Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered

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1 Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered 2. Elements in a specific compound are always present in a definite proportion by mass; for example, in methane, CH 4, 12 g of carbon are combined with 4 g of hydrogen. 4. Experiments indicated that matter was conserved. Elements had been identified. Compounds had been shown to be composed of definite amounts of specific elements. The composition of a compound had been shown to always be the same regardless of its source. The composition of a combination of elements could be predicted. 6. The alpha particle was deflected by something relatively large and positive called the nucleus. 8. Particles smaller than the atom, such as protons, neutrons, electrons. 10. Atoms exist with 1, 2,..., up to 116 protons; each number of protons corresponds to a different element. Most elements exist as naturally-occurring isotopes, i.e. atoms with various numbers of neutrons for a given number of protons. This accounts for the large number of different masses for actual atoms. For example carbon has three different isotopes; 12 C, 13 C and 14 C. 12. a. 50 Ti and 50 V are different elements with the same mass number; they are not isotopes. b. 12 C and 14 C are isotopes with same proton count (6 each) but with different neutron counts (6 neutrons in 12 C and 8 neutrons in 14 C). c. 40 Ar and 40 Kr are not isotopes; Ar and Kr are different elements. They have different numbers of protons. 14. (a) an isotope with two fewer neutrons (20 versus 18); the isotope is the same element and has the same number of protons (17) and electrons (17). 16. Iodine is represented by the symbol I ; it has 53 protons and 74 neutrons. The neutron count equals the mass number minus the atomic number = 74 neutrons. 18. In neutral atoms the number of electrons will equal the number of protons. The atomic number equals the number of protons. The mass number equals the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons. protons neutrons electrons Atomic number a b c d e Mass number 20. Atomic number or number of protons. This is the quantity that determines the nature of the nucleus. Isotopes have different neutron amounts but the same proton count. 6

2 22. Isotope Atomic No. Mass No. No.of protons No. of neutrons No. of electrons Bromine Boron Chlorine Chromium Nickel Strontium Lead The symbol for krypton is Kr. The atomic number for Kr is 36. The average atomic weight for krypton is amu. The electron arrangement has to account for 36 electrons; Much of this information can be taken from the entry for krypton in the periodic table. 36 Atomic number Element symbol Kr (a) 350 x 10-7 cm (students need to do the math) Average atomic weight 28. (b) 2n 2 for example, n=1 has 2 electrons, n=2 has 8 electrons, n=3 has 18 electrons etc. 30. Element Bohr electron arrangement Element Bohr electron arrangement 11Na P Mg S Al Cl Si Ar Ultraviolet light has wavelengths in the range 190 nm to 400 nm. The frequency can be calculated from the wavelength, 200 nm, using the formula ν= c. Where the speed of light, λ c, is 3.0 x 10 8 m/s. ν = [ 3 x 108 m/s 1 ] [( 200 nm)] = (3.0 x 10 8 m/s) (2.x 10 7 m) ν = 1.5 x cycles/s = 2 x Hertz. The units for frequency are Hertz or cycles/s. The answer is rounded to 1 significant figure. 34. a. A group or family is a vertical column in the periodic table. b. A period is a horizontal row in the periodic table. c. Chemical properties of an element describe its reactivity with other elements and compounds. d. Transition elements are elements in the "B" groups, starting with group IIIB and ending with IIB. e. Inner transition elements are the rows of elements between lanthanum and hafnium and between actinium and Rutherfordium; elements and f. Representative elements are main-group elements in the "A" groups; groups IA and IIA, IIIA through VIIIA. 7

3 36. Metals are on the left side and bottom of the periodic table. Nonmetals are in the upper right corner of the table, as you view the table. Metalloids are the eight elements between metals and nonmetals. metals metalloids nonmetals H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr M Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac * * The remaining elements are metals. 38. a. Nitrogen, nonmetal b. Arsenic, metalloid c. Argon, nonmetal d. Calcium, metal e. Uranium, metal 40. All of the alkali metals Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr have one valence electron. 42. a. Barium, Ba, is in Group IIA and has 2 valence electrons. b. Aluminum, Al, is in Group IIIA and has 3 valence electrons. c. Phosphorus, P, is in Group VA and has 5 valence electrons. d. Selenium, Se, is in Group VIA and has 6 valence electrons. e. Bromine, Br, is in Group VIIA and has 7 valence electrons. f. Potassium, K, is in Group IA and has 1 valence electron. 44. The Lewis symbol can be determined by locating the element in the periodic table and identifying the group number. For example, Beryllium is in Group IIA. It has two valence electrons and two dots in the Lewis symbol. Similarly Potassium has one valence electron and one dot. K Be Cl As Kr 46. a. Li is more metallic than F, fluorine. When elements are in the same row or period the ones to the right of the periodic table are less metallic. b. Cs is more metallic than lithium. When elements are in the same group the elements at the bottom of a group are more metallic. They have larger atoms and lose electrons more readily. c. Ba Same reason as "b" above. d. Pb Same reason as "b" above. e. Al Same reason as "b" above. f. Na Same reason as "a" above. 8

4 48. a. 48 b. 33 c. mass number = 46 neutrons + 35 protons = 81 d. 56 e. 30 f. 38 protons and 50 neutrons g. Indium, thallium, and aluminum form compounds similar to those formed by Ga. 50. The smallest member of a group typically is at the top of the group. F, Cl, Br, I, At 52. Reactivity of metals increases with increasing atomic radius. The outer electrons are not bound to the nucleus as tightly. 54. The larger of two atoms is typically more reactive for metals and the smaller is more reactive for nonmetals. Metal atoms at the top of a group are smaller and less reactive, metals lose electrons. Removing an electron is more difficult for small atoms. Nonmetal atoms at the top of a group are smaller than those at the bottom and are more reactive than atoms at the bottom. The nonmetals gain electrons. The smaller the nonmetal the stronger the attraction for an additional electron. Noble gases are generally less reactive than other atoms. Note below that in "e" xenon is more like a metal than helium is. a. Rb more reactive than Li b. Ba more reactive than Mg c. Na more reactive than Ar d. O more reactive than Ne e. Xe more reactive than He f. F more reactive than Br 56. a. Atomic size generally decreases left to right across a row or period. For example here are the relative atomic radii for period 2 Li Be B C N O F Ne b. Atomic size generally increases from top to bottom in a group. For example here are the relative atomic radii for Group IA. Li Na K Rb Cs 9

5 58. The elements Fr, Ra, Po, At, and Rn are all at the bottom of their respective groups. For these five elements predict the most metallic, most nonmetallic, largest atomic radius, least reactive, and which reacts most vigorously with water. a. Fr, most metallic b. At, most nonmetallic c. Fr, largest atomc radius e. Fr, react most readily with water d. Rn most unreactive 60. Both oxygen and sulfur have 6 outer electrons. Both form negative ions by gaining two electrons. The ions are oxide, O 2-, and sulfide, S 2-. The ions are formed when the atoms gain two electrons to complete the octets of the atoms. The sulfur and oxygen atoms usually form two covalent bonds. The hydrides are H 2 O and H 2 S. 62. The time requires for the photon any distance can be calculated using the general relationship, time = distance / speed. Here the 24,000 mile distance needs to be converted to meters. time = (24,000 miles ) (1000 m/0.62 mile) (3.0 x 10 8 m/s) = 0.13 s 64. (b) mass and matter; molecules. Based on the law of mass conservation and that elements on each side of the equation remain the same but are rearranged during a chemical reaction. 10

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