# Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department. Lectures of. Fluid Mechanics. Dr. Amir M. Mobasher

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1 Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department Lectures of Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir M. Mobasher

2 1/14/2013 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir Mobasher Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering Al-Azhar University Fluid concept Fluid mechanics is a division in applied mechanics related to the behaviour of liquid or gas which is either in rest or in motion. The study related to a fluid in rest or stationary is referred to fluid static, otherwise it is referred to as fluid dynamic. Fluid can be defined as a substance which can deform continuously when being subjected to shear stress at any magnitude. In other words, it can flow continuously as a result of shearing action. This includes any liquid or gas. Dr. Amir Mobasher 2 1

3 1/14/2013 Fluid concept Thus, with exception to solids, any other matters can be categorised as fluid. Examples of typical fluid used in engineering applications are water, oil and air. Dr. Amir Mobasher 3 Units and Dimensions Force = Mass * Acceleration Dr. Amir Mobasher 4 2

4 1/14/2013 Units and Dimensions Dr. Amir Mobasher 5 Units and Dimensions Dr. Amir Mobasher 6 3

5 1/14/2013 Units and Dimensions Dr. Amir Mobasher 7 Units and Dimensions Dr. Amir Mobasher 8 4

6 1/14/2013 Units and Dimensions Dr. Amir Mobasher 9 Units and Dimensions Dr. Amir Mobasher 10 5

7 1/14/2013 Units and Dimensions Dr. Amir Mobasher 11 Units and Dimensions Dr. Amir Mobasher 12 6

8 1/14/2013 Units and Dimensions Dr. Amir Mobasher 13 Units and Dimensions Dr. Amir Mobasher 14 7

9 1/14/2013 Units and Dimensions Dr. Amir Mobasher 15 Units and Dimensions Dr. Amir Mobasher 16 8

10 1/14/2013 Fluids Properties - Surface tension (σ) Surface tension (σ): A liquid s ability to resist tension - Capillarity Adhesion > Cohesion Cohesion > Adhesion Cohesion: Inner force between liquid molecules. Dr. Amir Mobasher Adhesion: Attraction force between liquids, and a solid surface. 17 Fluids Properties - Capillarity Dr. Amir Mobasher 18 9

11 1/14/2013 Fluids Properties - Water droplets Dr. Amir Mobasher 19 Fluids Properties - Viscosity Dr. Amir Mobasher 20 10

12 1/14/2013 Fluids Properties - Viscosity Dr. Amir Mobasher 21 Fluids Properties - Kinematic Viscosity ( ) Dr. Amir Mobasher 22 11

13 1/14/2013 Applications of Viscosity 1- Plate moving with uniform velocity Dr. Amir Mobasher 23 Applications of Viscosity 1- Plate moving with uniform velocity Dr. Amir Mobasher 24 12

14 1/14/2013 Applications of Viscosity 1- Plate moving with uniform velocity Dr. Amir Mobasher 25 Applications of Viscosity 2- Cylinder moving with uniform velocity Dr. Amir Mobasher 26 13

15 1/14/2013 Applications of Viscosity 2- Cylinder moving with uniform velocity Dr. Amir Mobasher 27 Applications of Viscosity 2- Cylinder moving with uniform velocity Dr. Amir Mobasher 28 14

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65 Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department Sheets of Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir M. Mobasher

66 Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department Subject: Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir M. Mobasher Sheet (1) - Units and Dimensions Q1: Using dimensional analysis, put down the dimensions and units in the engineering systems {pound (Ib), foot (ft), second (s)} and {kilogram (kg), meter (m), second (s)} for the following engineering quantities: Density (ρ), specific weight (γ), surface tension (σ), pressure intensity (p), dynamic viscosity (µ), kinematic viscosity (υ), energy per unit weight, power, liner momentum, angular momentum, shear stress (τ). Q2: Show that the following terms are dimensionless: Q3: Find the dimensions for the following terms: Q4: Convert the following terms: γ = 1000 kg/m 3 to Ib/ft 3 g = 9.81 m/sec 2 to ft/sec 2 p = 7 kg/cm 2 to N/m 2 γ = 710 dyne/cm 3 to Ib/ft 3, N/m 3 µ = poise to Ib.sec/ft 2, Pa.sec 1

67 Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department Subject: Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir M. Mobasher Sheet (2) Fluid Properties Q1: What is the diameter of a spherical water drop if the inside pressure is 15 N/m 2 and the surface tension is N/m. Q2: The pressure within a bubble of soapy water of 0.05 cm diameter is 5.75 gm/cm 2 greater than that of the atmosphere. Calculate the surface tension in the soapy water in S.I. units. Q3: Calculate the capillary effect in millimeters in a glass tube of 4 mm diam., when immersed in (i) water and (ii) in mercury. The temperature of liquid is 20 o C and the values of surface tension of water and mercury at this temperature in contact with air are kg/m and kg/m respectively. The contact angle for water = 0 and for mercury = 130. Q4: To what height will water rise in a glass tube if its diameter is (σ = N/m) a) 1.50 cm b) 2.0 mm Q5: The space between a square smooth flat plate (50 x 50) cm 2, and a smooth inclined plane (1:100) is filled with an oil film (S.G. = 0.9) of 0.01 cm thickness. Determine the kinematic viscosity in stokes if the plate is 2.3 kg. The velocity of the plate = 9 cm/sec. 2

68 Q6: For the shown figure, Calculate the friction force if the plate area is (2m x3m) and the viscosity is 0.07 poise. Q7: A piston cm diameter and 14 cm long works in a cylinder 12 cm diameter. A lubricating oil which fills the space between them has a viscosity 0.65 poise. Calculate the speed at which the piston will move through the cylinder when an axial load of 0.86 kg is applied. Neglect the inertia of the piston. Q8: A piece of pipe 30 cm long weighting 1.5 kg and having internal diameter of cm is slipped over a vertical shaft 5.0 cm in diameter and allowed to fall under its own weight. Calculate the maximum velocity attained by the felling pipe if a film of oil having viscosity equals 0.5 Ib.s/ft 2 is maintained between the pipe and the shaft. 3

69 Q9: A cylinder of 0.12 m radius rotates concentrically inside of a fixed cylinder of m radius. Both cylinders are 0.30 m long. Determine the viscosity of the liquid which fills the space between the cylinders if a torque of 1 N.m is required to maintain an angular velocity of 2 rad/s. Q10: The thrust of a shaft is taken by a collar bearing provided with a forced lubrication system. The lubrication system maintains a film of oil of uniform thickness between the surface of the collar and the bearing. The external and internal diameters of collar are 16 and 12 cms. respectively. The thickness of oil film is 0.02 cms. and coefficient of viscosity is 0.91 poise. Find the horse-power lost in overcoming friction when the shaft is rotated at a speed of 350 r.p.m. 4

70 Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department Subject: Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir M. Mobasher Sheet (3) Hydrostatic Pressure Q1: A tank full of water as shown below. Find the maximum pressure, and h. Q2: A tank full of water and oil (S.G = 0.80), as shown. Find the pressure at the oil/water interface and the bottom of the tank. 5

71 Q3: For the shown figure, find the pressure (P1) if the pressure (P2) = 60 KPa (abs)? Q4: If the pressure at point (B) = 300 KPa as shown in figure, find the followings: a) The height (h) b) The pressure at point (A)? Q5: For the shown figure, find the height (h)? 6

72 Q6: For the shown figure, where is the maximum pressure (P AB or P BC )? Q7: For the shown figure, what is the difference in pressure between points 1,2? Q8: Pressure gage B is to measure the pressure at point A in a water flow. If the pressure at B is 9 t/m 2, estimate the pressure at A. 7

73 Q9: For the shown figure, what is the difference in pressure between points A, B? Q10: For the shown figure, what is the pressure at gauge dial P g? Q11: For the shown figure, what is the pressure of air P air(1)? 8

74 Q12: For the configuration shown, Calculate the weight of the piston if the gage pressure is 70 KPa. Q13: For the shown hydraulic press, find the force (F) required to keep the system in equilibrium. 9

75 Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department Subject: Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir M. Mobasher Sheet (4) Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces Q1: A vertical triangular gate with water on one side is shown in the figure. Calculate the total resultant force acting on the gate, and locate the center of pressure. Q2: In the shown figure, the gate holding back the oil is 80 cm high by 120 cm long. If it is held in place only along the bottom edge. What is the necessary resisting moment at that edge. 10

76 Q3: In the shown figure, the gate holding back the water is 6 ft wide. If it is held in place only along the bottom edge. What is the necessary resisting moment at that edge. Q4: (A) Find the magnitude and line of action of force on each side of the gate. (B) Find the resultant force due to the liquid on both sides of the gate. (C) Determine F to open the gate if it is uniform and weighs 6000 Ib. Q5: Gate AB in the shown figure, calculate force F on the gate and its acting position X. If the gate is: (a) semi-circle 1.2 radius (b) rectangle 1.2 x

77 Q6: Find the value of P which make the gate in the shown figure just rotate clockwise, the gate is 0.80 m wide. Q7: Determine the value and location of the horizontal and vertical components of the force due to water acting on curved surface per 3 meter length. Q8: Determine the horizontal and vertical components of the force acting on radial gate ABC in the shown figure and their lines of action. What F is required to open the gate. Take the weight of the gate W = 2000 kg acting on 1m from O? 12

78 Q9: A cylinder barrier (0.30 m) long and (0.60 m) diameter as shown in figure. Determine the magnitude of horizontal and vertical components of the force due to water pressure exerted against the wall. Q10: Compute the horizontal and vertical components of the hydrostatic force on the hemispherical dome at the bottom of the shown tank. Q11: The hemispherical dome in the figure weighs 30 kn, is filled with water, and is attached to the floor by six equally spaced bolts. What is the force on each bolt required to hold the dome down. 13

79 Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department Subject: Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir M. Mobasher Sheet (5) Accelerated Fluid Mass Q1: Calculate the total forces on the sides and bottom of the container shown in Figure 1 while at rest and when being accelerated vertically upward at 3 m/s 2. The container is 2.0 m wide. Repeat your calculations for a downward acceleration of 6 m/s 2. Q2: For the shown container in Figure 2, determine the pressure at points A, B, and C if: The container moves vertically with a constant linear acceleration of 9.81 m/s 2. The container moves horizontally with a constant linear acceleration of 9.81 m/s 2. Q3: A tank containing water moves horizontally with a constant linear acceleration of 3.5 m/s 2. The tank is 2.5 m long, 2.5 m high and the depth of water when the tank is at rest is 2.0 m. Calculate: a) The angle of the water surface to the horizontal. b) The volume of spilled water when the acceleration is increased by 25%. c) The force acting on each side if (ax =12 m/s 2 ). 14

80 Q4: A tank containing water moves horizontally with a constant linear acceleration of 3.27 m/s 2. The tank is opened at point C as shown in Figure 3. Determine the pressure at points A and B. Q5: An open cylindrical tank 2.0 m high and 1.0 m diameter contains 1.5 m of water. If the cylinder rotates about its geometric axis, find the constant angular velocity that can be applied when: a) The water just starts spilling over. b) The point at the center of the base is just uncovered and the percentage of water left in the tank in this case. Q6: An open cylindrical tank 1.9 m high and 0.9 m diameter contains 1.45 m of oil (S.G = 0.9). If the cylinder rotates about its geometric axis, a) What constant angular velocity can be attained without spilling the oil? b) What are the pressure at the center and corner points of the tank bottom when (ω = 0.5 rad/s). Q7: An open cylindrical tank 2.0 m high and 1.0 m diameter is full of water. If the cylinder is rotated with an angular velocity of 2.5 rev/s, how much of the bottom of the tank is uncovered? Q8: A closed cylindrical container, 0.4 m diameter and 0.8 m high, two third of its height is filled with oil (S.G = 0.85). The container is rotated about its vertical axis. Determine the speed of rotation when: a) The oil just starts touching the lid. b) The point at the center of the base is just clear of oil. 15

81 Q9: A closed cylindrical tank with the air space subjected to a pressure of 14.8 psi. The tank is 1.9 m high and 0.9 m diameter, contains 1.45 m of oil (S.G = 0.9). If the cylinder rotates about its geometric axis, a) When the angular velocity is 10 rad/s, what are the pressure in bar at the center and corner points of the tank bottom. b) At what speed must the tank be rotated in order that the center of the bottom has zero depth? Q10: A closed cylindrical tank 2 ft diameter is completely filled with water. If the tank is rotated at 1200 rpm, what increase in pressure would occur at the top of the tank at that case? 16

82 Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department Subject: Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir M. Mobasher Sheet (6) Buoyancy & Floatation Q1: Will a beam of S.G. = 0.65 and length 1500 mm long with a cross section 136 mm wide and 96 mm height float in stable equilibrium in water with two sides horizontal? Q2: A floating body 100 m wide and 150 m long has a gross weight of 60,000 ton. Its center of gravity is 0.5 m above the water surface. Find the metacentric height and the restoring couple when the body is given a tilt as shown 0.5m. Q3: A ship displacing 1000 ton has a horizontal cross-section at water-line as shown in the figure, its center of bouyancy is 6 ft below water surface and its center of gravity is 1 ft below the water surface. Determine its metacentric height for rolling (about y-axis) and for pitching (about x-axis). Q4: An empty tank rectangular in plan (with all sides closed) is 12.5m long, and its cross section 0.70 m width x 0.60 m height. If the sheet metal weights 363 N/m 2 of the surface, and the tank is allowed to float in fresh water (Specific weight 9.81 KN/m 3 ) with the 0.60m wedge vertical. Show, whether the tank is stable or not? 17

83 Q5: A cylindrical buoy 1.8 m diam., 1.2 m high and weighing 10 KN is in sea water of density 1025 kg/m 3. Its center of gravity is 0.45 m from the bottom. If a load of 2 KN is placed on the top; find the maximum height of the C.G. of this load above the bottom if the buoy is to remain in stable equilibrium. Q6: A spherical Buoy شممدورة (floating ball) has a 0.50 m in diameter, weights 500 N, and is anchored to the seafloor with a cable. Although the buoy normally floats on the surface, at certain times the water depth increases so that the buoy is completely immersed. What is the tension on the cable? Q7: A wooden cylinder 60 cm in diameter, S.G. = 0.50 has a concrete cylinder 60 cm long of the same diameter, S.G. = 2.50, attached to one end. Determine the length of wooden cylinder for the system to float in stable equilibrium with its axis vertical. Q8: A right solid cone with apex angle equal to 60 is of density k relative to that of the liquid in which it floats with apex downwards. Determine what range of k is compatible with stable equilibrium. Q9: A cylindrical buoy is 5 feet diameter and 6 feet high. It weighs 1500 Ib and its C.G. is 2.5 feet above the base and is on the axis. Show that the buoy will not float with its axis vertical in sea water. If one end of a vertical chain is fastened to the centre of the base, find the tension in the chain in order that the buoy may just float with its axis vertical. 18

84 Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department Subject: Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir M. Mobasher Sheet (7) Fundamentals of Fluid Flow Q1: An inclined pipe carrying water gradually changes from 10 cm at A to 40 cm at B which is 5.00 m vertically above A. If the pressure at A and B are respectively 0.70 kg/cm2 and 0.5 kg/cm2 and the discharge is 150 liters/sec. Determine a) the direction of flow b) the head loss between the sections. Q2: A cylindrical tank contains air, oil, and water as shown. A pressure of 6 lb/in2 is maintained on the oil surface. What is the velocity of the water leaving the 1.0- inch diameter pipe (neglect the kinetic energy of the fluids in the tank above elevation A). Q3: The losses in the shown figure equals 3(V 2 /2g)ft, when H is 20 ft. What is the discharge passing in the pipe? Draw the TEL and the HGL. Q4: To what height will water rise in tubes A and B? (P = 25 Kpa, Q = 60) 19

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