Clearing the Air on Particulate Matter: PM 2.5. Patrick N. Breysse, PhD Andrew Stolbach, MD Ronald H. White, MST

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1 Clearing the Air on Particulate Matter: PM 2.5 Patrick N. Breysse, PhD Andrew Stolbach, MD Ronald H. White, MST

2 Introduction to Particulate Matter Air Pollution Patrick N. Breysse, PhD Professor Department of Environmental Health Sciences Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

3 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to set NAAQS for pollutants considered harmful to public health and the environment The CCA establishes two types of NAAQS Primary standards set limits to protect public health, including the health of "sensitive" populations such as asthmatics, children, and the elderly Secondary standards set limits to protect public welfare and the environment, including protection against decreased visibility, damage to animals, crops, vegetation, and buildings

4 NAAQS EPA classifies ambient air pollutants Criteria Pollutants. Common and detrimental to human welfare NAAQS established Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) or air toxics Cause serious health and environmental hazards Known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental effects.

5 NAAQS Criteria Air Pollutants Ozone Particulate Matter (PM2.5 & PM10) Lead Carbon monoxide Nitrogen dioxide Sulfur dioxide

6 Criteria Pollutants National Ambient Air Quality Standards Pollutant Standard Time Standard Value Standard Type Carbon Monoxide (CO) 8-hr average 9 ppm primary 1-hr average 35 ppm primary Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) annual arithmetic mean ppm primary and secondary 1-hr average ppm primary and secondary Ozone (O 3 ) 1-hr average* 0.12 ppm primary and secondaryr1 8-hr average ppm primary and secondary Lead (Pb) rolling 3-month 0.15 ug/m3 primary and secondary average Quarterly average 1.5 ug/m3 primary and secondary Particles (PM 10 ) annual arithmetic mean revoked R2 24-hr average 150 ug/m3 primary and secondary Particles (PM 2.5 ) annual arithmetic mean 15 ug/m3 primary and secondary 24-hr average 35 ug/m3 primary and secondary Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) annual arithmetic mean 0.03 ppm primary 24-hr average 0.14 ppm primary 1-hr 75 ppb primary 3-hr average 0.50 ppm secondary

7 Slide 6 R1 R2 The 1-hr standard was revoked in 2005 for most areas of the country. It may be confusing to leave this in the table. Ron, 2/11/2011 I would delete this. Ron, 2/11/2011

8 History of Air Pollution Health Effects Three classic incidents Meuse Valley, Belgium (1930) 65 deaths Donora, Pennsylvania (1948) 20 deaths London, England (1952) 4000 deaths

9 London Smog, 1952

10 London Smog Disaster of 1952 Four days between the 4 and 8 December 1952 Measurements taken at the National Gallery in London suggest that the PM 10 concentration reached 14 mg/m 3 56 times the level normally experienced at the time sulfur dioxide in the air increased by 7 fold peaking at around 700ppb.

11 Donora, Pennsylvania Late October people died Greater than 7000 seriously ill

12 Particulate Matter Solid or liquid particles found suspended in the air Some particles are large or dark enough to be seen as soot or smoke Others are so small they can be detected only with an electron microscope Originate from a variety of mobile and stationary sources (diesel trucks, wood stoves, power plants, etc.) Their chemical and physical compositions vary widely

13 Beijing China PM ug/m 3 Aug/10/08 99 ug/m 3 Aug/24/08 12 ug/m 3 Aug/23/08 Taken from

14 Particulate Matter

15 PM 10 and PM 2.5 PM 10 - particles with diameters equal to or less than 10 µm PM 2.5 particles with diameters equal to or less than 2.5 µm Therefore, PM 10 includes PM 2.5

16 Particulate Matter Size Distribution and Sources PM 10 primary grinding processes (road traffic, wind, plowing), sea spray PM 2.5 primary and secondary chemical reactions, combustion

17 R3

18 Slide 16 R3 An updated version of this figure for 2009 is available on the EPA website, though the numbers are substantially smaller than the 2007 data. Ron, 2/11/2011

19 Distribution of national total emissions by source category for specific pollutants, R (

20 Slide 17 R version of this figure is available in the 2009 emissions trends report. Ron, 2/11/2011

21 Air Pollution Trends R5

22 Slide 18 R5 Update of this figure available in the 2009 trends report Ron, 2/11/2011

23 Map of spatially smoothed averages of PM 2.5 during the study period Zeger et al. Environ Health Perspect.2008 December;116(12):

24 PM 2.5 and Medicare Hospital Admissions % Change in Hospital Admissions per 10 µg/m 3 PM2.5-2 COPD West East Cerebrovascular Disease Peripheral Vascular Disease Ischemic Heart Disease Heart Rhythm Heart Failure Respiratory Infection Dominici et al. JAMA 2006

25 Comparison of concentrations of chemical components of PM 2.5 by US region, Bell et al. Am J Epidemiol Dec 1;168(11):

26 PM 2.5 Composition by Location and Season Bell et al. Am J Epidemiol Dec 1;168(11):

27 Indoor Versus Outdoor PM Outdoor Indoor Central Site PM Conc (mg/m3) :34:30 18:18:30 20:02:30 21:46:30 23:30:30 01:14:30 02:58:30 04:42:30 06:26:30 08:10:30 09:54:30 11:38:30 13:22:30 15:06:30 16:50:30 18:34:30 20:18:30 22:02:30 23:46:30 01:30:30 03:14:30 04:58:30 06:42:30 08:26:30 10:10:30 11:54:30 13:38:30 15:22:30 17:06:30 18:50:30 20:34:30 22:18:30 00:02:30

28 Air Quality Station, Seattle, WA

29 Questions?

30 Setting the NAAQS/ Air Quality Information Ronald H. White, M.S.T. Associate Scientist, Dept. of Health Policy and Management Deputy Director, Risk Sciences and Public Policy Institute Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

31 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) CAA 109 (42 U.S.C. 7409) directs the Administrator to propose and promulgate primary and secondary NAAQS for pollutants identified under 108. Primary (health-based) air quality standards ( 109(b)(1)): based on criteria ( 108) requisite to protect the public health provide adequate margin of safety Secondary (welfare) air quality standards ( 109(b)(2)) visibility, crop and materials damage

32 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (2) Air Quality Criteria documents that accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge on public health and welfare ( 108(a)(2)) Criteria to include information on: variable factors (including atmospheric conditions) which may alter effects on public health or welfare types of air pollutants which may interact with such pollutant to produce adverse effect on public health or welfare

33 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (3) 1977 CAA Amendments added requirement for maximum 5-year interval for review/revision of criteria and NAAQS, starting with December 31, 1980 review ( 109(d)(1)) (emphasis added) Established an independent scientific review committee Established an independent scientific review committee Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) to review the criteria and make recommendations to the EPA Administrator regarding: new or revised NAAQS areas needing additional knowledge research efforts needed to provide required information contribution of man-made vs natural sources of air pollution adverse health, welfare, social, economic or energy effects from control strategies ( 109(d)(2)(A,B,C)).

34 CAA Health-based NAAQS Principles/Issues Protection of sensitive groups from adverse effects How many people should be protected? Margin of safety How to set margin of safety for no-threshold pollutants? Economics and technological feasibility of attainment not to be considered (Legislative history/legal decisions) regulatory impact analysis (RIA) required

35 Defining Sensitive Groups Ambient air quality is sufficient to protect the health of such persons whenever there is an absence of adverse effects on the health of a statistically related sample of persons in sensitive groups from exposure to ambient air. An ambient air quality standard, therefore, should be the maximum permissible ambient air level of an air pollution agent or class of such agents (related to a period of time) which will protect the health of any group of the population. For purposes of this description, a statistically related sample is the number of persons necessary to test in order to detect a deviation in the health of any person within such sensitive group which is attributable to the condition of ambient air. (emphasis added) Senate Committee on Public Works Legislative History of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970

36 Margin of Safety It is because of environmental factors, physical factors of the environment that a margin of safety is necessary Dr. John Middleton, Commissioner National Air Pollution Control Administration, 1970 Margins of safety are essential to any healthrelated environmental standards if a reasonable degree of protection is to be provided against hazards which research has not yet identified. Senate Committee on Public Works Legislative History of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970

37 Threshold of Effects (1) We...know that at a little lower level there are more subtle effects on the action of the lung, and that below that some enzyme system begins to fail or function improperly. The no-effect level would have to be below that. But as science progresses, it is very likely we are going to find still other body chemical systems that are being affected, so the no-effect level always corresponds, you might say, to the limitations of scientific knowledge in this area... You can't classify even normal background (levels of air pollution) as a noeffect situation. (emphasis added) Dr. John Middleton, Commissioner National Air Pollution Control Administration, 1970

38 Threshold of Effects (2) The standards are not ultimate; they are not maximum; they are minimal. And, if I may highlight this, testimony on the health questions over the last 7 years over and over again has made the point that there is no such thing as a threshold for health effects. Even at the national primary standard level, which is the health standard, there are health effects that are not protected against. (emphasis added) Senator Edmund Muskie, 1977

39 NAAQS Standard-setting Process (2006+) ISA replaces Criteria Document (2006) Staff Paper (replaced APNR effective 5/09)

40 Particulate Matter NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particle Pollution (10/06) Pollutant Primary Stds. Averaging Times Secondary Stds. Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) Revoked (1) Annual (1) (Arithmatic Mean) 150 µg/m 3 24-hour (2) Same as Primary Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ) 15.0 µg/m 3 Annual (3) (Arithmatic Mean) Same as Primary 35 µg/m 3 24-hour (4) Same as Primary (1) - Due to a lack of evidence linking health problems to long-term exposure to coarse particle pollution, the agency revoked the annual PM 10 standard in 2006 (effective December 17, 2006). (2) - Not to be exceeded more than once per year on average over 3 years. (3) - To attain this standard, the 3-year average of the weighted annual mean PM 2.5 concentrations from single or multiple community-oriented monitors must not exceed 15.0 µg/m 3. (4) - To attain this standard, the 3-year average of the 98th percentile of 24-hour concentrations at each population-oriented monitor within an area must not exceed 35 µg/m 3 (effective December 17, 2006).

41 PM NAAQS: Current Review CASAC Post 2006 NAAQS Opinion: Serious concerns regarding EPA decision not to revise PM2.5 primary annual NAAQS to µg/m 3 American Farm Bureau Federation v. EPA (2009): DC Circuit Court of Appeals remands 2006 PM2.5 primary annual standard back to EPA for explanation how the annual standard protects against both short-term and long-term exposures, including the health of at-risk populations EPA Draft Policy Review Document (6/10) Revise PM2.5 annual NAAQS in the range of µg/m 3 Retain current PM hr. NAAQS; consider revising to 30 µg/m 3 in conjunction with annual NAAQS of 11 µg/m 3 Final Policy Review Document: 2/11? PM NAAQS Proposal: Summer 2011? Final PM NAAQS Decision: 2012?

42 Air Quality Index and Health Protection

43 AIRNow Air Quality Index (AQI) forecasts and current conditions are now available in Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. This allows for AIRNow data to be displayed in 3D viewers such as Google Earth.

44 AIRNow Health Care Provider Information Health Care Providers Help your patients protect their health by reducing their exposure to air pollution. This page includes information for you about the cardiac and respiratory health effects associated with outdoor air pollution exposure educational materials for your patients action=health_providers.index

45 Relevant EPA Air Quality Publications Air Quality Index: A Guide to Air Quality and Health (booklet) Air Quality Guide for Particle Pollution (fact sheet) School Flag Program Fact Sheet Effects of Common Air Pollutants Medical Poster Particle Pollution and Your Health (pamphlet) Heart Disease, Stroke and Outdoor Air Pollution (fact sheet) (EPA/AHA/ASA/ACC)

46 AirCompare How does the air quality in my city compare with other cities? What time of year has the best air quality? Has the air quality in my city improved? AirCompare provides local air quality information to help you make informed, health-protective decisions about moving or vacationing. County Comparisons (Compare the air quality of counties within one or more states) Summarize States (Choose up to 3 states) Monthly Averages (Find the best time to visit)

47 Questions?

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