# Algorithms for Bioinformatics

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1 Adapted from slides by Veli Mäkinen / Algorithms for Bioinformatics 011 which are partly from Algorithms for Bioinformatics Lecture 5: Graph Algorithms and DNA Sequencing

2 DNA Sequencing: History Sanger method (1977): Labeled ddntps terminate DNA copying at random points. Gilbert method (1977): Chemical method to cleave DNA at specific points (G, G+A, T+C, C). Both methods generate labeled fragments of varying lengths that are further measured by electrophoresis.

3 Sanger Method: Generating a Read 1. Divide sample into four.. Each sample will have available all normal nucleotides and modified nucleotides of one type (A, C, G or T) that will terminate DNA strand elongation. 3. Start at primer (restriction site). 4. Grow DNA chain. 5. In each sample the reaction will stop at all points ending with the modified nucleotide. 6. Separate products by length using gel electrophoresis.

4 Sanger Method: Generating a Read

5 DNA Sequencing Shear DNA into millions of small fragments. Read nucleotides at a time from the small fragments (Sanger method)

6 Fragment Assembly Computational Challenge: assemble individual short fragments (reads) into a single genomic sequence ( superstring ) Until late 1990s the shotgun fragment assembly of human genome was viewed as intractable problem Now there exists complete sequences of human genomes of several individuals For small and easy genomes, such as bacterial genomes, fragment assembly is tractable with many software tools Remains to be difficult problem for more complex genomes

7 Shortest Superstring Problem Problem: Given a set of strings, find a shortes string that contains all of them Input: Strings S = {s 1, s,..., s n } Output: A string s that contains all string s 1, s,... s n as substrings, such that the lenght of s is minimized Complexity: NP-hard Recall: Greedy approximation algorithm at the study group Extension to approximate case in the exercises

8 Overlaps and prefixes Define overlap(s i, s j ) as the longest prefix of s j that matches a suffix of s i overlap(s i, s j ) aaaggcatcaatctaaaggcatcaaa aaaggcatcaaatctaaaggcatcaaa prefix(s i, s j ) Define prefix(s i, s j ) as the part of s i after its longest overlap with s j is removed.

9 SSP as a Graph Problem Construct a prefix graph with n vertices representing the n strings s 1, s,..., s n and edges of length prefix(si, s j ) between vertices s i and s j Add a dummy vertex d to prefix graph with edges of length s i between each s i and d. Find the shortest path which visits every vertex exactly once. This is the Asymmetric Travelling Salesman Problem (ATSP), which is also NP-complete

10 SSP to TSP: An example S = {ATC, CCA, CAG, TCC, AGT} SSP A G T C C A A T C A T C C A G T T C C C A G TSP AGT 3 1 CAG ATC dummy TCC 1 CCA ATCCAGT (note: only subset of edges shown) 3

11 Shortest superstring: 4-approximation There are logarithm-factor approximation algorithms for ATSP, but the prefix graph instances admit constant factor approximations algorithms: Resulting superstring is at most c times longer than the optimal OPT, for some constant c. 4-approximation algorithm: Construct the prefix graph corresponding to strings in S Find a minimum weight cycle cover on the prefix graph Read the superstring defined by the cycle cover Proof of approximation ratio in a study group.

12 Cycle cover A cycle cover is a set of disjoint cycles covering all vertices. ATSP tour is a special case: cycle cover with exactly one cycle. 3 ATC 3 ATC AGT 1 CCA AGT 1 CCA CAG TCC CAG TCC

13 Minimum weight cycle cover Minimum weight cycle cover is polynomial time solvable! Reduction to minimum weight perfect mathing on a bipartite graph: Bipartite graph: vertices can be divided into two sets so that all edges have one endpoint in one set and the other endpoint in the other set Perfect matching: a set of disjoint edges that covers all vertices Create two vertices ui and v i for each string s i to a graph H Add edge (ui, v j ) with weight prefix(s i, s j ) for i j Each cycle cover in prefix graph corresponds to a minimum weight perfect matching on H and vice versa. ATC CCA CAG TCC AGT ATC CCA CAG TCC AGT

14 Minimum weight perfect matching Classical non-trivial graph problem with polynomial time solutions. AGT 1 3 ATC 1 1 CCA 1 ATC CCA CAG TCC 1 ATC CCA CAG TCC CAG TCC AGT AGT

15 Reading superstring from cycle cover For each cycle concatenate prefixes corresponding to weight starting from any vertex append the overlap of last and first vertex Concatenate the string read from each cycle AGTCCAGATCCA 3 ATC ATCCA AGT 1 CCA AGTCCAG CAG TCC

16 Sequencing by Hybridization (SBH): History 1988: SBH suggested as an alternative sequencing method. Nobody believed it will ever work. 1991: Light directed polymer synthesis developed by Steve Fodor and colleagues. 1994: Affymetrix develops first 64-kb DNA microarray. First microarray prototype (1989) First commercial DNA microarray prototype with 16,000 features (1994) 500,000 features per chip (00)

17 How SBH works Attach all possible DNA probes of length l to a flat surface, each probe at a distinct and known location. This set of probes is called the DNA microarray. Apply a solution containing fluorescently labeled DNA fragment to the array. The DNA fragment hybridizes with those probes that are complementary to substrings of length l of the fragment. Using a spectroscopic detector, determine which probes hybridize to the DNA fragment to obtain the l-mer composition of the DNA fragment. Reconstruct the sequence of the DNA fragment from the l-mer composition.

18 Hybridization on DNA Array

19 l-mer composition Spectrum(s, l) is a multiset of all possible (n l + 1) l-mers in a string s of length n. E.g. for s = TATGGTGC, Spectrum(s, 3): S = {TAT, ATG, TGG, GGT, GTG, TGC} Different sequences may have the same spectrum: Spectrum(GTATCT, ) = Spectrum(GTCTAT, ) = {AT, CT, GT, TA, TC}

20 The SBH Problem Goal: Reconstruct a string from its l-mer composition Input: A set S, representing all l-mers from an (unknown) string s Output: A string s such that Spectrum(s, l) = S

21 SBH: Hamiltonian Path Approach Construct a graph One vertex for each l-mer in the input spectrum Draw an edge between two vertices if the l-mers overlap by l 1 nucleotides Find a path that visits each vertex once. Example: S = {ATG, TGC, GTG, TGG, GGC, GCA, GCG, CGT} ATG TGC GTG TGG GGC GCA GCG CGT ATGCGTGGCA

22 SBH: Hamiltonian Path Approach Another path for: S = {ATG, TGC, GTG, TGG, GGC, GCA, GCG, CGT} ATG TGC GTG TGG GGC GCA GCG CGT ATGGCGTGCA

23 Hamiltonian Cycle Problem Find a cycle that visit every vertex exactly once. NP-complete Game invented by Sir William Hamilton in 1857

24 SBH: Eulerian Path Approach Construct a graph A vertex for each (l 1)-mer An edge between two vertices corresponds to an l-mer from S Find a path that visits each edge once. Example: S = {ATG, TGC, GTG, TGG, GGC, GCA, GCG, CGT} GT CG AT TG GC CA GG

25 SBH: Eulerian Path Approach S = {ATG, TGC, GTG, TGG, GGC, GCA, GCG, CGT} corresponds to two different paths: GT CG GT CG AT TG GC CA GG AT TG GC CA GG ATGCGTGGCA ATGGCGTGCA

26 The Bridge Obsession Problem Find a tour crossing every bridge just once Leonhard Euler, 1735 Bridges of Königsberg

27 Eulerian Cycle Problem Find a cycle that visits every edge exactly once Linear time More complicated Königsberg

28 Euler Theorems A graph is balanced if for every vertex the number of incoming edges equals the number of ougoing edges: in(v) = out(v) Theorem: A connected graph has an Eulerian cycle if and only if each of its vertices is balanced. A vertex is semi-balanced if in(v) = out(v) + 1 or in(v) = out(v) 1 A graph is balanced is for every vertex the number of incoming edges equals the number of ougoing edges: Theorem: A connected graph has an Eulerian path if and only if it contains a vertex v with in(v) = out(v) 1, a vertex w with in(w) = out(w) + 1 and all other vertices are balanced.

29 Some Difficulties with SBH In practise, l-mer composition can never be measured with 100% accuracy With inaccurate data, the computational problem is again NP-hard. Find minimum completion (insertion/deletion of edges and vertices) of the graph so that it becomes Eulerian Jacek B lazewicz and Marta Kasprzak: Complexity of DNA sequencing by hyridization. Theoretical Computer Science, 90(3): , 003. Microarray technology has found other uses: Widely used in expression analysis and SNP analysis Virtual l-mer compositions are used in many fragment assembly tools, leading to heuristics exploiting the Eulerian path approach.

30 Outline Shortest Common Superstring Sequencing by Hybridization Study Group Assignments

31 Study Group 1: Lastnames A-C Read pages from Jones and Pevzner. The peptide sequencing problem At study group draw an example spectrum graph.

32 Study Group : Lastnames D-L Read pages from Vazirani: Approximation Algorithms, Springer, 001. Analysis of the 4-approximation algorithm for Shortest Superstring Problem. Copies distributed at lecture. Ask lecturer for a pdf if you were not present. At study group explain visually the proofs of Lemmas 7.. and 7.3. Explain how Lemma 7.3 leads to the proof of Theorem 7.4.

33 Study Group 3: Lastnames M-Z Read pages 7 75 from Jones and Pevzner. Eulerian cycles and paths. At study group explain the algorithm for finding a Eulerian cycle using an example. How can the algorithm be modified for finding a Eulerian path?

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