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1 page(s) Contents v-viii Figures & tables ix Sources cited x-xxvi Abbreviations & Introduction 1 The Egyptian language The writing System: its principles One-consonant signs as phonograms, and phonetics Two-consonant signs as phonograms Three-consonant signs as phonograms Ideograms and determinatives The of the hieroglyphs 8 Special writings: Orientation, abbreviation, etc The and social Status of writing Phonology: basic details Sterns, parts of and endings Nouns: l.gender Nouns: 2. syntax, Nouns: 3. Derived nouns and adjectives Special writings: Pronouns and auxiliary nouns: a survey The pronouns The independent pronouns dependent pronouns The demonstrative pronouns Quantifiers 23 Indefinite auxiliary nouns etc.) ky and diversification Expressions for etc.) 26 Reflexives (ds= etc.) and replacives (hm etc.) 27 Possessive and privative expressions iw.t.y, etc.) The interrogatives 29 Prepositions: 1. General; simple Prepositions: 2. Compound page(s) Borghouts, Joris Frans Egyptian 2010 digitalisiert durch: IDS Luzern

2 vi CONTENTS page(s) Particles: 1. particles Particles: 2. Enclitic particles 34 Interjections The verbal System, general: Introduction 36 The verbal general: 2. and conjugations The verbal general: 3. Tense, aspect, voice, word order 38 The verbal general: 4. Auxiliary verbs The Infinitive: 1. General; syntactic primaries, syntax The Infinitive: 2. Independent and dependent uses; negation The Infinitive: 3. After prepositions, as a predicate 42 Other verbal nouns: Negatival Gerunds 43 The Stative: 1. General; morphology, syntax The Stative: 2. Independent and dependent uses 45 The Stative: As an predicate 46 The Imperative and 47 The Prospective: 1. General, morphology, and syntax The Prospective: 2. Independent use 49 The Prospective: 3. In pairs, and (consecutive) 50 The Prospective: 4. As a dependent pattern The Prospective: Negated 52 The Subsequential (the ki patterns) 53 The 1 General, morphology, affirmative and active uses The Terminative: 2. Negated, passivized, particulars The Momentaneous: 1. General, morphology, syntax The Momentaneous: 2. Uses The Consequential (the patterns) and the Eventual (the in pattern) 58 The 1. General, morphology, syntax The Circumstantial: 2. Embedded clause The Circumstantial: 3. Embedded after a word 61 The General, morphology, and syntax The Imperfective: 2. Pivot inside the clause The Imperfective: 3. Pivot outside the clause The Imperfective: 4. Dependent, negated syntax

3 page(s) 66 The Perfect: 2. Embedded The Perfect: 3. In serialization The Perfect: 4. Pivot inside the clause, and negated The Perfect: 5. Pivot outside the clause; Perfects paired The Passives 1. General, morphology, syntax The and sdmm=f Passives: 2. Uses Participials: general (sdm.ty=fy) The Standard Participles: 1. General, morphology, syntax Participles: 2. Imperfective Participles: 3. Perfective Participles: 4. Particulars: negation, substantivization, etc morphology Relative forms: 2. Uses; specific constructions of participials Quoting, and quotation patterns (with dd, in-, hr- and ki-) Surveys: 1 Compound verb forms; 2 verb 3 nominal and verbal suffixes 82 Syntax: a general survey Direct annexion Modification Indirect annexion (with n(y)) Partitive phrases (adposition) 87 Apposition Coordination word constructions Clauses: general characteristics Grammatical, and functions 92 Existential clauses Deictic clauses Presentational clauses Ascriptive clauses Possessive clauses Situative clauses: General Situative clauses: 2. With a predicate 99 Situative clauses: 3. With a verbal predicate Situative clauses: 4. Particulars, negated

4 viii CONTENTS 102 Equational clauses: 2. Bipartite, with a predicate Equational clauses: 3. Bipartite, with a verbal predicate Equational clauses: 4. Tripartite, negated Various clauses with a verbal predicate: word order, passivization, object and subject suppression 106 Negation in general Interrogative clauses Relative clauses: 1. General; Type (1), with straight reference Relative clauses: 2. Type (2), with oblique reference; particulars constructions: focus Prominence constructions: 2. Emphasis Compound and sentences: general Complex sentences, Type (1): + relative clause 423 Complex sentences, Type (2): main clause + subordinate 424 noun Complex sentences, Type (3): main + unmarked adverbial subordinate clause Complex sentences, Type (4): main + adverbial subordinate clause 117 Complex sentences, Type (5): Conditionals and Temporals Compound sentences: one or coordinated clauses An outline of analysis Appendix 1 Dating methods Appendix 2 Royal Appendix 3 The text of the Middle Kingdom Appendix 4 Grammars, reading books and dictionaries of Middle Egyptian Index 1 Egyptian-English word Index 2 English-Egyptian word list Index 3 Egyptian words Index 4 Grammatical, literary, etc. terms Index 5 General grammatical terms Index 6 Passages quoted in vol. I Index 7 with A.H. Egyptian

5 fig. 1 Without determinative 6.d fig. 2 The orientation of signs 8.a fig. 3 A scribe and his patron deity Thoth 9.a fig. 4 Scribes at work 9.b FIGURES fig. 5 The composition of an average verb pattern 36 fig. 6 A vizier in regalia fig. 7 A harsh treatment (a fig. 8 The act of giving fig. 9 The act of having given fig. 10 Complex and Compound sentences given a beating) 46.e.2 (iv) scene 15) 66.f.l 60.d.2 fig. The and titles of queen Hatshepsut, her at Deir Bahari (Appendix 2) TABLES table 1 Egypt's languages and their stages table 21 The endings of the Stative 43.a table 2 The functions of a 2.d.3 table 22 The morphology of the Prospective table 3 The one-consonant signs 3.b table 4 Common two-consonant signs 4.d table 23 The morphology of the Suffixing Participle 73.b.l table 5 Frequent three-consonant signs 5.c table 24 The morphology of the Standard table 6 The function of determinatives 6.b Participles 74.b table 7 Common determinatives 6.c table 25 The morphology of the Relative table 8 The gender of nouns 12.b.l table 9 Nouns and prepositions 12.c the 10 The nouns 15.d table The suffix pronouns 17.a. 1 fc table 12 The independent pronouns 18.a.l table 13 The dependent pronouns 19.a.l clause 97.e table 14 The demonstrative pronouns 20.a The structure of an average verbal,, situative clause 99.a table The of the demonstratives 20.g table 31 The structure of deictic and equational table 16 The morphology of ky 24.a clauses 104.f table 17 The interrogatives 28.a Negations and their uses 106.k table The scope of the prepositions and r table 33 The morphology of nty table 34 Plan of an average clause table 19 prepositional phrases,..., table 35 Conditionals and table 20 The particles 32.c 117.e

6 SIGN page(s) List Descriptive List 2: List 3: Signs arranged according to size & form List 4: Hieroglyphs handwritten SECTIONS Introduction to the Exercises in the 33 Sections Section Section Section Section Section 3 Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Section

7 no. READING TEXTS page(s) 1 Story of the Shipwrecked 2 stela Louvre Berlin 5 stela Tübingen stela Leiden V stela New 8 stela Leiden V CG [= II.2] 424 Wadi pap. Turin CG 54003, rt., Ptahhotep from the Teaching for king Merikare' 16 Aswan inscription of king Thutmosis II Book of the Dead spell [6] 433 (from shabti B.M ) of the Dead spell [30A] 434 (from the of Nu) 19 New stela Carlsb NOTES TO THE READING TEXTS

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