Selection of the optimum in-pit crusher location for an aggregate producer

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1 Syopsis Selectio of the optimum i-pit cushe loctio fo ggegte poduce by G. Kok*, A.H. Ou*, d D. Kkus* I-pit cushe loctio selectio hs hd impott ole ecetly, sice icesig diesel pices. Oe wy of educig the hulge costs is to shote the tuck hulge distce by bigig the tuck dump poit ito the pit. This study coves the wok doe o the optimum cushe loctio defiitio fo compy tht poduces ggegte e Izmi, city of Tukey locted i the west. This ppe will discuss the effects of pit geomety d mie ccess equiemets o optimum cushe loctio selectio tht e mily bsed o the estblishmet of miimum hulge distce. The method will be itoduced fist d the the compute lgoithm developed fo this study will be discussed lte i the ppe. Keywods: i-pit cushig, optimum loctio selectio, optimizig hulge, compute ided desig. Itoductio Risig opetig costs hve foced ggegte poduces to look t vious ltetives to cut costs to sty competitive. Hulge costs hve ise sigifictly with the icese of diesel pice. Recetly, it ws ouced i Tukish ewsppes tht the most expesive fuel i the wold is beig used i Tukey. This mkes fuel cosumptio impott whe desigig opepit miig o limestoe quies to shote hulge distces. Sevel ppoches hve bee developed ove the yes. Althoff d Clk1 gve the detiled compiso betwee sttioy cushig plt with hulge by hevy tucks d mobile cushig with belt coveyo system. I this study cpitl expeditue d opetiol expeses e comped d the idividul cost fctos explied. I-pit cushig d coveyig is well pove cocept fo pit utomtiztio but highe iteest tes, limited vilble cpitl d low fuel pices limited the itoductio of i-pit systems i 1990s5. Sighl8 metioed optimiztio tuck usge by pplyig tuck disptchig system, but the optimiztio of cushe loctio, s f s hulge distces e coceed, is fist itoduced by Robestso6,7. Geelly woks o the subject hve cocetted mostly o the compiso of tuck hulge d the coveyo system i ode to elimite the cost of diesel2,4. The compy fleet is mde up of fou 3.5 m3 bck-hoe hydulic excvtos d eightee 35-to cpcity e dump quy tucks togethe with oty dillig mchie. Thee-ich dimete blstig holes hve bee used fo blstig opetios with the ptte of 3 m of bude d 3.5 m of spcig. The blsted mteil is fed to the pimy jw cushe tht hs oe of the biggest cpcities i Tukey with 600 tos/hou, d the the mteil goes though the secody hmme cushe to the sceeig uit fo commecil fil poducts. The fil clssified poduct sizes e 0 5 mm, 5 15 mm, mm, d mm. All clssified mteils e stoed i diffeet silos to llow sy lodig to custome s tucks. The compy, fo which this study is doe, with ul ggegte cpcity of tos/ye povides ely qute of Izmi s demd i the buildig idusty. Thee e sevel othe ggegte poduces situted oud Izmi. The compy hs bee opetig cushe with sceeig plt, which is visible fom the city cete, fo ely 8 yes t plce locted ppoximtely 10 km fom Izmi. The compy uthoities hve ecetly decided to move ll the plt to ew suitble positio to keep it out of sight of the city, becuse of icesig pessue comig fom Izmi muiciplity. The existig cushe plt is locted e quite busy Izmi- Ak (cpitl of Tukey) motowy, so sight of the quy d dust comig off both cushe d the quy tucks hs lwys bee poblem to the people of the povice. * Dokuz Eylul Uivesity, Fculty of Egieeig, Miig Egieeig Deptmet, Izmi, Tukey. The Southe Afic Istitute of Miig d Metllugy, SA ISSN X/ Ppe eceived Jul. 2006; evised ppe eceived M T s c t i o P p e The Joul of The Southe Afic Istitute of Miig d Metllugy VOLUME 107 REFEREED PAPER MARCH

2 Selectio of the optimum i-pit cushe loctio fo ggegte poduce As esult of the cicumstces metioed bove, i 2005 uthoities of the compy obtied mie pemit fo ew e tht is 4 km wy fom its existig positio behid hill. They stted limestoe poductio fom the ew mie site d pled to move the existig cushe plt to the ew quy site. The uthoities wee ot sue o which bech it would be bette to istll the cushe plt to keep hulge distce to miimum, so they pplied fo poject to the Uivesity of Dokuz Eylul i Izmi. Evlutio of the ew quy I ode to detemie the ew i-pit cushe positio, topogphic mppig hd to be completed d ll pemit boudies dw o this mp. The topogphic mp d existig positio of the ew wokble e e give i Figue 1. The body of limestoe tht will be used fo ggegte poductio is suouded by two ive beds pssig fom the est to the oth pt of the mie pemitted e. Limestoe beig fomtios lie o the uphill betwee +240 to +340 m bove se level. Flt egios situted o the este pt of the ive bed e schist fomtios whee limestoe foms boudy. Geologicl pospectig d dill holes showed tht limestoe eched to level +240 without y iteuptio, hece this level is tke s the pit bottom. Bech heights e pled to be 15 m whe cosideig the size of the equipmet used i the mi opetio d 50 fil slope gle is ogized fo the quy. Figue 2 gives the bech geomety pled fo the ew quy. The fist step whe evlutig the potetil istlltio of cushe d sceeig plt is to estblish the geometic settlemet equiemets of whole plt. Sevel ltetives wee tke ito cosidetio, d the fil decisio ws olie istlltio. The flow of mteil utilizig i-pit cushe-sceeig system stts with the tucked mteil beig dump ito the feede pocket locted t ceti bech level. A decisio ws tke to estblish the mi cushesceeig system o pltfom tht is locted 10 m below the feede. The size of the pltfom ws chose s 30 m wide d 80 m log. The mteil to be cushed d sceeed will move o diect lie o this pltfom, the the fil poducts will be stoed o floo estblished 10 m below the pltfom tht houses the cushe-sceeig uits. The existig plt tht the compy holds equies 20 m of totl height. Beside the spce llocted fo cushe-scee istlltio, specific equiemet cme fom the compy uthoities fo lge stoge e fo diffeet clsses of ggegte. A illusttio of the dimesio d the system pled fo istlltio is give i Figue 3. The method of selectig the optimum i-pit cushe loctio The mi ide behid the optimiztio techique tht ws utilized to solve the cuet poblem ws to develop ll potetil ltetives d the select the best oe i.e. It ws til d eo pocess. So it becomes impott to show ll possible ltetives tht stisfy the citei. Fo this pupose, the limestoe deposit wee fist divided ito egul veticl slices of 5 m thickess. The poblem ws to fid the best slice level which miimizes the ovell tvellig distce to the plt. The cushig plt could be locted t y positio o oe of these veticl lyes, but cetig the e ecessy fo the cushig plt d stockig e would limit the utility of the eseve of specific slice level, so it ws decided to ssemble the cushig plt o the edge of ech 5 m thick slice. Tht gve the ple chce to defie pemet vege ltel tspotig distce tht ech tuck should tvel fo specific veticl slice. This mes tht if ll the mteil of ceti veticl slice supposed to be cied to the cushe plt o the edge of the slice, the vege tvellig distce would be this legth. 10 m 15 m 3 m Figue 1 Existig sttus of the mie site Figue 2 Pled bech geomety 162 MARCH 2007 VOLUME 107 REFEREED PAPER The Joul of The Southe Afic Istitute of Miig d Metllugy

3 Selectio of the optimum i-pit cushe loctio fo ggegte poduce The usble limestoe eseve betwee the pemit boudy d schist cotct zoe hs bee divided ito 5 m thick veticl slices i ode to defie bech eseves. The mout of limestoe existig withi the lyes d hoizotl hulge distces fo ech slice hve bee clculted by usig compute softwe developed fo mppig puposes. Results fom these clcultios e give i Tble I Cushe Feede +100 Electicity powe supply Figue 3 Pl view d coss-sectio of the ooms fo the plt loctio Scees Stock pile e N m Tble I gives both the eseves cotiig 5 m slices d the vege hoizotl hulge distces ecessy to tvel o this level. The shpe of the limestoe body bigs bout loge hulge distces fom highe ltitudes to lowe ltitudes. The most impott cocept i selectig the optimum cushe loctio is to exhust the limestoe eseve with miimum ovell hulge distces so s to miimize hulge cost. To chieve this objective, sevel cushe movemets hve bee cosideed duig the life of mie. Usig i-pit mobile cushe c educe the hulge costs, but due to high iitil ivestmet cost, this optio hs ot bee cosideed. Isted, chgig the loctio of the cushe-sceeig plt duig the opetiol peiod by uistllig d istllig the plt hs bee studied. Utilizig the cushe t sttioy positio without movig to othe level util the ed of mie is the fist ltetive. Similly chgig the cushe istlltio levels oce, twice d thee time hs lso bee lysed. Movig the cushesceeig plt fom oe level to othe hs diect ssembly cost d time cost esultig fom stoppge, hece the fil decisio should be tke by compig both ltetives. The mi cosidetios to detemie the optimum hulge oute c be summized s follows: Feedig limestoe to the cushe fom levels below to the cushe positio will hve dditiol cost, sice dditiol eegy is equied fo tucks hulig mteil i upwd diectio. The cost of isig mteil fom the lowe beches to the uppe cushe positio will icese the cost of hulge. To utilize the effect of upwd hulge, totl distces wee icesed 20% d 30% Diesel cosumptio of tuck is tke s 1 l/km fom the compy s fuel cosumptio ecods, d the pice of diesel i Tukey is 1.5 US$/l The compy is equipped with 35-to cpcity tucks, so tht the totl limestoe eseve of tos T s c t i o P p e Tble I Reseves of 5 m thick slices d vege hoizotl hulge distces 3 Bech level (m) Bech eseve (tos) Cumultive eseve (tos) Hoizotl bech hulge distce (km) The Joul of The Southe Afic Istitute of Miig d Metllugy VOLUME 107 REFEREED PAPER MARCH

4 Selectio of the optimum i-pit cushe loctio fo ggegte poduce will be emoved with totl of tuck cycles. The mi pupose of this study is to chose cushe positio tht miimizes the hulge distce of these cycles, i othe wods, miimize the diesel cosumptio The mi ccess od of the pit is locted o the south pt of the mie site t level A cushe locted o lowe beches hs dvtge s f s dowwd tspottio is coceed, but whe it comes to isig ll cushed mteil to the mi ccess od, lowe cushe positios hve become ippopite Apt fom hulge distces, loctig the cushe plt i the middle of the limestoe eseve will limit the bech eseve utiliztio due to the ecessity of lloctig of lge es fo stock pile istlltio. This limits the ltetives of the cushe positio o ceti bech. The method of fidig the optimum cushe positio is oe of til d eo. The umbe of ltetive cushe positios to be cosideed is so high tht compute pogm hs bee witte fo clcultig ll possible ltetives. To expli the method, the fist ltetive of ot chgig the cushe positio will be exmied. Wht e the possible ltetives fo loctig the i-pit cushe? The swe to this questio is esy fo the ltetive of ot chgig the cushe positio util the ed of the life of the mie; so, fo the fist ltetive, the cushe is supposed to be locted t the highest level i the quy, 335 m level, d ll othe level eseves will be tspoted to this level. By doig so, the decisio vible of eseve tsfe vlue (to x km) c be clculted with the followig fomul by usig mteil the isig coefficiet of 1.2 fo level 335: (Bech 335 eseve*hbhd bech 330 eseve* (HBHD (( )/100)2*1.2) + bech 325 eseve* (HBHD (( )/100)*1.2) +...)/totl quy eseve 1 Hoizotl bech hulge distce (km) fom Tble I 2 Totl uphill hulge distce with mximum 10% od gde (km) * *( *1.2) *( *1.2) * ( *1.2) *( *1.2) *( *1.2) = tos*km tos*km / tos = km vege hulge distce The study e hs bee divided ito 21 uits of 5 m thick levels, so the umbe of possible ltetives is the sme s the level umbes s f s the sttioy cushe positio is coceed. Whe y level below the highest oe is cosideed to obti the vege hulge distce, the mteil fom uppe levels hs bee teted with the fomul bove without the mteil isig coefficiet. Whe it comes to study oe cushe positio chge duig the life of the quy, the lgoithm becomes moe complex th the sttioy oe. The fist possible wy to employ the cushe is o the highest level 335, d the secod cushe positio would be o level 320 s f s bech height is coceed. I this cse, the level eseves of 335 will hve oly hoizotl bech hulge, ll the mteil fom level 330 d 325 will be cied to the cushe positioed o level 335 with the isig coefficiet. The the cushe is supposed to move to level 320 so ll eseves of this level d lowe levels will be cushed with this cushe. The secod possible ltetive is to move the cushe fom level 320 to 305. The lgoithm clcultes ll ltetives by movig the secod cushe positio dow to the lowest level possible, the cotiues clcultig, tkig the fist positio of the cushe o level 330. Tble II gives ide bout the possible ltetives. If the cushe hs bee locted o the highest level of the pit the it is supposed to move to lowe beches, clcultig the vlue of the eseve multiplied by bech hoizotl hulge distce (to x km). Figue 4 is the flow cht of the lgoithm developed fo optimizig the cushe positio if chged oce duig mie life. The compute pogm cosides ll possible ltetives, so the solutio obtied fom the lgoithm c be sid to be the optimum. As see i Figue 4, the fist positio of the cushe stys stble, the the secod positio of the cushe chges fom 15 m below the fist positio dow to the miimum level of the pit, stoig ll ltetive to x km vlues i the memoy. The ext step is to move the fist cushe positio 5 m below d do the ecessy clcultios by movig the secod positio 15 m below the fist positio, d so o. Whe the cushe chges its positio twice, the lgoithm does the sme clcultios by ddig C3 positio to the lgoithm. Thee e totl of 21 ltetives to chose fom fo the sttioy cushe positio, whees this umbe ises to 458 whe it comes to chgig the cushe positio oce duig the life of quy; d diffeet possibilities e ceted by the lgoithm fo chgig the cushe positio twice d thee times espectively. Evlutio of the obtied esults Avege hulge distces (km), miimum tvellig distces (km) d cost of diesel cosumptios ($) hve bee clculted by the compute pogm fo fou diffeet cushe movemet ltetives d esults e give i Tble III. Tble II Possible ltetives The fist positio The secod positio The fist positio The secod positio The fist positio The secod positio Level 335 Level 320 Level 330 Level 315 Level 325 Level 310. Alt2 Level 305 Alt8 Level 300 Alt14 Level. Alt3 Level 290 Alt9 Level 285 Alt15 Level 280. Alt4 Level Alt10 Level 270 Alt16 Level 265. Alt5 Level 260 Alt11 Level 255 Alt17 Level 250. Alt6 Level 245 Alt12 Level 240 Alt18 Level MARCH 2007 VOLUME 107 REFEREED PAPER The Joul of The Southe Afic Istitute of Miig d Metllugy

5 Selectio of the optimum i-pit cushe loctio fo ggegte poduce T s c t i o P p e Figue 4 Flow cht of the compute pogm Tble III Optimum tvel distce d diesel cosumptios fo diffeet cushe istlltios 3 Upwd hulge % Bech levels givig optimum solutio Avege distce (km) Miimum distce (km) Totl diesel cost (US$) Sttioy cushe positio* Cushe level swp umbe = Cushe level swp umbe = Cushe level swp umbe = *Cushe level swp umbe = 0 I Figue 5, the esults obtied fom the compute lgoithm e give fo ll possible ltetives coveig cushe level swps with 0% upwd hulge fcto. Tble III gives the optimum solutios obtied fom Figue 5 fo thee cushe level swps by cosideig 3 diffeet upwd hulge fctos. As it c be see fom Tble III, if the cushe positio does ot chge duig the life of mie, km vege hulge distce is obtied with 20% upwd hulge fcto. The optimum cushe positio is locted t level +270 m. Whe the cushe positio is chged oce duig the life of mie, km vege hulge distce is obtied s the miimum possible ltetive by loctig the cushe t level 290 d 270. Sice the compute pogm seches ll possible ltetives fo loctig the cushe t diffeet positios, this figue gives the optimum cushe feede positio. The diffeece i The Joul of The Southe Afic Istitute of Miig d Metllugy VOLUME 107 REFEREED PAPER MARCH

6 Selectio of the optimum i-pit cushe loctio fo ggegte poduce Figue 5 Optimum cushe loctios fo ll diffeet cushe istlltio levels diesel cosumptio betwee the sttioy cushe positio d chgig the cushe positio oce duig mie life is lites, equivlet to US$. Thee cushe positio chges esult i km vege hulge distce d hve csh dvtge of US$ ove sttioy cushe positio. At the decisio-tkig stge, selectig the optimum loctio ot oly depeds o the fuel cosumptio, but lso depeds o the moey to be spet o ssemblig d eistllig woks fo the cushe. Thee is lso idiect cost fo eistlltio, mely time cost tht c be cused by stoppig ggegte poductio duig the ssemblig peiod. Results I this study, simple decisio-tkig pocess hs bee itoduced fo selectig cushe loctio fo compy wokig i the ggegte secto e Izmi, Tukey. Due to public pessue, owes hd stted opetig of limestoe quy tht is 4 km wy fom the existig loctio d they decided to move the cushe d sceeig plts to the ew pit e. The questio ose bout whee tht cushe would be istlled to miimize the hulge cost of the limestoe eseve. To swe this questio, some ssumptios hve bee mde by cosideig the compy s pevious wokig sttegies. The mi ssumptio is tht istllig the cushe iside the quy will miimize hulge distces, but it will obstuct the utiliztio of the limestoe eseve. So movig the cushe plt to diffeet loctios o ceti bech level is ot cosideed. As the esults show US$ diffeece ovecomes the cost of eistlltig the plt, so chgig the plt loctio oce ove the life of mie hs bee chose. Opetios e still beig cied out to pepe the fist cushe bse t level + d stock pilig spce t level +. The estimted life of mie is bout 18 yes if the eseve utiliztio is kept t the sme level s t peset; hece it is pled to move the ew cushe positio i 8 yes to bech level I this study diffeet upwd hulge icesig fctos hve bee utilized to tke equipmet depecitio i to ccout fo futue yes. Thee e lso detiled ul pls doe to show the mi ccess, bech ccess to cushe feede pocket d the geomety of the limestoe quy ove yes. Access to the cushe d tsfes hs bee ssued fo mitece s well s fo emovl of the dive sttios whe the system is moved. Ackowledgemet This poject ws fuded by BEMAS, ggegte poduce compy ude cotct to Dokuz Eylul Uivesity, Miig Egieeig Deptmet. Refeeces 1. ALTHOFF, H. AND CLARK, R.D. I-pit cushig d coveyig educes hulge costs. CIM Bulleti, Cd, vol. 79, 1986, pp CLOES, J.A. d SUVERKROP, D Cushig t the fce. Pit & Quy, vol. 18, pp. 58, KONAK, G., ONUR, A.H., d KARAKUS D. Poductio plig d optimum cushe loctio selectio fo limestoe quy belogig to BEMAS. Poject fuded by BEMAS, Izmi, Tukey, pp MARKIEWICZ, R.R. Reloctble ipit cushig d coveyig systems. Thid Lge Ope Pit Miig Cofeece, pp PLATTNER, J. I-pit cushig d coveyig: pove ltetive. Col Hdlig d Utiliztio Cofeece, pp ROBERTSON, J.L. I-pit cushe cuts tuck hul. Rock Poducts, vol. 87, pp ROBERTSON, J.L. I-pit cushe sves hul costs. Rock Poducts, vol. 89, pp SINGHAL, R.K., COLLINS, J.-L., d FYTAS, K. Cdi expeiece i ope pit miig. Miig Egieeig, vol. 47, pp MARCH 2007 VOLUME 107 REFEREED PAPER The Joul of The Southe Afic Istitute of Miig d Metllugy

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