from downside and make warm with low density and goes up and extract from up part. During night time, to prevent overheating, these vents will be closed. Tromb Wall is an indirect solar gain system. A wall with high thermal mass is used to store solar energy passively in a solar home. A Trombe wall consists of a vertical wall, built of a material such as stone, concrete, or adobe that is covered on the outside with glazing. The Warm air between the glazing and the Trombe wall Surface can also be channeled by through natural convection into the building interior or outside, depending on the building s heating or cooling needs(figure 1-2). Figure 1-2, passive indirect gain system Isolated gain: Isolated gain is a closed loop, consisting of a solar collector and a storage unit which can be a bin (for air) or a tank (for liquid). Air or liquid circulate inside the closed loop to make water warm and then release temperature to storage unit and again enter to the loop. In this passive system in order to circulate air or liquid, collector should be lower than storage unit (Figure 1-3). Figure 1-3, passive isolated gain system 11

12 Different types of active solar systems: Air-based collector: Unglazed perforated plate collector Air passes through the holes in the collector before it is drawn into the building to provide preheated fresh ventilation air. Efficiencies are typically high because the collector operates close to the outside air temperature (Figure 1-4). Figure 1-4, Active Unglazed perforated plate collector System Back-Pass Solar Collector Air based collectors use the sun s energy to heat air instead of liquid. Solar energy heats the sun ward side of the collector while airflows across the backside of the heated material and radiates into the room or space (Figure 1-5). Figure 1-5, Active Back-Pass Solar Collector System Water-based collector: Flat-plate solar collector In a liquid-based collector, the circulating fluid is usually water. Cold water flow in system and becomes warm in other side (Figure 1-6). Figure 1-6, Active Flat-plate solar collector System 12

13 Evacuated-tube collectors: The tubes consist of 2 layers of borosilicate glass with a vacuum between these 2 layers. This evacuated layer in the tubes acts much like a thermos flask, retaining about 97% of the energy absorbed from the sun. This helps increase the efficiency of the collector and also protects it from the effects of cold air (the water in flat plate collectors can freeze in very cold areas). As a result, an evacuated tube solar collector is the perfect system for very cold areas (Figure 1-7). Figure 1-7, Evacuated-tube collectors System Concentrating solar collector A solar collector that uses reflective surfaces to concentrate sunlight onto a small area, where it is absorbed and converted to heat or, in the case of solar photovoltaic ( PV) devices, into electricity. Concentrators can increase the power of sunlight hundreds of times. Concentrating collectors are best suited to climates that have a high percentage of clear sky days (Figure 1-8). Figure 1-8, concentrating solar collector System 13

14 2. Evacuated solar tubes 14

15 Chapter 2 Evacuated solar tubes 3 : Introduction: An evacuated solar tube is a new system for collecting sun rays and heating water. Before this new technology, flat plate system water heating was used. In many aspects Evacuated solar tubes have more advantages in comparison to other old systems like flat plate heating systems. This chapter consists of a brief knowledge about this system and describes its properties and Structure, and some points that should be considered during the installation of this system. What is an Evacuated solar tubes system? Evacuated solar tubes system is one kind of solar water heaters that uses energy from the sun and heat water. Panels on roof collect the sun's rays and heat the water, which then flows to a storage tank, ready for use. Depending on location, the direction of solar panels face and the amount of water is using, a solar water heater can provide between 50 and 90 per cent of hot water needs. There are different kinds of solar water heater. One of the most popular one is flat plate panel. In comparing between solar flat panels and evacuated solar tubes system some advantages and disadvantages can be extracted: Flat Plate panels (Figure 2-1, 2-2) May require a special anti-freeze liquid for every low temperature Are generally less expensive than evacuated tube systems Require cleaning to remove any dust, salt spray or sludge Figure 2-1, Flat plate panels System Figure 2-2, Flat plate panels System Evacuated tubes system: (Figure 2-3, 2-4) Make more efficient use of the sun`s energy (Figure 2-3) Are lightweight and can be easily installed on the roof Are low maintenance and cleaned by falling rainwater Can withstand very low temperatures without the need for an anti-freeze fluid Are generally more expensive than flat plate panels 15

16 Individual tubes can be replaced if damaged Shape of tubes provides superior absorption. Sun striking to tubes are always perpendicular because of shape of tubes, 360 deg absorption ability (Figure 2-3). Figure 2-3, Efficiency in Evacuated tube system Figure 2-4, Evacuated tube system How does evacuated solar tubes system work? The solar collector is made of materials that absorb the sun's heat very efficiently. The cold water travels through the collector and heats up the water, which returns to the tank. (Figure 2-5) Figure 2-5, water circulation in Evacuated tube system There are two systems for evacuated solar heating: First one in split system, pump up cold water inside the collector, solar tubes are positioned on roof (Figure 2-6). In contrast, on thermosiphon system, the tank is above the collector. Cold water is heavier than warm water and flows naturally into the collector (Figure 2-7). Figure 2-6, split Evacuated tube system Figure 2-7, Thermosiphon Evacuated tube system 16

17 In split system in (Figure 2-6), hot water floats to the top of the tank and colder water is taken from the bottom and returned to the solar collector. When hot water is needed, it is taken from the top of the tank where the water is hottest. In thermosiphon system, water floats inside tubes just because cold water is heavier that hot water and in this situation no pump is needed. Suitable climate for solar tubes: Solar water heaters are suitable for all climates, and also evacuated solar tubes system is prone for freezing and very cold climate and even area below zero temperature in winter. The system of the evacuated solar tubes system prevents of freezing and it has better function to flat plate system. The efficiency of evacuated solar tubes in different days also changes. That is in cloudy days and sunny days are not same. In moderate cloud density, solar energy can still be collected and used, in heavy density cloud, probably not (Figure 2-8). Figure 2-8, Evacuated Solar tubes works even in snowy days Appropriate place for installing evacuated solar tubes system: Receiving direct and full sun shading is very important to reach a high performance in evacuated solar tubes system. Collector tubes won t be shaded by trees or by adjoining properties that block sun rays. Describing rules that maximizes performance of evacuated solar tubes system: Angle of evacuated solar tubes system: The angle and direction of installation is also very importance as it will affect the efficiency of the solar collector. By angling collector between50 to 60 degree a good result will be achieve. It is also important in a flat roof have these angle. The angle of mounting depends upon the latitude of the location. In each region a specific angle is suitable to have a maximum performance. Positioning an evacuated solar tubes system on flat roof can decrease expected efficiency in large amount (Figure 2-9). Deciding Orientation South is the optimum orientation for solar tubes. Naturally you want the collector to receive the maximum amount of sunlight each day and throughout the year. Generally, in the Northern Hemisphere then the collector should face south and in the Southern Hemisphere then the collector should face north. 17

18 In a North South orientation, the tubes can passively track heat from the sun all day. In the Northern Hemisphere, the sun travels across the Southern sky, from East to West. Panels should be facing somewhere between Southeast and South-West (Figure 2-10). Figure 2-10, Best orientation in placing Evacuated Solar tubes Figure 2-9, Slope is necessary to increase efficiency in Evacuated Solar tubes The diagram (Figure 2-10) shows the best orientation for solar panels in green, yellow and blue. Southwest and southeast will only have 10% less efficiency, at worst, than the best or optimum southerly location. Yellow region is the best situation of positioning building. In a perfect situation, solar panels would tilt differently at different times of the year to maximize solar radiation. For a Netherland house, the perfect angles for solar panels would be around 36º in the winter and 80º in the summer. How do Solar Panels work in Netherlands? Solar tubes works well in Netherlands. The reason that solar tubes work well here is that there are two types of solar radiation; diffuse and direct. Direct happens on cloud free days, when the sun is beaming. Diffuse radiation accounts for about 60% of the solar radiation that we receive in Netherlands and occurs on cloudy days. Both types of radiation allow solar panels to operate. These tubes have an excellent function of cloudy days and they are able to absorb the energy from infrared rays, which can pass through clouds. Wind and low temperature have less of an effect on the function of evacuated tubes. (figure11, 12) Figure 2-10, Evacuated Solar tubes works in winter and cloudy days Figure 2-11, Direct and diffuse sun light absorb by Evacuated solar tubes 18

19 Structure of Evacuated solar tubes: Each evacuated tubes consist of two layers of glass and a heat pipe inside two glass layers. When the heat pipe is heated above 30 C, the water vaporizes. This vapor rapidly rises to the top of the heat pipe and transferring heat. As the heat is lost at the condenser (top), the vapor condenses to form a liquid (water) and returns to the bottom of the heat pipe to the process. A good proportion of the year, water will be heated to above 60 C. Outer tube is transparent allowing light rays to pass through with minimal reflection. The outer layer is very strong; it is made of borosilicate glass. It can resist hailing of diameter 25 mm (Figure 2-13).The top of the two tubes are fused together and the air contained in the space between the two layers of glass is pumped out while exposing the tube to high temperatures. The inner tube is also made of borosilicate glass. Inner glass has a special coating (Al-N/Al) to increase solar heat absorption and decrease heat reflection properties. The air between outside glass and inside glass extracted and vacuumed. Vacuumed tube will act better toward conductive and convective heat lost. Figure 2-12, Evacuated Solar tubes structure In order to maintain the vacuum between the two glass layers, a barium getter is used (the same as in television tubes). During manufacture of the evacuated tube this getter is exposed to high temperatures which cause the bottom of the evacuated tube to be coated with a pure layer of barium. The silver colored barium layer will turn white if the vacuum is ever lost. This makes it easy to determine whether or not a tube is in good condition. Figure 2-13, barium getter Each tube consists of 7 different parts. Inner glass, outside glass that vacuum together and a getter (f) is positioned between these two to maintain vacuum. As mentioned before, to increase absorption amount by solar tubes and decrease reflection a special coating is use inside inner tubes (b) Figure 2-14, Section of Evacuated solar tubes Figure 2-15, perspective of Evacuated solar tubes 19

20 Properties of solar Evacuated tubes: There is a variation in length for evacuated solar tubes. The high is varied between (1200 to 1950mm). Choosing an appropriate one depends on number of people living in a home and amount of water they use. It is although worth mentioning that, number of tubes is different and we can choose different package with different numbers of tubes between 10, 22, 30 and 40 tube collectors. Consequently, storage tank is adaptable with number of people and water usage. Figure 2-16, Diameters and Length of ordinary Evacuated solar tubes In the following chart, except diameter and length of tubes that are varied through different kinds of tubes other properties are same and are standard to all solar tubes. Figure 2-17, Properties of Evacuated solar tubes In the figure 2-20, we can see that the sun height in winter and summer is not same. In June, it is higher than December. By increasing angle, solar tube is almost facing to sun in winter and will not fully facing sun in summer. Therefore, in process of design this should be kept in mind an increasing angle, effects efficiency on tube system and prevent from overheating water in summer. In wintertime, sun is in lower situation than in summer. Hence by installing the system in a way that face more to winter sun and face, less to summer sun, we can have more heat in winter and also less overheating in summer. 20

21 Weights of evacuate solar tubes: In compare with other solar system like flat plate solar system, the weight of evacuated tubes is much less than flat plate system. Most flat plate systems weights are over 200kg, with an integrated 300liter water tank; this can place a 500-plus kilogram load on a roof- often requiring expensive modification. A standard Solar system weighs just over 80 kg on roof, making it easy to position and install. Price of evacuated solar system: Price of evacuated solar systems depends on many criteria. Number of people in a house can determined amount of heat water that is needed. For instance, up to 3 people need a 160 liter tank and choose a 10-tubes model collector. ( ). Figure 2-18, Price of Evacuated solar tubes How to prevent excessive summer heat output In solar heating tubes, existence of a system that surpasses extra heat is necessary. This extra heat can use to heat up pool or spa if we have such a place. Otherwise adjusting angle can help to reduce summer heat output. As far as it is concerned, sun angle is different during summer time and winter. Due to the higher location of the sun in the sky during the summer, the collector will be around 60 from perpendicular and as such heat output will be reduced as the collector is not fully "facing" the sun. This simple solution alone can reduce peak summer output considerably, thus reducing problems associated with excessive summer heat production. The high angle not only maximizes expose to the direct winter sun, but also allows the sunlight reflected off the snow to be absorbed (Figure 2-20). Figure 2-19, Sun angle in winter and summer 21

22 Light: Therefore, there is a gap about 2 cm between each tube. In behind of tubes, there is a reflector surface. To increase the performance efficiency of evacuated tube collectors, a highly reflective, weather-proof CPC reflector (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) is fitted behind the evacuated tubes. The special, improved geometry of the reflector ensures that direct and diffused solar radiation falls on the absorber even when the angle of incidence is not ideal. This considerably improves the energy yield of the solar collector. Figure 2-20, Reflector surface, behind evacuated solar tubes block sunlight Hence, reflector surface block sun light as much as possible. Therefore, gaps between solar tubes have no negative effect on efficiency of total system as sun shading. 22

23 3. Sun Shading 23

24 Chapter 3 Sun shading Control of solar radiation through shading: In order to control penetration of sun to inside, exterior sun shading is the best way. There are three convenient types of solar shading connection that usually use in building: 1. Attached shading 2. Articulation 3. disposing of the building floors to create over hang sunshade Light can penetrate inside in two ways: direct radiation, reflected radiation. Reflection also happens because of incident sunrays to obstruct surrounding of building or incident by ground and reflect back to inside of building. Sun shading system just can be calculated for direct radiation. Reflected radiation is not very predictable. (Figure 3-1) Figure 3-1, two kinds of radiation, direct and reflected Comparing exterior sun shading and interior sun shading: Exterior sun shading is better in function than interior sunshade. Exterior sunshade blocks the sun and prevent of penetrating heat inside room. In contrast, interior sunshade blocks the sun but still allow heat to enter interior space. (Figure 3-2) 24

25 Sun shading in North, South, East and West: Each orientation of the building requires a different approach to the design of shading. The north elevation (in the northern hemisphere) essentially does not require shading because except in the summer months in the early morning and late evening, no sun penetration occurs. At this time of day, the sun angle is so low that horizontal projections would be useless as shading devices. It is best to limit opening as much as possible in the north elevation as there will be very little solar heat gain and much direct heat loss from this side. If opening is required for day lighting, then it is important to select a highly efficient glazing assembly to reduce energy transfer. The south elevation (in the northern hemisphere) allows for the easiest control of solar energy. Shading devices are normally designed as horizontal projections above the windows. The length of the projection is determined as a geometric function of the height of the window and the angle of elevation of the sun at solar noon. Such shading devices can be designed to eliminate sun penetration in the summer and allow for complete sun penetration during the winter when such is desired for passive heat gain. (Figure 3-3) OPTIMAL OVERHANG POSITION ANGLE OF WINTER SUN FROM TOP OF OPENING ANGLE OF SUMMER FROM BOTTOM OF OPENING SOLAR EXPOSURE DEPENDS ON TIME OF YEAR Figure 3-2, calculation methods to determine length of Sun shading overhang for south facade In order to obtain shading in the late morning and early afternoon when the sun is not at its high point, the shading device should be extended either side of the window opening. (Figure 3-3) INEFFECTIVE Figure 3-3, extension of sun shading either sides of south window 25

26 Solar penetration is reduced by moving fins closer, and making them deeper together. (Figure 3-7) Figure 3-4, Vertical sun shading for east and west facades Vegetative shading is a way to provide shading. For part of the building that controlling sun radiation is not easy, using foliage tree helps to sun shading. In summer foliage tree provide shading and in winter there is no more obstruct to sun radiation. (Figure 3-8, Figure 3-9) In which season sunshade is need Latitude of a region and local climate condition apparently determines physical characteristics of a solar sunshade. That is, in each climate, highest degree of sun in summer and lowest in winter are different (two factor to calculate height of a window). Figure 3-10 Figure 3-5, Retractable and fixed sun-shading device Movable sun shading is more efficient than fixed sun shading. Movable shading devices may include awnings, hinged extensions and vegetation. General types for sun shading in North, South, West, East: There are three shapes of sun shading; Horizontal, Vertical and Eggcrate. Figure 3-6, horizontal Figure 3-7, Vertical Figure 3-8, Eggcrate In choosing a sunshade, heat avoidance, weight and amount of desirable penetration of light during heating month are important. Horizontal shading devices are suited to southern exposures. Roof overhangs can also easily be used to shade southern exposures on low-rise buildings. 26

27 Horizontal Shading typology for Southern façade: When designing south facing horizontal shading devices, a choice will need to be made as to whether or not these are solid or louvered. Solid shades will collect snow and ice, so are not desirable in cold climates. Louvered shades allow for airflow up the facade to assist with natural ventilation. They will collect snow and ice, but allow for the same to drain more quickly, reducing the need to increase their structural requirements. (Figure 3-14). Section Figure 3-9, Horizontal Shading typology for Southern façade Vertical Shading typology for non-southern façade: Where sun is hitting the facade from a southeasterly or southwest direction, vertical sunshade can effectively block the sun. Eggcrates are often used on non true south facing elevations as well. (Figure 3-15) Figure 3-10, Vertical Shading typology for Non-Southern façade 27

28 Sun shading calculation: Optimal overhang horizontal sun shading position, which is suitable for south façade, is calculated. Angle of summer sun is different from angle of winter sun. In Netherlands summer angle is about 60 and in winter sun angle is about 15. By using the diagram below, height of transparent window is estimated. ( Figure 3-16, Figure 3-17) Figure 3-17 and 3-18 are two closed positions of sun shading in winter and summer. In summer when solar shade is closed with 80 angle to horizontal, plenty of view to outside is blocked by sun shading. n winter position, when solar shade angle is 36 to horizontal line, view to outside is not completely blocked. Figure 3-11, The angel of sun shade in 80 and 36 to the horizontal line Sun shading analysis in -degree position - -degree position, fully block the high summer sun (June 21) while it allows winter sun (Dec 21) enters inside the building. It blocks the view to outside. Figure 3-12, sunshade in angle 80 -degree position - degree position, is suitable for high efficiency in winter and it does not block the outside view and also allows winter sun enters to the building Figure 3-13, sunshade in angle 36 28

29 Summary: In chapter 3, typical shapes of sun shading for south, north, east and west are discussed. As a result, north façade does not need any sun shading, there is no sun penetration just in early morning or late evening.at this time of day the sun angle is so low that horizontal projections would be useless as shading devices. South façade definitely needs sunshade. Horizontal shape of sunshade in south façade, obstruct sun radiation, so vertical sunshade is useless for south facade. The other important point in design is that, sunshade should be extended more than windows width to be efficient even in early morning and late afternoon that sun angle is low. Preventing of opening in East and west is the best way of design. Although in a case that we need to have an opening, just vertical sun shading works. Therefore, to block sun rays in west and east, vertical suns shading with certain distance between fins are recommended. Conclusion: In Figure 3-16 and 3-17, calculation for sunshade is explained. n etherlands aximum sun radiation in summer is 60 and 15 in winter. By using this, we are able to estimate height of a window that is about 3meters. It means that, if we use an Evacuated solar tube with height of 1.7 meters as sun shading, it will be efficient and create enough shadow for a window with 3m transparency height. We also know that estimation width for 10 Evacuated solar tubes is about 90cm. As mentioned before to have a more efficient sunshade in south façade it is better to extend more than window width. 29

30 Conclusion of chapter 1 and 2 to use in design process Two factors are important in installation of evacuated solar tubes: First, orientation (direction) As the general rules, the most proper direction is that: Northern Hemisphere: should face South Southern Hemisphere: should face North Second, angle of solar tubes: Angle of solar tubes has a very important effect on an efficiency of a system, and having a suitable angle will increase efficiency greatly. In order to determine, which angle is proper for a special region these are rules of thumb: The angle of your solar collector should roughly equal the latitude of your location Netherlands - latitude of 52 degrees North -collector should face South at 52 degrees If the roof is within +/- 10 degrees of the recommended angle for the collector, then it is fine with mounting the solar collector s tubes to the roof. (Therefore for etherlands, angle between is efficient enough.) Seasonal Changes in Heat Output Prevent Excessive Summer Heat Overheating in evacuated solar tubes during summer is a big problem of this system. If a large solar hot water heating system is installed because of using the system for space heating, or simply to have a larger solar contribution to heating home, it may run into the problem of excessive heat production in the summer time. However, we cannot simply turning off the pumps and let the collectors stop to eliminate the heat because high pressures and temperatures. In other words, a 260 liters tank is enough in winter for about 100m 2 but it may have over heating in summer. The problem here is that, how can we prevent of overheating in summer? There are different strategies to overcome with this problem that each of them will be explained in different parts: 1. Using excess water for other applications such as pool or spa. 2. Changing angle of solar evacuated system in winter and summer in this way: Mounting the solar panels 20 degrees higher than the latitude of your location, for instance (70 degrees instead of 50 degrees). In the winter, you will get additional performance because the more vertical solar collector is more in line with the sunrays, this increases winter output dramatically. Figure 3-14.Winter & summer position 30

31 In the summer, we will get lower than standard performance because the more vertical solar collector is angled more away from the sun as it is higher in the sky this allows you to get enough heat output for your needs without the need to worry about excessive heat and damage to your system or home. 3. For an evacuated solar tube its optimum capacity is in a south face. However, it is still possible to install an evacuated solar tube heating system on east-west orientation by increasing the area of panel installed. One option is to mount one panel on the east orientation to collect heat in the morning, with another panel on the west orientation to collect the heat in the afternoon. It is not advisable to place solar panels on a north-face. Angle: Suitable position Unsuitable position Description Summer In the summer, we will get lower than standard performance because the more vertical solar collector is angled more away from the sun as it is higher in the sky this allows you to get enough heat output for your needs without the need to worry about excessive heat and damage to your system or home. Winter In the winter, you will get additional performance because the more vertical solar collector is more in line with the sun that is closer to the horizon this increases winter output dramatically. Figure 3-15, Suitable Angle comparison in summer and winter 31

32 Result: In wintertime, the most efficient angle is between to vertical line and in summer time to prevent overheating, the best position is parallel position to vertical line. Therefore, rotation around the horizontal line is very effective to increase efficiency of a system. A problem here is obstructing view in summer, as it covers half of the height of window. Figure 3-16, View Obstruction in summer and winter Therefore to have an optimal result, changing tilt of evacuated solar tubes affects the energy output. It is also important to have a view to outside without any obstructions. Hence integrated two alternatives will provide enough efficiency in winter and prevent of overheating in summer and also having view to outside whenever is needed. Figure 3-17, Integration of two systems to have more efficiency 32

33 4. Process of Design 33

34 Chapter 4 Introduction: In this chapter, the process of design and alternatives related to design will be explained. According to the position of window and the sun shading which is evacuated solar tubes, about 6 different alternatives will be delineated. In the following each alternatives and advantages and disadvantages of design will be discussed. At the end of the part pros and cons of each one will be compared to the rest and the best one and more appropriate will be chosen for final design. Many parts of comparisons are same for all alternatives and just in the first alternative are explained. These common subjects are like maintenance, efficiency and cost. 34

35 Schematic 1: Figure 4-1 Open position, Sun shading is position beside the window Figure 4-2 Close position, Sun shading is closed 1 2 Figure Perspective view: in this figure, (1) rail path, (2) water tubes, fixed and flexible one and (3) solar tubes sun shading. 35

36 Description: In the first concept, solar tubes are attached to the window as sliding sun shading and rolling on a path. In a sunny and warm day, and in cold winter night solar tubes can be closed and when natural light or natural ventilation is needed inside, easily can be opened and function like a conventional window with shutter and sun shading. Mechanical function: As mentioned before, solar tubes slide over a path horizontally to left and right. There are some challenging in connections: 1. The frame of solar tubes rolls on a path to left and right. This path is connected to the outside façade. Connection between solar tubes frame and rolling path is a crucial part to have an easier and better sliding. 2. The second consideration is about the connection between rolling path and exterior façade. 3. In solar tube system, in schematic one, assumed that solar shade rolls on a path but the problematic part is connection between cold and warm water tubes. Therefore finding some appropriate tubes that is flexible and can move forward and backward is very important in this part Figure 4-4, three significant connections 36

37 Efficiency: In solar tubes, slope angle is very important. In summer, angle of sun is near to perpendicular line, is about 60 to horizontal line, in winter is lower, and is about 15. As we need sun energy more in winter, by increasing the slope of solar tubes and having more tilt in frame, it works better. In other words, by adjusting tilt of solar tubes possibility to catch the sunrays and having more sun absorption is more than perpendicular and having no slope. Therefore, efficiency of this system is not as much as sloped panel. Figure 4-5, Illustration of different angle of sun in summer and winter 21 OF JUN, 8:00-16:00, SUMMER SUN 21 OF DEC, 8:00-16:00, WINTER SUN Figure 4-6, diverse height of sun angles in summer and winter 37

38 Easy moving: Each tube is about 4-6 kg. Therefore, moving easily and transferring weight of solar tubes to a stable connection is very important. So railing path is a reliable system to slide solar tubes frame. Maintenance: An advantages of solar tubes to other solar heating system like flat plate, is replacing each damaged tubes easily. In solar plate system, when is damaged the whole system should be replaced with new one but in solar tubes if a tube is damaged can be replaced easily without need of replacing the whole system. The other aspect of maintenance the solar tube system is high durability and resistance to impact. The outer layer is very strong; it is made of borosilicate glass. It can resist hailing of diameter 25 mm. It is worth mentioning that, the borosilicate glass is kind of glass that clean easily by rain. There is no need to clean by a person and rain washes tubes and makes them clean. Furthermore, cleaning tubes from inside room is very easy. Orientation: South is the optimum orientation for solar tubes. In a north south orientation, the tubes can passively track heat from the sun all day. That is the best place to position solar tubes is south, southeast and southwest. In this orientation, almost all sunrays during day will be absorbed and is much better than east west orientation. Figure 4-7, south is the best place to have Maximum sun radiation Sun angle is different in summer and winter. In winter is lower than summer. Therefore, a sloped solar tube works better than vertical position. Although some kinds of solar tubes are installed in vertical angle but steep one is more efficient. (Figure 4-8) Best angle in etherlands with Latitude 52, is 36 degree of horizontal line. In this degree, the solar tubes absorb more sun energy in winter. In summer, the sunrays is higher position than winter, therefore by increasing slope angle during summer, less energy of sun will be absorbed by solar tubes. That is, overheating will decrease by using this strategy in summer. Adaptation to design(old and new façade): Schematic one has some restrictions. First, wall beside window will be occupied by solar sun shading when it is open. In this regard, adaptation to old building cannot be so simple. 38

39 Schematic 2 Description: In this system, evacuated solar tubes slide up and down, over a vertical axe. All explanation are same as schematic one, just easy sliding is different. It is sliding over a rail, although direction of sliding is different. In this concept, horizontal solar tubes can be raised or lowered up and down over a vertical rail. Figure 4-8 Open position, Sun shading is located below the window Figure 4-9 Close position 2 Figure 4-10 Perspective view, in this figure (1) rail path, (2) water tubes; fixed and flexible and (3) solar shading. 39

40 Efficiency: Vertical position of solar tubes decreases efficiency of solar heat collector. In the diagram two position of sun is illustrated. In summer, when the sun is in high position, sun rays tangent solar tube collector. So absorption decreases and this is a good strategy to eliminate over heating in summer. In winter, sun comes down. In a sloped solar tubes collector result will be better than perpendicular position. 21 OF JUN, 8:00-16:00, SUMMER SUN 21 OF DEC, 8:00-16:00, WINTER SUN Figure 4-11, effect of solar tubes on different sun angles in summer and winter Easy moving: Each evacuated solar tubes, has a weight about 4 kg. In a package with 20 tubes, total weight will be about 80 kg. Therefore, sliding vertically is more difficult than sliding horizontally and it needs some extra devices to stop the system. Hence, in this regard, moving vertically is not as easy as the fisrt alternative. 40

41 Schematic 3: Description: In the schematic 3 instead of sliding vertically and horizontally, rotates around a vertical hinge. As we know, Sun angle is different in summer and winter ( Figure 4-8.As a general rule in north hemisphere, facing tubes to south increases efficiency of solar absorption and decreases reflection. In this system when solar shade is closed, has the same function as design 1 and 2. When is opened is completely different. In open position, solar tubes direction is to east west. That is not efficient as much as facing to south and the orientation is north south. Figure 4-13 Figure 4-12, Evacuated solar tubes rotate around vertical hinge 41

42 Mechanical function: In this idea solar tube frame rotates around a vertical hinge. So connection between hinge and solar frame is important. The second part of attention is connection between fixed and flexible water tube. In design 1, 2, flexible tube acts like spring and moves in one direction, goes forward and backward, but in design 3 water tube rotation of tube connection is a matter. The rotation is in horizontal plane. (Figure 4-14) Figure 4-13, Rotation in Horizontal surface around vertical Axe 42

43 Efficiency: Slope and position of evacuated solar tube have effects on amount of sun energy collecting. In perpendicular solar tubes, efficiency is less than horizontal solar tubes. sun rays absorb more by surface of solar tubes collector when has a proper slope. This slope depends on latitude of a place. For instance in Netherlands best position for solar shading is 60. n schematic 3, position of solar shad is not very efficient. In other words, perpendicular sun shading diminishes optimal performance of solar tubes function. Also in south façade horizontal sun shading is more optimal than vertical one. The other negative point is direction of solar shade to sun. Best orientation is in south-north direction. So when it is open, the solar shade is in to east- west direction that is not well-run as north-south. In this diagram sun position in summer and winter is illustrated. As we can see, vertical rotating is not a good position to absorb sun rays. That is a large amount of sun rays will not absorbed by all tubes, and when solar heating panel is open, many of sun rays will not absorbed by evacuated solar tubes. 21 OF JUN, 8:00-16:00, SUMMER SUN 21 OF DEC, 8:00-16:00, WINTER SUN Figure 4-14, Sun radiation to window in summer and winter Figure 4-15, sun path in summer, 21 June and winter 21December 43

44 Easy moving: In vertical rotating 80 kg solar tubes, rotate around a vertical axe.the axe should be very strong to tolerate weight of solar system. Due to the lack of enough strong structure, bending moment can happen around the hinge. In conclusion, rotating is not as easy as sliding moving. Although with enough consideration this rotation can be happen without any bending in structure. Adaptation to design: In this schematic, there is no restriction such as schematic 1, 2 in design. Rotation happens just in window area and no more space is occupied by this system of sun shading. In result, adaptation to design is a positive characteristic in comparison with other alternatives. 44

45 Schematic 4: Description: In schematic four all functions are like schematic 3, just vertical axe is transferred to the right side. In this way all functions are same as schematic 3 except direction of rotating. In some cases, direction of rotating is important, clock wise or Counterclockwise, but all other function like Mechanical function, material, efficiency easy moving, maintenance, orientation and adaptation to design are same. (Figure 4-18) Figure 4-16, black position is for open situation and red one for closed situation 45

46 Schematic 5: Description: In Schematic 5, solar shade rotates around a hinge but with this dissimilarity with schematic 3 and 4, that rotating axe is on a horizontal line instead of vertical line. In all alternatives is assumed that solar heating system faces to south, therefore horizontal rotating or vertical rotating affect amount of solar absorption. In continue, all aspects will be described and advantages and disadvantage of rotating around horizontal line will be examined. (Figure 4-19) Figure 4-17, schematic 5 with horizontal axe, open position 46

47 Figure 4-18, schematic 5 with horizontal axe, closed position Figure 4-19, schematic 5 with horizontal axe, Isometric view Mechanical function: Solar shade system is connected to a window and has the ability to rotate around a horizontal line. When the solar panel starts to rotate, some connections are needed. First of all, connection between solar panel and window to rotate around a horizontal line. It means a specific hinge should be installed in connection between solar panel and window frame. The other matter related to schematic 5 is, how connect two water tubes together to rotate around a point without disturbing the sealing of tubes. (Figure 4-22) 1 2 Figure ) Connection between fixed water tubes and flexible tubes 2) Hinge connection to rotate around a horizontal line 47

48 Efficiency: Efficiency of a solar shade system defines with amount of heat absorption by sun and less reflection. Many criteria affect sun absorption.one of the most important is angle of solar system. The angle is defined by latitude of a place. n etherlands 60 degree is a suitable angle to increase efficiency of a system. At this angle more sun rays are absorbed in winter and less sun rays in summer by solar shade system. As mentioned before, in summer overheating is a problem that will be diminished by changing angle. Many other factors affect efficiency of a system, such as objects around a solar system that make a shadow on it and also number of sunny days and intensity of sun in a region. Although many climatic factors have negative effect on solar system but in an efficient design, adaptation angles of solar system with sun will increase the efficiency of the system. In schematic 5, solar system angel can be adapted in different season. It is a very important factor to increase efficiency of a system in compare with other systems. The other positive point related to this system is the facing direction to the sun. In other words, solar shade, which is faced toward south, is best orientation and it can adapt its angle in different situation. (Figure OF JUN, 8:00-16:00, SUMMER SUN 21 OF DEC, 8:00-16:00, WINTER SUN Figure 4-21 Sun radiation angle in summer and winter 48

49 Easy moving: 20 evacuated solar tubes have a weight about 80 kg. It is very crucial to have a stiff enough rotating connection. So have a system that tolerates weight of a solar tubes panel and rotates around a horizontal line, is very important in alternative 5. (Figure 4-24) Figure 4-22, Opening direction of schematic 5 Adaptation to design(old and new façade): In schematic 5, solar sun shade just rotates inside the window area. t means, this system doesn t occupy other part of the façade and it is very positive point in design a system like this, In contrast with sliding system that goes up and down and fills other part in main façade area. In a system like schematic 5, adaptation to an old façade is much easier than a system like option 1 and 2. So it is a positive advantage to other alternatives. Materials: In total, there are three elements that should be combined together to create this façade: 1. Evacuated solar tubes with special frame behind it. 2. Hinge connection between main frame and solar structure. 3. Connection between flexible and fixed water tube. 49

50 Schematic 6: Description: In schematic 6, just position of rotating axe is different of schematic 5. Hence in this regard just I want to explain the different part will be explained with schematic 5. In this situation solar sunshade is opened and closed in the direction of up to down. Figure 4-23, Direction of opening In this idea, all positive points are same with the alternative 5 such as optimal efficiency of the system by adaption to solar sun angle. Obstruction of view is the negative point. In this system when it is not completely open, more view is obstructed than schematic five. Therefore, with regard to this point, schematic 5 has more advantages to schematic six. 50

51 Integrated Systems: In chapter 4, six alternatives are discussed. Integrated systems are also can be mentioned as an alternative for design, for instance, combing horizontal rotating axe with sliding system and many cases like this. These systems are too complicated and efficiency will be less or more like simple solution. Therefore integrated a system for a residential house can be very complicated that is not very appropriate for a living house. The final goal is to make a very simple and easy install system not very complicated. Summary: In the following six alternatives are compared together. Many factors such as maintenance, cost, Orientation are same. The cost according to figure 2-19, Depends on number of tubes and also volume of usage water, prices are varied between 2400, Number of people in a building is the determined factor to choose a right number of evacuated solar tubes. On the other hand, Volume of consumed water, determines numbers of evacuated solar tubes. Maintenance is divided in two groups. Maintenance of evacuated solar tubes that are same for all alternatives.second one is maintenance of entire system (evacuated tubes, frame and connection to main façade). Each solar tube is very resistant.it is made of borosilicate glass. It can resist hailing of diameter 25 mm. Furthermore, self-cleaning is an advantage of borosilicate glass. Maintenance of total system is different in each alternative that will compare in the following chart. Orientation is also same to all alternatives. Best position for North hemisphere as a rule is on south between southeast and southwest. In this orientation, maximum sun absorption will be achieved. In orientation north - south, almost all day time solar tubes absorption will be in high efficient. Therefore, in all alternatives are assumed that this system will install on south façade. According to the assumption that all systems will be attached to south wall, best optimal shape of solar shading will be horizontal overhang system. (Figure 3-14) In order to obtain shading in the late morning and early afternoon when the sun is not at its high point, the shading device should be extended either side of the window opening. It is also worth mentioning that width of window should be less than with of solar Tubes (Figure 3-4).In this way; sun shading will better obstruct sun rays and in early morning and late afternoon will keep sun blocking function.( Figure 4-28) 51

52 Comparison light in solar shade 1 to 6: Three differnt diagrams are used in order to compare ligh inside the room with different types of sunshading systems. 1. Radial diagram Projection of window on digram from point p inside roon 2. Solar path diagram The movment of the sun across the sky at a given site latitude can be visulazed as a path on an imaginary overhead skydome.this dome can be represented two-dimensionally as a plan of a dome with connection circle for vertical (altitude)angle, and radial lines for horizental (azimuth)angles.the path of the sun on various days of the year is shown in such a sun path diagram. 3. Daylightdiagram By over laying radial diagram to daylight diagram, interior illuminance quantitatively will be determined. Each rectangular has 0.1% daylight factor. Because interior illuminance due to daylight changes as a function of sky conditions, absolute measurments of illuminance are not directly indicative of actual building performance. The daylight factor is a ratio of interior to exterior luminance under an overcast, unobstructed sky (measured in a horizontal plane at both locations and expressed as a percentage)and remains constant regardless of changes in absolute sky luminance. A daylight factor of 10 percent at a given interior location, for example, means that the location receives 10 percent of the illuminance that would be receives under an unobstructed sky. In order to compare amount of light that is entered through different alternatives, the following method is used. In alternatives 1, 2, 3, 4,open position of solarsahdes are differ from alternative 5 and 6. Therfore in comparison between alternatives 1-6,two differnet diagrams will be drawn, one for alternatives 1-4 and the other for alternatives 5, 6. 52

53 Projection of window and skylight in Radial diagram: First step in radial diagram is the definition of angles in the diagram by means of section and plan in point P. It means that finding luminance of light in point P. alternatives 5,6 Vertical view Horizontal view Projection of window and skylight for alternatives 5,6 Combination radial diagram and solar orbit diagram The location receives 14.5% percent of the illuminance 145*0.1=

54 alternatives 1, 2, 3, 4 Projection of window and skylight for alternatives 1,2,3,4, Combination radial diagram and solar orbit diagram The location receives 22.5% percent of the illuminance 225*0.1= *0.1=

55 Comparison Chart between alternatives 1 to 6: Rating 4 Excellent 3 good 2 moderate 1 weak 0 not relevant Description Mechanical challenge 1.Easy opening and closing 2.tolerate weight of 15 solar tubes Efficiency 1. adaptation of angle in different season to have more absorption of sun rays in different season 2. prevent of overheating in summer Adaptation of angle : X 4 1 Maximum efficiency will be achieved when the sun light is perpendicular to a surface.. n G G the case 1, surface of solar tube is not perpendicular to sun light. n winter 15 is far from perpendicular line and in M 1 =G * X (N.m) summer 60. Prevent of overheating: Perpendicular surface to horizontal line has less overheating and in case 1, overheating problem is less. G 2 1 Same as Number 1 G Y needs extra devices to stop the system M 2=G * Y (N.m) 55

56 F 2 X G Y 3 2 In open position in summer, the whole surface is not directly toward sunray; therefore overheating will be better than position 1 and 2. F 1 G G* X/2 = F*Y F= G*X/2*Y Same as Number 3 3 Same as Number 3 2 D 1 4 Y G θ θ G G M 4 = (G*D)= G * Y* Sin θ 4 (N ) D =Y* Sin θ n summer with 60 slope and n winter with 15 from vertical line, efficiency will be very high. Solar surface is perpendicular to solar sunlight. 56

57 1 3 Same as Number 5 The high efficiency in winter is not as much as case 5 but it is better than other cases due to ability to change the angle of solar shade system. Description Adaptation to Design It means adapt to an old façade ( to a building that is made and after that solar shading will attached 1 Occupied more area than window area Maintenance 1.resistance of solar tubes that is same to all alternatives 2.self cleaning ability by borosilicate glass in solar tubes that is also same to all alternatives 3. cleaning by residence from the inside of building 0 Maintenance is divided in three parts, First is about resistance of solar tubes that is same to all alternatives(0.8 MPa) Secondly is Self-cleaning of solar tubes that are because of special material of these kinds of tubes, Brosilica glass and is same to all kinds of Evacuated Solar Tubes. Third one is ability to clean tubes form inside by user that possible in all alternatives. Occupied more area than window area

58 Occupied NO more area than window area Occupied NO more area than window area 4 0 Occupied NO more area than window area Occupied NO more area than window area

59 Visual blocking aspect It means how much of outside view will be blocked by attaching the solar shade to a window in open position, cause in close position all cases are like each other Solar shading range 1.Horizontal sun shading is more suitable for south facade 2.blocking unsuitable sun rays Solar shade Controlling system The potential of system to work manually or mechanical This system has either potential to work manually or mechanical with simple mechanical devices This system has potential to work either manually or mechanical with special structure, more difficult than number This system can open and close manually or mechanically. To prevent bending Moment in the corner, needs special structure This system can open and close manually or mechanically by a pivot hinge. To prevent bending Moment in the corner,it needs special structure 59

60 3 3 1 This system can open and close manually or mechanically by a pivot hinge. Mechanical hinge system needs more stiffness than other alternatives This system can open and close manually or mechanically by a pivot hinge. Opening and closing downward, is easier than number 5. 60

61 Conclusion: In comparison chart different aspects for 6 options are compared.the first one is mechanical challenging. Easy Opening and closing systems are compared through 6 different options. Horizontal sliding is set as an excellent option because of easy opening and closing. The second grade is specified for vertical hinge. Vertical sliding is moderate because of its need to some extra devices to stop moving. Horizontal hinge is very week in easy opening and closing and it needs more force to open and close than other systems. Efficiency of the system is an important criteria of comparison between 6 alternatives, depends on adaptation to solar rays. In option 5, efficiency is excellent because of the ability to change the angle of solar shade and makes the surface of solar shade perpendicular to sunrays. Efficiency of vertical systems is not as high as option 5. In adaptation to design, rotating system in horizontal and vertical hinge is much better than sliding systems. Hence, options 3, 4, 5, 6 are excellent and option 1, 2 are week. In visual blocking aspect in open position, solar radial diagram is used to compare different options.solar radial diagram is same in options1, 2, 3, 4 but in horizontal rotating hinge, the diagram is different. The conclusion of comparison is that horizontal rotating hinge systems block more view to outside than other systems although the difference are not too much. Comparison in solar shading range is done with solar path diagram. Option 1,2,3,4 are better than alternatives 5,6 specifically in summer. The last comparison is concentrated on solar shade controlling system, the ability of a system to work manually or mechanically. Option 1 is excellent as it also has highest grade in easy opening and closing and the weakest one is horizontal rotating hinge which changing to manual system because the total weight of solar system is not as easy as other system. 61

62 5. Building physics calculation: Equations are used in calculations Equation1 Q=mc ΔT Q= Ht Q= Thermal Energy Q...Thermal energy(joules, J) m mass(kilogram,kg) c...specific heat capacity ( kgc );air= 1000 T temperature (C) H.Rate of energy(j/secorw,wat) t..time (s,second) Equation2 ρ = m v ρ.density(kg/m 3 ) Air = 1.2 m.. mass (Kilogram,kg) Equation1+ Equation2 (q sun-in q Sun-out ). Time. Surface = c ρ v ΔT Equation 3 q = average solar insolation. absorber area v.volume(m 3 ) q w m2 c...specific heat capacity ρ.density(kg/m 3 ) V.Volume(m 3 ) T temperature (C) q..energy output,w/m2 Solar insolation.kwh m 2 Absorber area m 2 Equation 4 Convert kwh/m 2 to w/m2= (kwh/m )/ 24 In this stage, numbers of solar evacuated tubes that are needed for south façade of concept house (for regular warm water usage in 84 m 2 house) calculated. Step1, Trying to find how much water is needed in a 84 m 2 house. It depends on many factors, but in averaged each person use 50 L water every day for regular warm water, such as bath, washing hands. Step 2, Calculating numbers of evacuated solar tubes which are needed for 84m 2 for regular usage in bath that provide enough hot water (which is calculated in step 1) Step 3. Calculating energy absorption by evacuated solar tubes in two situations (with reflector and without reflector behind) in summer and winter. 62

63 In this part, first calculating how many tubes are required to provide warm water for 84m 2 house with three bedrooms (Typical plan for Concept house). South façade is the best place to install sunshading system. Figure 5-1,84m 2, 3 bedrooms (Concept House) Step 1, calculating average amount of water usage for bathroom (for 84m 2 with 3 family members): In this stage, amount of water that used by a three members of a family will be calculated. I assume that in 84m 2, 3 people live. Water usage is very difficult to calculate as it depends on many factors. For instance, one person can consume just 70 liters of hot water over a two weeks period and on the other case, a young couple use hot water 400 liters per day. In CONCEPT HOUSE, evacuated solar tubes just provide regular water consumption like bath and washing hands. Other systems like collectors on roof and heat pump in ground provide warm water for heating system. Average water usage per person per day is about 50 liters and for three people is about 150 liters. Therefore average water usage for bathroom for 84m 2 per day is about 150 liters. 63

64 Step 2, Calculating numbers of evacuated solar tubes to provide 150 liters warm water : Number of tubes How much water supply Cylinder volume liters liters 175 liters liters liters Table 5-2, Water supply per tube Number of tubes Diameter of tubes length width height 10 47mm 1760mm 760mm 130mm 20 47mm 1760mm 1500mm 130mm 30 47mm 1760mm 2170mm 130mm 20 58mm 1900mm 1660mm 130mm 30 58mm 1900mm 2406mm 13mm 10 70mm 1760mm 1000mm 130mm 20 70mm 1760mm 1950m 130mm Table 5-3, Standard size of evacuated solar tubes As a result of step 1 and step 2, average water usage by householders is about 150 liters, therefore almost tubes are enough for this amount of water. 84m 2, 3 people Water usage 150 per day 150/8.5= 15 Hot Water supply liters per tube 64

65 Step 3, Energy output for 20 evacuated solar tubes without reflector behind it in winter: For each evacuated solar tube, absorbing is 83% of total amount of solar radiation, (without reflector behind it). Therefore, for 20 evacuated solar tubes (2.64 m 2 ), absorber surface is: Total surface for 20 tubes is = 1.76* 1.5 = 2.64(m 2 ) Absorber surface= 83% total surface = 83% * 2.64 =2.2 (m 2 ) Average solar insolation in winter = 0.78 (kwh/m2/day) Eq3.Energy output per day= Average solar insolation in winter * absorber area= 0.78 * 2.2= 1.716(kwh) In contrast, of 83% absorption, 17% of total energy is non-absorption. It means: Non absorber surface= 17% total surface = 17% * 2.64 =0.44 (m 2 ) Average solar insolation in winter = 0.78 (kwh/m 2 /day) Eq3.. Energy output per day= Average solar insolation in winter * non absorber area Temperature rising inside in winter: 17% of the total sun energy enters inside. Q = 17% * 0.78 = (kwh/m 2 /day) = *1000 = 132.6(wh/m 2 /day)/24= 5.525(w/m 2 /day) Eq1. Q= ρvcδt Eq1+ Eq2. (Q sun-in Q sun-out ).Time(having sunlight). Surface =c ρ v ΔT ( %*5.525)* 6(h)* 2.64(m 2 ) = 1000* 1.2* 2.64 *0.15* ΔT 0 ΔT 1 Energy output and temperature rising inside in summer: Total surface for 20 tubes is = 1.76* 1.5 = 2.64(m 2 ) Absorber surface= 83% total surface = 83% * 2.64 =2.2 (m 2 ) Average solar insolation in summer = 4.11 (kwh/m 2 /day) Eq3, Energy output per day= Average solar insolation in winter * absorber area = 4.11 * 2.2= 9.042(kwh) And 17% of total energy can pass through solar tubes, it means: Non absorber surface= 17% total surface = 17% * 2.64 =0.44 (m 2 ) Average solar insolation in summer = 4.11 (kwh/m 2 /day) Eq3. Energy output per day= Average solar insolation in summer * non absorber area 65

66 = 4.11 * 0.44= (kwh) = 75.35(w) Find Temperature rises ( T) inside home by 17 % of total solar radiation: U = 0.48 (W/m2K) Q = 17% * 4.11 = (kwh/m 2 /day) = *1000 = 698.7(wh/m 2 /day)/24= 29.11(w/m 2 /day) Eq. Q= ρvcδt Eq. (Q sun-in Q sun-out ).Time. Surface =c ρ v ΔT ( %*29.11)* 12* 2.64 = 1000* 1.2* 2.64 *0.15* ΔT 0 ΔT 1 Conclusion: In solar shading system, when is closed, 17% of total sun energy is passed through it. This amount of solar radiation according to conclusion just has a tiny effect on raising temperature. (0 ΔT 1) Therefore, in close position of solar shade system, amount of solar radiation that is passed through tubes has a few effects on raising temperature inside. Eq3.Energy output per day = 0.78 * 0.44= 0.35(kwh) Summary: In this part, number of evacuated solar tubes for 84 m 2 is calculated. In each houses, depends on area, number of evacuated solar tubes are different. In the chosen plan of concept house, 15 tubes are enough to provide regular heat water usage for bath and washing hands. Heat water that is used in heat floor system will be provided by other systems like solar plates. In conclusion, in order to provide heat water for regular consumption like bath for 84 m 2, 15 evacuated solar tubes are enough. Based on solar energy insolation in winter (0.78 kwh/m 2 ) and summer (4.11 kwh/ m 2 ), energy output by 15 evacuated solar tubes are different. Surface of evacuated solar tubes absorbs 83% of total sun energy and 17% is emitted inside. Therefore as a result, energy output in winter is 1.7 (kwh) for 15 tubes and 9.04(kwh) in summer. Increase of temperature inside by 17% emittance of total solar energy is less that 1(0 ΔT 1). 66

67 6. Technical Part 67

68 Sun shading analysis In the following diagram, there are two situations are compared, the open and the closed positions of sun shading, on the 21st of June and 21st of December, three times of the day, 9, 12, 16. Close Position: 9:00 21 of Dec 21 of JUNE 12:00 16:00 Figure 6-1, Close position of sun shading system in 21 of Dec and 21 of Jun 68

69 Open Position: 9:00 21 of Dec 21 of JUNE 12:00 16:00 69

70 Without Sun shading: 9:00 21 of Dec 21 of JUNE 12:00 16:00 Figure 6-2, without sun shading system in 21 of Dec and 21 of Jun 70

71 Horizontal or vertical direction of evacuated tubes: The evacuated solar tubes will would normally be installed in a vertical position. However, it should also be noted that because of the construction and design of our panels, they can also be installed in a horizontal position. The flow of water will naturally be transferred from the bottom of water copper pipe to top when is in horizontal position. Most of evacuated tube panels available in market today must be installed in a vertical position although the horizontal position is also available in market. Figure 6-3, Horizontal Position Figure 6-4, Vertical Position 71

72 In the design, the horizontal position is more appropriate than the vertical position because: 1. It Occupies less area than the vertical position 2. The Sun shading for the south façade should be horizontal and for the east and west façades should be vertical. Figure 6-5, Vertical Position Figure 6-6, Horizontal Position 72

73 Vertical Evacuated solar tubes Pros Cons More efficient in blocking sun Less obstructing view because of smaller area Less common in market More difficult in water pipe installation Horizontal Evacuated solar tubes Pros Cons More common in Market Easy Installation in Water Pipe Less efficient in Blocking Sun Not suitable for south Facade Occupied more area than horizontal one Obstruct more view than Horizontal direction In conclusion, although the vertical evacuated solar system is more common in market and it is easier to install but when integrated with sun shading system, the situation is different. As The most important point, c c c v c z situation. On the other hand, in both situations the efficiency are equal. In contrast, the efficiency of sun shading is affected by direction of tubes. horizontal tubes work better as sun shading for the south façade than vertical direction. 73

74 7. Conclusion In this part, aims of this research and key questions will be summarized. First where the inspiration of this design came from and then about the criteria for the design and the factors that affected the final design. finally, the technical part will be explained. At the end, one of the façade solutions and further recommendation will be mentioned. 1. How is it possible to combine evacuated solar tubes system with the exterior facade to have both energy generating system and sun shading element? According to the process of my design, the combination of evacuated solar system with sun shading is possible through understanding two systems. This concept is a combination of these two parts that is needed to know characteristics of both elements and then know about how it is possible to combine these two systems together. 2. In the process of design two results are expected, first a system that absorbs sun rays and warms water with high efficiency in winter and summer. Second, a system that provides shading to the window when blocking the sun rays is needed. In conclusion, the result of the integration of evacuated solar system with sun shading will be satisfying under the situation that works as warm heating system and sun shading element. 3. In Technical part, the most important part is the connection between flexible tube and fixed tube. In Evacuated solar tubes, water pipe inters in to the solar system and by indirect conduction becomes warm and goes out from the other side. When solar tube system is going to be as sun shading is not fixed anymore. Therefore finding an appropriate connection that is installed between the solar tube system and stable water pipe is very important and crucial. In my design, a flexible hose that is resistant and strong enough is a connection between flexible and fixed water pipes. 4. The third challenging part in the technical design is the rotating hinge in top. This hinge should be strong enough to tolerate the weight of the solar system and rotates easily as well 5. Horizontal or vertical evacuated solar tubes are an important issue in my design. Evacuated solar tubes have best efficiency in the south orientation. It is also worth mentioning that south sun shading should be horizontal not vertical. So it is better to choose horizontal solar tubes instead of vertical ones. The Vertical system is more conventional than the horizontal one and it is more available in the market although horizontal tubes are better for blocking the sun for the south façade. Hence, depending on the situation we can have horizontal or vertical ones. Efficiency in solar absorption is same.furthermore; vertical sun shading is longer than horizontal. Hence, it obstructs more view than horizontal one. In this design, I have drawn details with horizontal direction because it occupies less area than the vertical solar system and is also more appropriate to south sun shading system. 6. Recommendation: Recommendations are given in this chapter for future research on solar shade system and for future development of potentials. During the research that is done for this master thesis, some interesting aspects for further research occurred which are discussed in this paragraph. In order to choose a proper integrated system of solar tubes and sun shading six alternatives are compared. In other cases without any limitations in design, it is possible to integrate two systems together, for instance sliding sun shading with horizontal rotating hinge system. Integration of two systems can improved total efficiency in solar absorption and prevented of visual blocking. The other recommendation is about connecting solar shade to floor heating system in a way that heat water is conducted through floor heating system and radiated around. In this way, water tank for keeping hot water of solar tubes will be replaced by floor heating system. 74

75 8. Façade detail design Façade detail design After considering pros and cons of each alternative, I concluded that the fifth alternative (horizontal hinge) is suitable for developing in more details because of better efficiency for south façade and better function as a sun shading system and better adaptable to Concept House design. In the following details, different parts of evacuated solar sun shading system are drawn. Part 1: The structure of the Concept House The floor structure of concept house: The floor is consisted of different layers. Horizontal beam with 80mm thickness that is able to cover a span by 2500mm. First Layer, wooden structure: In each panel, dimension is 2500* 3700mm. five horizontal beams with 40mm thickness are positioned 60mm from each other in a panel. Second Layer, insulation: The second layer is insulation with Rc about 5(m²K/W) with the height of 110mm. In the structure of the ConceptHouse floor, insulation height is more than usual to increase Rvalue to five. 75

76 Third Layer, waterway tubes: In each panel, nine Waterway tubes, with 150mm width, every 100 mm of each other are positioned. The insulation is extended between water tubes to prevent of heat lost. Fourth Layer, floor covering: The last part is 20mm floor covering.the floor cladding is not covered the floor area completely and at two ends 50 mm are not covered by cladding. At the end a strip with 100 mm width will cover the gap between two panels. The length of wooden structure is 2500mm and floor covering is about 2400mm. 76

77 The wall structure of concept house: The wall consists of vertical wooden columns with 50mm thickness. Each column has 550mm space of the next column. All columns have 50mm thickness just the first column that is connected to balcony has a 600 mm thickness. Two parts of wall are connected to each other with insulation between. The thickness of wall is about 300mm. Floor Connection to wall: The first column of wall with 600mm thickness is extended more than other columns. The height of the first column is 3170mm and others are 2780mm. There is a gap in floor structure that first column placed in this gap. 77

78 The FAAY ceilings The total structure guarantees excellent fire-resistance and sound-insulating qualities. The assembly, with 10 cm high I-sections, counteracts bending of the ceiling elements, up to a free span width of as much as 4.2 meters, including mineral wool. Without mineral wool, a free span width of over 6 meters is even possible, and of course, the FAAY ceiling system can be mounted in larger spans. With the FAAY system the ceiling tiles are delivered in a fixed size of 60 x 120 cm. Over the sections 65 mm thick mineral wool plates may be laid, which provides the excellent sound insulation. For an optimal fire resistance the mineral wool plates are mounted against the bottom of the floor construction. They are also concealed detachable and finished at once. Because of the lightweight, it is possible to have free spans of up to 6.3 m (without mineral wool). The FAAY tile has a fine perforation for the benefit of the sound absorption (a 0,63 at 500Hz) and has a primed white top layer with a beautiful, fine structure. Block I -beam Edge lath Block I -beam Mineral wool with glass fiber Foam Band Mineral wool with glass fiber Silicon Paste Wall Connection 78

79 The balcony connection to floor The schoeck Isokorb In The Concept House, thermal bridge between balcony and ceiling is solved by schoeck Isokorb connection. There is a steel pine that connect balcony beam to wall and prevent of penetration heat from inside to outside. Connection of steel fin to wooden beam: Connection Bolt Wooden beam Steel fin Summary: The solar shade design will be attached to the structure of CONCEPT HOUSE. In order to have a zero enrgy house, special floor and wall sytems are designed. floor system is consisted of wooden beams and same as wall with insulation inside. Roof and cladding are also specific to have high thermal and soud insulation. In connection floor to balcony prevention of thermal bridge is an impor matter. 79

80 Details drawing: 80

81 Vertical Section: 81

82 82

83 Horizontal Section: 83

84 84

85 85

86 Horizontal section of two apartments: 86

87 8. Appendix 87

88 Wind Resistance in solar sunshade Resistance toward wind and storm is a very important factor to choose a proper connection. In this regard, both evacuated solar tubes and structure of solar sunshade panel should resistant in a stormy day. Hence, increasing resistance to the wind has two parts; 1. Resistance of evacuated solar tubes. 2. Resistance the structure of solar sun shading panels Resistance of each evacuated solar system is about 30 m/s. It sounds strong enough to resist against the wind. In the Netherlands, the maximum wind speed is between m/s. That is evacuated solar tubes tolerate the force of wind when is maximum. The next step is strengthening the whole system toward maximum wind force. In all connections, open solar sunshade system is susceptible damages more than the closed position m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s 88

89 Steps of assembling Evacuated solar tubes Step 1: Fixing the Frame and Manifold Box two side bars approximately 1.4metres apart put the manifold box on to the side bars Fixing the Frame and Manifold Box, Attach the horizontal bar to the side bars Step 2; Fitting of the Evacuated Solar Tubes U type notch Jubilee clip pass the open clip through the U type notch on the horizontal bar and Close the Jubilee clip and tighten the clip 89

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